More significantly, the cohort of mature working, parttime pupils who by and large entree the eventide programmes at higher acquisition establishments are hampered by the limited contact-time with the lector ( by and large 3 hours per hebdomad ) . There is a demand for such pupils to pass on with their lectors beyond the category room session, whether in groups or separately ; to be exposed to excess beginnings of content, both print and on-line, societal platforms for communicating, coaction and sharing of thoughts. Blended larning provides these advantages. Based on the above thoughts, I seek to happen out the relationship between the usage of a blended acquisition bringing manner and pupil public presentation in the MGMT 043X class faculty running from June to August, 2010 in the Summer Programme at the University of the West Indies St. Augustine Campus.
Blended acquisition described besides as intercrossed acquisition is normally defined as a mixture of traditional face-to-face acquisition with instructions together with the elements of engineering where online resources are created, organized and placed on Learning Management Systems ( LMS ) integrating a scope of constructivist mechanisms including the placing of capable content, quizzes, mystifiers, games, simulations, usage of real-time and asynchronous treatments or utilized as web pages or Website-based content or organized as online activities ; is now been recognized as a major methodological analysis for improved pupil public presentation in higher instruction.
More late, the detonation of societal engineerings ( utube, edutube, facebook, frickr, myspace, chirrup etc ) used by digital indigens and to a lesser extent digital immigrants, and their positive impact on the higher instruction environment has necessitated a reconsideration of the bringing methods used in talk halls. The thought of anyplace, anytime larning is a world in higher instruction today. Blended learning environments provide the most important characteristics for this procedure.
The thought of the blend ” in acquisition is supported by ( Garnham and Kaleta, 2002 ; Singh, 2003 ; Bonk and Graham, 2005 ; Albrecht, 2006 ; Lloyd-Smith, 2009 ) . What is important though is that there are different positions with regard to the context, usage and impact of blended acquisition as a methodological analysis of bringing in higher instruction. The thought of betterment in pupil public presentation is critical and besides indispensable as a of import country of probe for me and accordingly, I propose to happen out whether blended acquisition does in fact better pupil public presentation and how can I utilize this bringing manner to better the public presentation of a cohort of pupils ( in footings of schoolroom battle and end-of-course scrutiny public presentation ) at the St Augustine Campus summer programme in 2010.
The intent of the survey therefore is to find to what extent blended acquisition can better pupil public presentation in the Course MGMT 043X on the 2010 Summer Programme of the St Augustine Campus. The information gathered would assist to find what characteristics of blended larning addition pupil ‘s public presentation and how the usage of ICT engineering impacts the teaching/learning.
The undermentioned premises are used to raise the research inquiries in the survey:
Blended acquisition enhances larning capacity of pupils ;
Restructuring a class beyond the traditional ‘text and chalkboard ‘ manner to include e-learning allows greater pupil engagement and increase acquisition ;
The usage of societal engineerings ( web logs, wikis, facebook, online groups, chirrup, treatment boards, etc. ) improve societal interaction among pupils and hence improves larning ;
Blended Learning impacts the acquisition manners of pupils.
4. Research Questions
1. How do I reconstitute the MGMT 043X class content to heighten blended larning class bringing to aline with pupils larning manners?
2. How can I utilize a blended acquisition attack to better the schoolroom and scrutiny public presentation of pupils in the MGMT 043X class at UWI?
3. Does Blended Learning enhance pupil public presentation in the schoolroom?
4. Does a Blended Learning attack affect the acquisition manners of pupils?
The Socio-human Technology Platform
5. Concept Map: Blended Learning
6. The Conceptual Framework
a. Socio-Human Technology Platform
The Conceptual Framework from which I begin to joint the blended acquisition thoughts is underpinned in what I call a Socio-Human Technology Platform or internet-based environment which allows for the interaction between the pupil and the lector ; fact-to-face and via societal technologies- ( electronic mail, short messaging, facebook, web logs etc. and learning direction systems ( LMS ) .
This platform is ever dynamic and germinating leting for coaction communicating, sharing, co-authoring and transmittal of issues and thoughts. It allows for the extension of the schoolroom and provides a multi-media, dynamic environment for learning and acquisition ;
In other words it enables the undermentioned inquiries to be raised and studied with regard to blended acquisition:
-What pupils are making in the schoolroom and on-line?
