In 1914, Julio Cortazar was born in Brussels, Belgium of Argentine parents, after World War 1 his household returned to Buenos Aires, Argentina. This was where he grew up and became educated, so subsequently moved to Paris in 1951, after obtaining a Gallic scholarship, where he died in 1984 at the age of 70. Prior to going a author, he worked as a instructor and so as a transcriber. ( Prego & A ; Cortazar, 1997 )
Cortazar is known as one of the Latin American authors of the roar ” that exploded onto the universe literary scene. The literary roar was during the center of the twentieth century when Latin American authors work became published in Europe and the remainder of the universe. The narratives were known to tie in with charming pragmatism which is where ‘unreal things are treated as if realistic and mundane, and everyday things as if unreal ‘ . The secret plans of these narratives normally combined existent and antic elements in a manner that makes them hard to divide. ( www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Latin-American-Boom ) Stories that have been written by Julio Cortazar usually mix phantasy with Latin American world.
The narrative being focused on, ‘La Casa Tomada ‘ by Julio Cortazar, was ab initio published in the 1946 reappraisal ‘Los Anales de Buenos Aires ‘ which was directed by Jorge Luis Borges. It so appeared his in his first volume of short narratives ‘Bestario ‘ in 1951. ( www.juliocortazar.com.ar/hislife.htm ) In the narrative, a middle-aged brother and sister live together in an old big household house, situated in the North territory of Buenos Aires. They spend their yearss making everyday undertakings with small fluctuation. The sister, Irene, knits and the brother reads and collects casts. They both clean the house and cook repasts together. One twenty-four hours they hear cryptic noises within the house, but they do non worry. Without much explication, they abandon parts of the house because of this incursive noise. When finally the unknown noises take over the whole house, they leave the house with nil and throw the cardinal off.
It is written in the first individual with the storyteller being the supporter in the narrative. This means the supporter is the Centre of attending and this allows the reader to take part in all the events. The reader can see all the ideas and thoughts of the supporter so they can easy place with the supporter. This adds pragmatism to the narrative in contrast with the ‘unknown characters ‘ that conveying an component of the surrealism that ‘boom ‘ authors are known for.
The northern territory of Buenos Aires where the supporter and his sister live is the rich and privileged country and from the start of the narrative, it sets out to the reader that the siblings are from privileged backgrounds. Nos gustaba La casa porque aparte de espaciosa y Antigua ( hoy que Las casas antiguas sucumben a La mas ventajosa liquidacion de sus materiales ) [ aˆ¦ ] ” ( Cortazar, page 1 ) . The house has eight sleeping rooms so antecedently their household would hold occupied all the suites and they would hold had amahs to work for them.
The big house was antecedently owned by their ascendants and they are the last of a long line of household. [ aˆ¦ ] guardaba los recuerdos de nuestros bisabuelos, el abuelo paterno, nuestros military chaplains y toda La infancia. ” ( Cortazar, page 1 ) . It seems they can afford to populate without working.Instead they spend their yearss making little more than cleansing, reading and knitting with rare communicating with the outside universe.
From this, the subject of foreigners ” comes into drama, which plays a strong function throughout the narrative. From analysing the narrative, the unknown encroachers are instantly seen as the foreigners ” that come in and take over. However, the siblings could besides be foreigners ” giving that they are so cut off from the remainder of society. Cortazar portrays the siblings as really unusual and alone characters that do little to forestall themselves from being foreigners in society.
The siblings seem to be obsessed by everyday and maintaining the house clean. We find out small about the storyteller except that he like Gallic literature. He portrays the sister Irene as a really inactive female who is happy to merely pass her clip knitting. They portion the cleansing and cookery jobs between themselves. The storyteller says how they ne’er use the back portion of the house except come ining to clean. Therefore, there is already a barrier created between them and the foreigners ” with the big oak door. There is a mention to how much dust collects on the furniture. Buenos Aires sera una ciudad limpia, pero eso Se lo debe a Sus habitantes y no a otra cosa. ” The storyteller seems to connote that the middle-class citizens maintain the metropolis clean. He besides says Hay demasiada tierra en el Aire ” which is dry seeing as the metropolis is called Buenos Aires ” . ( Holmes:2004, pg254 )
There is an incestuous facet between the brother and sister as they have reached in-between age and the lone clip they spend is with each other, uninterested in others outside the house. Simple Y silencioso matrimonio de hermanos [ aˆ¦ ] ” ( Cortazar ) This shows they had no programs to get married anybody else and have kids to go through on the house to. This incestuous subject is something Cortazar said may hold been related to his ain life ; Yo empece a pensar Y a descubrir que efectivamentea crossbeams de mis serenos yo tengo una problema incestuoso con una hermana mia ” ( Cortazar por Cortazar, pg 43 )
The brother and sister can be seen as foreigners at the terminal of the narrative aswell because they are the 1s that end up on the exterior of the house with nowhere to travel. They have legion ownerships at the start of their narrative and spot by spot, it is taken off from them until they are left outside with nil. A?Tuviste tiempo de traer alguna cosa? – lupus erythematosus pregunte inutilmente. – No, nada. ”
The other foreigners ” are the encroachers that are seen as unknown enemies. They are referred to as plural during the narrative for illustration when they take over the first portion of the house ; -Tuve que cerrar La puerta del pasillo. Han tomado parte del fondo. ” ( Cortazar ) so the reader automatically presumes it is more than one unknown character.
