Chocolate is the most favourite food

Published: 2020-05-26 23:51:05
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Chocolate is the most favorite nutrient merchandise in industry. The research on how to bring forth or modify cocoa every bit good as to contrive a new merchandise has been proved endless. Nowadays, the assortment of chocolate merchandise can be found in many shops of supermarkets. Based on the consumer point of position, cocoa is popular for its brilliant gustatory sensation and contains a considerable sum of nutritionary value. At many times, cocoa can be used as a combination with other nutrient or drinks merchandise. Those grounds are, in fact, merely a few of many grounds that make cocoa become favorable and attract people & A ; # 65533 ; s demand. A high demand of cocoa among consumer itself raises a great involvement of enterpriser in the concern and market. They think of cocoa as a prospective concern at any state of affairs and clip.
The invention of new cocoa merchandises leads to the assortment of their merchandise in the market. The latest known new merchandise is the aerated cocoa. It is different from the other cocoa merchandises in footings of texture and construction. Harmonizing to the name, aerated cocoa is fundamentally a cocoa that undergoes an aeration procedure during the production. It contains bubbles that make it alone and distinguishable from other type of cocoas. There are some alterations known to happen when bubble is penetrated to nutrient merchandises such as the lower denseness, higher surface country, increase porousness and lessening lastingness, lessening in the nutrient spirit. Some specifications an aerated cocoa possessed are denseness of 0.7-0.8 g/cm3, gas free denseness of 1.30-1.35 g/cm3, specific volume of 1.25-1.45 cm3/g, null fraction of 40-45 % ( Campbell and Mougeot, 1999 ) . Unlike any other cocoa saloon that has a house construction, the aerated cocoa is foaming and creamy. This characteristic makes the aerated cocoa has a alone mouth-feel after being consumed. An aerated cocoa can be done by batch procedure with internal gas injection which consists of several chief phases. A treated cocoa is foremost stored in the keeping armored combat vehicle so pumped by the dosing pump to the mixing chamber. In this mixing chamber, gases needed for aeration are circulated. A needle valve is applied to flux the merchandise watercourse and the cocoa residue. The gases used for air outing the cocoa are C dioxide, N, nitrogen oxide, and Argon. Those gases will blend good in the cocoa and expand after the force per unit area is released ( Haedelt, J, 2007 ) . Carbon dioxide and N tend to give big bubble size in the aerated cocoa. On the other manus, the N and N oxide do the aerated cocoa softer. These parametric quantities of gas content will straight consequence on the microstructure of an aerated cocoa.
The froth construction formation and interaction are two issues that must be taken into consideration of bring forthing a high quality of aerated cocoa that closely relates to the morphological and uniformity of froth construction ( Barigou, 2004 ) . Since microstructure of aerated cocoa in footings of bubble size, sum and agreement is an of import key to the high quality texture of the merchandise, the quantitative method to analyze an aerated cocoa microstructure is, in this instance, a high importance every bit good.
A research has been done on X-ray micro-computed imaging ( X-ray micro-CT ) as the technique to look into the microstructure of an aerated cocoa. This technique carries a figure of advantages compared to other measuring techniques. Harmonizing to the name, X-ray micro-computed imaging is fundamentally the combination of X-ray microscopy and micro-computed imaging. It works based on the denseness difference of the stuffs and able to supply a good contrast on the image. Using this technique does non necessitate a readying of stuffs before probe, in other words, this technique can be used invasively. When a readying is applied to the stuff before the probe, it increases the possibility of obtaining an undependable consequence because those readying processs might ensue in the harm of the stuff. In add-on to that, the probe procedure can be done at the natural province of the stuffs. It is so a good value to characterize and look into the construction of a stuff. X-ray micro-CT besides has the ability to make both planar and 3-dimensional image with a high spacial declaration. X-ray micro-CT performs good in any sort of stuffs easy. However, this technique besides has some disadvantages in which the size of sample is limited to 20mm square. The processing clip and the stableness of the sample besides become large issues. The scanning clip might take up 30 & A ; # 65533 ; 45 proceedingss clip and during that clip the stableness of the sample must be assured in order that a good quality of image is achieved. However, it is non a simple undertaking to keep the stableness of the stuff in the closed sample tubing. This technique requires little sample to be investigated which sometime does non demo the construction of stuff as a whole. ( Barigou, 2004 )
As mentioned in the old paragraph, X-ray micro-CT plants based on denseness gradients in the stuff. Sample is placed between the X-ray tubing and X-ray CCD camera. A common known and used type of system is the Skyscan 1072 where the x-ray tubing plants at 100 kV Voltage and current 5 & A ; # 65533 ; A X-ray sensor equipped with 1024 ten 1024 pels 12 spot digital CCD camera. X-ray tubing produces beam that strikes the sample and farther captured by an X-ray sensor behind the sample. T-view package packaged in the computing machine system will assist the visual image of the image on the screen. The enlargement ratio defined by the proportion of distance from tubing to sensor and distance from tubing to object. It is normally in the scope 10-120. The image obtained is scanned in a computing machine which can make both planar and 3-dimensional construction based on the object size and expansion ratio the operator chooses to work with. The 3-dimensional construction is gained from 40 rotary motion positions through 180 & A ; # 65533 ; of rotary motion.
Some other techniques that have been used to characterize this merchandise are Cryo-scanning negatron microscopy ( Cryo-SEM ) , light microscopy, optical scanning imaging and x-ray diffraction.