– How are larning communities been formed?
– What kinds of facilitations are been conducted by lectors, pupils, other experts etc. ?
All of these are to be viewed in the context of interaction and communicating, creativeness, knowledge-building and contemplation.
B. The Lector
The Lecturer operates from the left side of the platform. The lector brings a pedagogical doctrine ( Reeves & A ; Reeves, 1997 ) which provides the pedagogical foundation for implementing any class utilizing blended acquisition. This doctrine includes an apprehension and articulation of Insturctivism and Constructivism. These methodological analysiss should be conceptualized as running along a continuum, implemented by the lector relation to the ends of the lecture/s and interaction with the pupils. Thus the attack to instruction may be rooted in instructivism where the bringing of content is traditional and is expanded to include construtivism in footings of the usage of e-learning/ ICT engineering.
c. Instructivism and Constructivism
These are the two dominant methodological analysiss implemented by the lector in the teaching/ larning state of affairs and supply the context for the teaching/learning dealing. Instuctivism represents the traditional face-to-face, talk manner of bringing to pupils while constructivism represents the online rich, multi-media activities including online treatments, online coaction, coursework, group work, sharing, and self directed larning, online research including the usage of LMS. It is of import to gestate these methodological analysiss as a continuum supplying a figure of schemes to be used by the lector. These are the foundation schemes used in a blended acquisition environment.
i. Behaviourist Schemes
These include popular direct direction, programmed direction and command acquisition, traditional and objectivist in purpose, such methods are usage in the instructivist manner of bringing. They can be considered as teacher-centric and teacher-focused leting for inactive credence of content by pupils.
two. Cognitivist Schemes
Gagnes nine events of direction
The major focal point here is on results and behaviors based on instructional design and preparation but in a more systematic manner. Although behaviorist in purpose such instruction methods tend to follow the scheme presented by ( Gagnes, 1985 ) :1. Gain attending, 2. Inform scholars of objectives,3. Stimulate callback of anterior acquisition, 4. Show the content, 5. Supply learning counsel, 6. Elicit public presentation ( pattern ) , 7. Supply feedback, 8. Assess public presentation, and 9. Enhance keeping and transportation to the occupation.
three. Cognitivist/constructivist Schemes
These include micro-worlds and problem-based acquisition.
These are attacks which involve real-life experiments where pupils are encouraged to believe, work out jobs, trial hypotheses and research the kineticss and multi-disciplinary features of important subjects in the course of study. Micro-worlds by and large use computer-based programmes, are structured and/or systematic.
Problem-based acquisition ( PBL ) is besides a student-centered instructional scheme ; here pupils collaboratively work out jobs and supply solutions. They so reflect on their experiences.
four. Constructivist/Situated Schemes
These include Inquiry-based acquisition and Project-base acquisition.
Education begins with the wonder of the scholar. This is based on ( Dewey ‘s, 1938 ) doctrine. Therefore in an Inquiry-based acquisition environment, pupils take duty for their acquisition and arrive at an apprehension of constructs by asking by themselves or in groups with the counsel of the instructor.
Project-based acquisition is student-centred and student-focused where pupils construct their ain cognition based on real-world jobs. It is a comprehensive instructional attack to prosecute pupils in sustained, concerted probe ( Bransford & A ; Stein, 1993 ) and is targeted towards deep acquisition. Both learning schemes are by and large classroom-based and therefore ‘situated ‘ in context.
The teaching/learning schemes available to the lector in a blended acquisition environment output a figure of assessment mechanisms, both formative and summational. The major formative exercisings would include mid-semester scrutinies, infinitesimal inquiries, quizzes/forums, groupwork, discussion-threads and Individual research/reports. The summational appraisals would include end-of-module scrutinies, unobserved scrutiny, open-book scrutinies, undertakings and class work. The online environment provides new chances of dynamic appraisal and immediate feed-back based on the broad scope of electronic types of appraisal templets available to instructors.