The unknown foreigners are treated as really unwelcome and they can be seen as threatening. Throughout the narrative, Cortazar leaves no hints to whom or what these noises are and it seems as if the brother and sister are non needfully that scared or shocked by them. An illustration is after the portion where the brother says to Irene that they had taken over the back portion:
Dejo caer EL tejido y me miro con Sus graves ojos cansados. -A?Estas seguro? Asenti . -Entonces -dijo recogiendo las agujas- tendremos que vivir en este lado. ”
She does non demo any fright and merely carries on knitting. They seem to hold cognition of whom or what has invaded the house and move entirely in supporting themselves against this invasion. At the terminal of the narrative, the foreigners are still left as unidentifiable and cryptic characters to the reader and leaves them thinking. It is up to the reader to come to their ain decision about whom or what they think these unusual noises are.
The beginning of the narrative starts as really realistic with a description of their lives so one time the foreigners that invade take over the first portion of the house, it becomes phantasmagoric. Cortazar puts a batch of accent on the description of the house ; the house seems unwelcoming as it lacks the comfort and security of a place. The characters feel insecure in their place and ready to fly at any point and it loses any feeling of safety when the others take over. Cortazar explores the connexion between individuality and the place. The house shows everything about the siblings such as their wealth, their background and their avocations and one time they no longer have the house, they lose their individuality.
The house is personified in the narrative ; a veces llegamos a pensar que epoch ella que no nos dejo casar. ” This shows it has some kind of control over the brother and sister life within and creates a barrier between them and the existent universe. The lone clip that the brother visits outdoors is when he goes to acquire his Gallic literature or wool for Irene to knit and Irene ne’er leaves the house. Besides, note that the street name Rodriguez Pena was the name of Cortazars street when he lived in Buenos Aires. ( Maquiera: 2004, pg.10 ) Therefore, this shows how the narrative relates to his ain personal experience.
It seems the intervention of these foreigners seems to play a strong function in the vision of Cortazar as the narrative is related to his life. There are legion readings for the significance behind La Casa Tomada but the 1 that stands out seems to be that Cortazar uses the relation between the characters, the foreigners and the place as a manner to react to societal and political tensenesss that were happening in Buenos Aires during that clip.
Cortazar wrote the narrative post-war when Juan Peron had late come into power over Argentina. Initially Peron had worked his manner up by taking a place that cipher else was interested in as the caput of the Labour section. From there he appealed to the workers. Peron aimed for an independent Argentina, free from foreign economical influence. Peron promised a New Argentina ” founded on societal justness, political sovereignty, and economic independency ” . He showed support for the workers that he called the masas descamisadas ” by increasing pay earners income and edifice a big figure of low cost places. ( Rock: 1987 pg.262-263 )
Cortazar was anti-peronist and demonstrated against his government. He saw Peron as a dictator and felt threatened by the control. Si bien Cortazar no comulgaba aun con EL socialismo, su postura hacia La politica del nuevo gobierno epoch abiertamente critica ” ( Maquiera: 2004, pg.19. ) Peron aimed to incorporate the population and convey approximately societal reforms. Many, including Cortazar saw him and his married woman Evita as a political and economical menace and a menace to good gustatory sensation ” . They saw him promoting the invasion of Buenos Aires by rabble from the states ” . The racist term cabecitas negras ” was used against the immigrant workers. ( Standish: 2001 pg.4 ) For the oppositions of Peron his promises were myths and had caused a divided society with a belly-up economic system and a state controlled by a absolutism.
El Peronismo significo la llega a la capital de la clase obrera del interior del pais Y la entrada de esa poblacion en la vida societal y cultural de la ciudad ” ( Maquiera: 2004, pg. 20 ) . Although Cortazar does non associate them straight, the ‘outsiders ‘ in the narrative can be seen as a sarcasm in demoing the socio-political vision of Cortazar against Peronism and the reaching of the on the job category during that period.