Cryo-SEM technique, somewhat similar to the X-ray micro-CT technique besides has the ability to retrace planar and 3-dimensional construction of a sample. Basically it works as the same rule with any microscope but it is able to look into sample at really low temperature ( -183 & A ; # 65533 ; C ) . Unlike X-ray micro-CT, there are several phases of readyings need to be accomplished before the probe. Those stairss include stop deading and dunking the sample to nitrogen slush to forestall harm and inclination of ice crystal development during stop deading measure. At many times, sample is covered by metal such as gold in order to obtain high quality image. After following those stairss, the sample can farther come in the SEM chamber for probe procedure. Obviously, such phases of readyings resulted in the higher complexness, therefore necessitate more sophisticated system every bit good as high-skilled operators. The scanning procedure demands to be done for several times using assortment of samples to acquire the equal consequence of probes.
The optical scanning imaging chiefly works about similar to X-ray micro-CT. It is based on the scattered visible radiation of atoms. The beginning of beam used is laser, unlike X-ray micro-CT that uses X-ray beam. Laser beams travel across the convergent and cylindrical lens in z-direction and subsequently reflected by the mirror. CCD camera is employed to capture the image of the sample and to reassign it to computing machine. Planar image is obtained by random form of optical maser in x-y way ( Germaneau, 2008 ) . The size of sample appropriate for probe is that of higher than the optical maser wavelength.
Light microscopy is a tool normally used to look into little objects. It chiefly has two lenses, the nonsubjective lens and optic lens. Light will be transmitted to the sample so brought to the aim lens where the image enlarges. Ocular lens will take this image in order that the hypertrophied image can be viewed. There are several disadvantages utilizing this technique. There is no manner that 3-dimensional image is created. Light microscopy can merely bring forth planar image. It might be utile to characterize the surface construction of the aerated cocoa. This technique can non supply an equal contrast of the image which will take to difficulty in analyzing several features of the sample. As some parametric quantities such as bubble size and construction in the stuff can non be represented good utilizing light stuffs, it is considered that this technique provides deficient consequence and information needed to characterize the sample.
X-ray diffraction technique is appropriate when we object to look into the crystallization and stage passage in cocoa.
Among all those techniques mentioned above, the X-ray micro-CT technique is clearly seemed to be the best technique to characterize an aerated cocoa sing the bubble size, construction, distribution, and interaction within it.
The dependable image and information of microstructure obtained from X-ray micro-CT can give a considerable aid to farther stairss of analyzing. Absolutely, we do non take merely in acquiring a planar or 3-dimensional image of the aerated cocoa. How we interpret and dig for highlighted information is so more of import. The microstructure information is of import for the aerated cocoa & A ; # 65533 ; s public presentation for the grounds as follow ; the mechanical belongingss and physical behavior can be determined, aesthetical belongingss of the aerated cocoa can besides be determined, it is a utile beginning and tool to pull strings the homogeneousness of froth construction, dependable beginning to acquire a batch of quantitative information such as voidage, cell wall thickness, distribution, air cell connectivity, and grade of anisotropy.
Mechanical belongingss that are frequently measured in cellular merchandises like aerated confectionery are the extensional modulus, incursion modulus and cut force ( Ziegler, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Griffin and Skochdopole, mechanical belongings represented by tensile strength is straight relative to bulk denseness to the power n. Bubble size and distribution image obtained by the X-ray micro-CT technique in combination with stereological analysis is the first measure that leads the following stairss in finding the mechanical and other belongingss of an aerated cocoa. German, as cited in Campbell 2000, stated that & amp ; # 65533 ; Without this cardinal parametric quantity ( the bubble size distribution, mechanistic surveies ( of aerated nutrient systems ) are hard to construe & amp ; # 65533 ; . Bubble can execute several behaviors. It can compact and spread out itself, interrupt up and coalesce, rise and explosion ( Campbell and Mougeot, 2000 ) . The diameter information of the bubble contributes to the surface tenseness and with that information, the extra force per unit area of the bubble can be known utilizing the Laplace equation. Laplace force per unit area equation shows the bigger the bubble diameter, the smaller extra force per unit area. As bubble can besides split, diffuse and coalesce, critical point of bursting, spreading and blending are important. All the mechanical belongingss information is aimed to obtain important critical points needed for appraisal and subsequently used as storage intervention or procedure alterations.
The index of connectivity will demo whether the solid surface concave or convex. Low index of connectivity indicates that the solid construction is well-connected, frailty versa, the high index of connectivity indicates that there are some spreads in the construction due to the hapless connexion. It is the ratio of solid and margin before the image dilation and after image dilation. The grade of anisotropy provides the degree of construction uniformity and indistinguishable in all waies. A value of 0 refers to entire symmetry, and value of 1 refers to entire anisotropy ( Barigou, 2004 ) . Those parametric quantities besides have impact in quantifying the construction mechanical strength.
In decision, aerated cocoa has recently been known as the new innovation in cellular merchandises. With the alone features it possesses, there is a demand of a technique to characterize the aerated cocoa. Among the techniques that have been used to characterize this merchandise, X-ray micro-CT appears to be the most good as the measuring technique. The ability of this technique to supply planar and 3-dimensional image invasively eases the farther survey in finding the mechanical belongingss of an aerated cocoa.

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