9. The Student
The pupil maps from the right appendage of the theoretical account in the teaching/learning environment where the accent is on larning. Appraisals hence indicate: 1. whether acquisition has taken topographic point, and 2. what remedial stairss are to be taken to accomplish the goals/objectives of the faculty. Therefore in the context of blended acquisition, there exist a scope of assessment offerings, both formal and informal which provide feedback to the pupil and lector on the pupil ‘s public presentation in a faculty. Student public presentation is besides augmented by the feedback/ communicating cringle represented by the colored midst arrowed lines which for good link the lector and the pupil in the Socio-Human Technology Platform. This is one of the major advantages of the blended acquisition environment over the traditional bringing manner. Communication is available beyond the schoolroom and takes topographic point between the lector and pupil, pupil and lector and pupil and pupil.
The theoretical account hence efforts to expose the characteristics of the blended acquisition environment, placing the major constituents: the pupil and lector, pedagogical doctrine, educational methodological analysiss, learning schemes and assessment schemes ; all underpinned by an enabling teaching/ larning environment augmented by engineering which facilitates traditional and modern manners of content bringing, communicating and appraisal.
10. Literature Reappraisal
Blended Learning is supported by ( Garnham and Kaleta, 2002 ; Singh, 2003 ; Bonk and Graham, 2005 ; Albrecht, 2006 ; Lloyd-Smith, 2009 ) among others in the literature.
What is important though, are the different positions and accent placed on the usage of blended acquisition with regard to the larning context, engineering usage and impact of the methodological analysis as a manner bringing in higher instruction. Thus one finds in the literature, research on blended larning from the position of the scholar ( Chen & A ; Jones, 2007 ; Delialioglu and Yildirim, 2007 ; Orhan, 2007 ; Burgess, 2008 ; Greener, 2008 ; Jusoff, K. & A ; Khodabandelou, 2009 ; Lloyd-Smith, 2009 ; Miyazoe and Anderson, 2010 ) ; the instructor ( Draffan and Rainger, 2006 ; Robertson, 2008 ; Motteram & A ; Sharma, 2009 ; Miyazoe, & A ; Anderson, 2010 ) ; the higher learning establishment ( Singh, 2003 ; Francis & A ; Raftery, 2005 ; Albrecht, 2006 ) and from pedagogic pattern and doctrine ( Shank, 2002 ) .
A figure of surveies in the literature point to intermix acquisition as a mechanism for improve public presentation of pupils taking class faculties in higher instruction ( Gray, 1999 ; Gunter, 2001 ; Sanders & A ; Morrison-Shetlar, 2001 ; Yildirim, 2005 ; Greener, 2008 ) . Although still in germinating phases, these action research surveies indicate the demand for alternate attacks to the bringing of classs and the debut of engineering in teaching/ acquisition in higher instruction. However, there is still a important function for the lector ; Greener, ( 2008 ) asserts that at the beginning of a faculty there is demand for counsel, way and motive, when student-student coaction and larning community is non yet developed. She farther indicated that face-to-face Sessionss in the blended acquisition environment are critical and intense but non as frequent. The end is to heighten student-centred acquisition and autonomous acquisition.
Chen and Jones, ( 2007 ) make reference of lucidity of instructions in the traditional manner and a greater apprehension of the constructs in the blended manner. A combination of clear instructions and greater apprehension of constructs could accrue if pupils are exposed to a blended acquisition environment. This thought is supported by ( Greener, 2008 ) who suggested that little group size was appropriate as a instruction scheme that dynamically mediated on-line treatment and offered encouragement and support, particularly in the preliminary phases of a class faculty. Though this is the ideal state of affairs it must be noted that blended acquisition can besides be used successfully in big categories.
Delialioglu and Yildirim, ( 2007 ) opined that blended larning bridged the properties of on-line instruction- efficiency, sufficiency and freedom to entree information anytime with the features of traditional schoolroom direction ; such as leting pupils to concentrate on new information presented in add-on to working with equals and teacher in category. The major focal point in both methods of delivery-traditional and online should be on faculty redesign to magnify the wagess of both manners of direction. This is critical to the improved public presentation required of pupils, since the purpose is ever to guarantee that the acquisition manners of all pupils in a category are activated, given the different manners of bringing and the exposure to engineerings that allow for sharing, coaction, equal coaching, communicating and contemplation.