The narrative could be portrayed as demoing the anxiousnesss of the upper and in-between categories of Buenos Aires during the nine-year disposal of Juan Peron. By demoing how they felt marginalised because of the increasing figure of rural immigrants that were coming into the metropolis for work. Just like the supporters in the narrative, their manner of life had changed and these encroachers into the house may symbolize the workers coming into the metropolis.
Therefore, the function of these foreigners could be an fable of the migratory workers that moved into Buenos Aires and took over a batch of the occupations and the brother and sister could symbolize the Argentineans that felt like these migrators invaded them.
Bien podria representar todos myocardial infarction miedos, o quiza , todas myocardial infarction aversiones ; en ese caso la interpretacion antiperonista me parece bastante posible, emergiendo incluso inconscientemente ” . – Julio Cortazar ( www.abretelibro.com )
The narrative is most normally seen as an anti-peronist fable and expresses the fright that Cortazar may hold felt about ‘outsiders ‘ in Argentina. The feeling of fright felt that was caused by Peron ‘s military authorities and by the invasion of industrialization. However, the narrative has besides been seen as similar to that of Adam and Eve ; they are expelled from their little and closed Eden into an unknown universe. html.rincondelvago.com/casa-tomada_julio-cortazar_2.html
When asked, Cortazar says that ‘La Casa Tomada ‘ was inspired from a incubus that he had and that when he woke from this incubus he instantly started composing the narrative. The house described in the narrative is the same as in his incubus. La unica diferencia entre lo sonado Y EL cuento Es que en la pesadilla yo estaba solo. ” ( Prego: 1990, pg79 ) When he woke up, he instantly started composing the narrative. Therefore, he says that it is his dream that should be analyzed non the narrative. Es un cuento que parity mi no tiene absolutamente ningun contexto de ninguna naturaleza salvo La pesadilla. ” ( Garfield:1978 pg 89 )
The architecture of the house plays an of import function in the nexus between the present and the yesteryear in Buenos Aires. The house symbolizes the metropolis ‘s blue yesteryear, after Independence, Buenos Aires chose European alternatively of colonial architecture. Architects were brought over by the Government from Europe to plan edifices. ( Holmes: 2003 pg254 ) Again, this shows the fright that the characters have of alteration from the past, as they prefer their traditional manner European house.
During the clip, that a big sum of immigrants from abroad and migrators from the countryside came there was a demand for more lodging. So new lodging undertakings were created for the middle-class ensuing in higher value for houses like theirs as the storyteller points out at the beginning of the narrative ( Holmes: 2004 ) , las casas Antigua sucumben a La mas ventajosa liquidacion de Sus materiales ” ( Cortazar ) . The brother and sister prefer the European manner broad house and envelop themselves in what represents the urban yesteryear. They seclude themselves from the metropolis and in turn make themselves foreigners from the modern Argentina. Therefore, the encroachers could be the metropolis doing them leave their place.
Throughout the text there are legion historical mentions such as the Gallic literature which the brother enjoys reading. This seems to be one of the few ‘outside ‘ things that are accepted into the house. He besides finds that Desde 1939 no llegaba
nada valioso a La Argentina ” which refers to the deficiency of European civilization in Argentina because of the war. The brother merely seems to happen value in Gallic literature and has to re-read what Gallic literature he has. Once once more, this besides shows the nexus with their fright of alteration.
The relationship between the characters and the house shows their deficiency of involvement in modernness and alteration. They seem to desire to remain within a everyday and demo small involvement towards alterations outside of their house in Argentina. This narrative may stand for Peronist Buenos Aires but can besides stand for the function of Europe in post-colonial infinite. It seems that Cortazar rejects how Argentina has become post-European influence. The narrative may besides portray the modern Buenos Aires conflicting with the past metropolis.
After looking in deepness at the narrative and the history related to the narrative, I can reason that the different foreigners ” in the narrative play a strong function in the socio-political vision of Julio Cortazar. La Casa Tomada has legion readings about its hidden significance. Although when questioned, he does non specifically associate it to a peculiar sentiment but to a incubus he had. This showed his implicit in preoccupations with the events in Buenos Aires during that clip.
The subject of foreigners is continued throughout the narrative and each character shows an facet of being an foreigner. The encroachers that take over the house from the siblings are seen both as the workers that moved into Buenos Aires occupying the infinite of the middle-class or as the metropolis doing the supporters leave their safe yesteryear and as face the altering Buenos Aires. The supporters show a stereotype illustration of the middle-class people of Argentina during that clip that feared any kind of alteration, though in the original incubus it is Cortazar himself. It is Cortazar that it seems had this fright of invasion from foreigners ” and was concerned about the alterations happening. The function of the foreigners is really effectual in showing his feelings about Peron and the alterations within Argentina.