Burgess, ( 2008 ) focused on blended acquisition from the position of its suitableness for parttime mature pupils. The impact of the first loop of the blended attack to a fiscal faculty resulted in 8 % betterment of parttime pupils ‘ Markss. Whereas 50 % of parttime pupils asked for clip extensions or grants for subjecting assignments antecedently, merely one asked in the first loop of blended acquisition. Students who missed categories because of work were less dying because the class content was available on Moodle.
The illation to be drawn from these findings is that there are a figure of positive results to pupils taking a class in higher instruction utilizing blended manner, whether full-time or parttime. In the instance of parttime pupils the entree to content 24/7, the ability to work with equals in real-time and online, to pass on with lecturer/s in category and on-line, the ability to work in groups, in-class and on-line and the ability to develop learning communities are advantages which impact positively on their public presentation. Blended acquisition does lend positively to student attitude and hence their public presentation in class faculties.
The reappraisal so far has focused on blended acquisition from the position of the pupil ; Higher acquisition establishments besides play a critical function in the development of blended acquisition to the extent that they can supply blended larning programmes to run into the many-faceted demands of their pupil population. Singh, ( 2003 ) focused chiefly on the holistic demands for a blended acquisition programme ( from an institutional point of view ) supplying what he calls the dimensions and ingredients for blended acquisition programmes.
These findings suggest an institutional position is besides important to the thought of blended acquisition. The deductions here are notable in the context of instructional criterions for blended acquisition programms across higher acquisition establishments modules. His usage of ( Khan ‘s, 2005 ) Octagonal model is informative as it provides for a thorough usher for the production of blended larning programmes in higher acquisition institutions..
This attack is in sink with ( Singh, 2003 and Albretch, 2006 ) . There is hence a distinguishable focal point on the establishment as a driver and protagonist of blended acquisition at the institutional degree to assist better pupil public presentation.
The literature alerts the reader to the broad scope of considerations which must be taken into history by higher instruction establishments which are engaged in the development of blended acquisition programmes. It besides focuses on the critical demands for the development of an attack rooted in the teaching method which facilitates the apprehension of the issues to be identified and clarified in order to use blended acquisition as a mechanism to help in the betterment of pupils ‘ performance.This analysis therefore identifies three positions from which to originate blended acquisition, whether a class or programme: 1. the student/lecturer, 2. the institution/course and 3. the engineering ; all of which aid to better pupils ‘ public presentation.
The aim of the survey is to show blended acquisition as a feasible method for class bringing and to demo its impact on pupils ‘ public presentation in category and on the concluding scrutinies. The information gained would be used to find the extent to which blended acquisition does better public presentation in Planing Information Systems 11 ( MGMT 043X ) , an eight-week class at the UWI St, Augustine Campus Summer Programme in the Social Sciences Faculty.
To originate the survey pre-course quantitative studies would be conducted utilizing class participants to find their technology-use competency and to derive from them information about their survey wonts, including their preferable acquisition manners. ( see appendix vitamin D ) .
A pre class qualitative survey would besides be implemented to obtain pupils ‘ perceptual experience about blended acquisition. At the terminal of the class, post-course studies, both quantitative and qualitative would besides be implemented to garner information from pupils about the blended acquisition experience and to see whether there are fluctuations in their survey wonts, technology-use competency and attitude toward blended acquisition. This information would be used as input to further modify the class but besides significantly, to see whether the information gathered is in sink with that derived from the literature.
The undermentioned tools would be used in the survey:
Kolb larning manner questionnaire at the beginning of the survey ;
Pre-course questionnaire prior to get down of instruction ;
Interviews during the teaching period for farther elucidation of ideas/issues raised ;
Post-course questionnaire at the terminal of the class ;
SPSS or replacement package for quantitative analysis of the informations ;
NVivo or replacement package for qualitative analysis of pupils ‘ thoughts, sentiments.
Ten ( 5 ) to ten ( 10 ) pupils would take part in this survey. This cohort includes those pupils who failed the class last twelvemonth every bit good as new pupils. Students take parting in this survey would be asked to subscribe a consent signifier. ( see Appendix c. ) . Students would take part in this pre- class study during the first hebdomad of the faculty. All consent signifiers will be kept by me, the interviewer, for research intents merely and unauthorised entree to the records will non be permitted. I shall except any information that will do it possible to place any pupil. Students shall non be coerced to react to any of the study or interview inquiries included in this survey and their engagement or non-participation will non impact their classs in this class.
Students will take part in the studies by reacting to the questionnaires which will be emailed or given to them in printed signifier. They would react and return the completed paperss to a given electronic mail reference supplied by me or return the printed version by manus to the module office or approved location. Interviews will be conducted at times convenient to the pupils ( lector and pupils to negociate such times ) ; An MP3 recording equipment every bit good as note book will be used during interviews.
15. Survey Description.
The studies will dwell of pre-course and post-course questionnaires. The Kolb acquisition manner study would be conducted twice, at the beginning and terminal of the class to reap if there are fluctuations in larning manners. The Kolb acquisition manner stock list is an appropriate method for higher instruction. The studies are capable to alter and extra inquiries may be included to accommodate the job definition. ( see appendix vitamin D, vitamin E & A ; degree Fahrenheit ) .
16. The Interview
The interviews are designed to beg responses that are non captured on the questionnaires. They besides allow me to examine or inquire follow-up inquiries and observe the reaction of the pupils as they respond. The undermentioned inquiries will be asked:
What difficulties do you confront making this class?
Make you analyze by yourself or make you wish to analyze with other pupils? Why?
Do you believe that societal engineerings ( e.g. facebook, bloggs, and treatment boards etc. ) can assist you in this class? How?
Do you hold entree to the cyberspace? At place, at work? Please explicate?
How can I assist you to execute better in this class?
Are you prepared to work online with other co-workers?
17. Datas Analysis
The informations aggregation ensuing from the questionnaires, interviews and notes will organize the footing of the qualitative/descriptive analysis of the survey. Such descriptive grounds, personal quotation marks and responses will besides be used to expose utile information with regard to pupils ‘ perceptual experiences on blended acquisition and the impact of engineering and teaching/ larning on their attitude towards blended acquisition. The major end here is to reap whether the information obtained is in line with the grounds from the literature and to see to what extent such grounds from the survey vary and why.
The reading of the informations would be in the signifier of saloon charts, tabular arraies, graphs and percentile rankings to demo common tendencies or fluctuations in responses to peculiar inquiries.
18. Undertaking Plan
Introduction of survey to pupils, sign language of consent signifiers, pre-course studies and interviews
The first stage of survey is to be executed for eight hebdomads get downing from the center of June. During the first hebdomad, I shall present the survey to the pupils, seek all necessary blessings and besides give them the consent signifiers. I shall besides originate treatments about times for interviews.
This period is devoted to the bringing of the class content in blended acquisition manner and to the usage of the engineering for the eight ( 8 ) hebdomads. I have included a timetable on how the processs for the survey will be followed. The period will reason with the concluding scrutinies or summational appraisal based on the class demand. It will besides tag the terminal of the first stage of the survey.
The 2nd stage of the survey begins post-course studies and interviews. This will be followed by the organisation of the informations collected for analysis and the development of the charts, graphs and tabular arraies. The Kolb acquisition manner study would be re-administered ; Post-course questionnaires would be distributed ; Interviews and treatments would be conducted with the pupils to acquire their sentiments and seek elucidation on their thoughts with regard to their constructs and overall public presentation in this blended acquisition class.
The thoughts as expressed by the pupils and the information representations will organize the footing of farther analysis and reading. SPSS and NVivo or other replacement package would be used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the informations severally. SPSS is widely used in quantitative informations analysis both in academe and concern while NVivo is used for qualitative analysis particularly peoples ‘ thoughts and/or sentiments.
The 3rd stage of the survey involves an in-depth analysis, reading and polish of the data/information collected ; the organisation of the consequences of the survey and the composing up of the study. The information gained from the analysis of the informations together with thoughts and sentiments as expressed by participants would be categorized, analyzed and synthesized placing the tendencies and discrepancies and comparing consequences with that observed in the literature with regard to better pupils ‘ public presentation. Interpretations and anticipations based on what is obtained from the informations would inform the development of the review of blended acquisition as a feasible manner of content bringing for improved pupils ‘ public presentation in higher instruction.
The 4th stage of the survey is dedicated to the completion of the analysis/report for concluding bringing to the IDU based on input/advice from my supervisor/s.
See appendices for paperss related to the survey.