19th Century English Architecture Essay

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Introduction
* The nineteenth century heralded the reaching of the Industrial Revolution. which wrought unprecedented socioeconomic and technological alterations in England. transforming it into a modern industrial society. This essay examines the impact that these alterations have had on the design and building of two new constructing types. viz. the railroad station and prison. * This essay argues that the design and building of railroad Stationss in England had to be adapted to the alterations wrought by the Industrial Revolution. such as widespread rural-urban migration. rapid urban growing and lifting richness in English society. On the matter-of-fact side. station builders besides had to look for alternate stuffs resistant to corrosion from steam and fume emitted by engines. This essay besides examines the societal alterations and penal reforms in 19th century England which caused a displacement in social positions towards offense and penalty. and how these impacted the design of three major prisons at that clip.
Railway Stations
Due to the rapid economic growing and development ensuing from the Industrial Revolution. many urban countries expanded at a dizzying rate as people in the countryside flocked to towns and metropoliss looking for employment. Historian Eric Evans notes that Glasgow grew by 46 per centum in the 1810s and Manchester by 44 per centum in the 1820s. Social jobs such as overcrowding. congestion and offense shortly followed.
These alterations resulted in new functional demands and demands for edifices. * Prior to the nineteenth century. trains were chiefly built for transporting lading. At the bend of the century. railroad Stationss had to be adapted to provide to the addition in riders going through England for work and leisure. They served as terminuss and interchanges for many trains from the different rail companies. every bit good as waiting countries and impermanent adjustment for riders. From an architectural point of view. they were of import edifices because their *
building incorporated all the major architectural motions of the nineteenth century. in footings of stuffs. manner and construction. * The first English railroad station at Crown Street. Liverpool ( fig. 1 ) . like all railroad Stationss. was built chiefly to supply shelter for its residents – riders and trains. In add-on. the predating manners of transit – the canal and the century-old turnpike system – had specially catered architecture for its riders ; hostels were used alternatively as going points. relay Stationss and terminuss. As there was no case in point for this edifice type. most early railroad Stationss. including Crown Street. had their shelters constructed based on the design of sheds built for cowss and waggon. However. the manner of railroad station evolved in the mid-19th century. due to unprecedented urban growing in metropoliss in England. the increasing societal significance of Stationss and resistance to railway building.
As railroad companies began to spread out their webs. more people started traveling to the metropoliss. Growth in traffic and migration led to overcrowding and congestion in the metropoliss and shortly there was a demand for a re-evaluation of the station designs. * Railway Stationss bore societal significance in 19th century England as they were iconic landmarks. Driven by the thought that the station was to the modern metropolis what the metropolis gate was to the ancient city” . the station’s design was the first feeling that travelers got of the city/town. Rising richness among the English due to the industrial roar meant that the populace would besides utilize the station’s design to acquire a feel of the metropolis and estimate how attractive it was to populate in or travel to. One such illustration is Euston station. universally lauded by the English populace for its olympian Doric Arch entryway. As rail travel rapidly became low-cost for the multitudes in the nineteenth century. the design of railroad Stationss besides had to take into history category differences in English society. Therefore. the Crown Street station. and many other Stationss after it. besides had different booking areas/waiting suites designated for first-class and second-class riders. * The wide-scale building of railroads throughout England faced much resistance from many locals. who criticised the pollution. noise and invasion it made to rural landscapes.
Therefore. builders used design and local edifice stuffs to absorb railroads into the rural scene. State Stationss were designed to look like bungalows. gate Lodges and farmhouses. utilizing stuffs such as ruddy brick in the Midlands. aureate limestone in the Cotswolds and pale Grey in Derbyshire. In the mid-19th century. station builders sought to accomplish architectural efforts due to increasing competition between companies. One such illustration was Paddington ( fig. 2 ) – which boasted of holding the widest single-span train shed at that clip to provide to the proficient demands of the alterations in occupant burden and societal individuality. This became an illustration for other railroad Stationss which were built after it. At the bend of the mid-19th century. due to a important addition in new constructing stuff production. Fe became progressively available and was more often used in architecture. At the same clip. railroad Stationss were spread outing in size due to increasing demand.
Wider-span train sheds were needed to suit the turning occupant tonss on trains. With the old completion of plants showing the potency of Fe in accomplishing wider-span roofs. railroad builders started utilizing it. Wide-span roofs allowed greater flexibleness in suiting the turning crowd and the change of path and platform beneath it. In add-on. Fe was regarded as the most suited pick for railroad sheds. As lumber ( the common stuff used before Fe ) deteriorated quickly under the exposure to sulfurous steam produced by trains. Fe. which was more immune. was used as a replacement. This is a clear illustration of station builders accommodating their stuffs to peculiar conditions in rail Stationss.
Prisons
Prisons in England before the nineteenth century were topographic points of impermanent detention. where inmates irrespective of age. gender or offense were locked together in a method known as congregate parturiency. Such parturiencies were overcrowded and had hapless airing. lighting and sanitation. Among the inmates. there were sick people. rummies and madmans. Due to miss of public support. prisons were besides ailing staffed and inmates’ public assistance was normally neglected. Official statistics show that offense rates rose in the first half of the nineteenth century. before finally falling in the 2nd. The rise coincided with the rapid urban growing in the early old ages. which led to a demand for more prisons to be built. particularly in the metropoliss. In fact. 90 prisons were built or added to between 1842 and 1877. Noteworthy prisons during that clip include Millbank. Newgate and Pentonville. The design of these three prisons were affected by ongoing societal alterations and prison reform motions.
The nineteenth century besides saw major reforms to the prison system in England. viz. the mass edifice of big prisons and alterations to the intervention of captives. due to a displacement in social positions. First. terrible penalty. frequently through public executing. became less favoured compared to graduate punishment proportional to the offense. Second. minds like Foucault saw prison as a tool for training the wrongdoer. for rectification and reform. Social reformists like John Howard lobbied for captives to be separated harmonizing to their gender. offense and wellness. by lone parturiency and infliction of silence to promote contemplation and repentance among the captives. Another societal reformist. Jeremy Bentham. conceptualised the Panopticon” strategy for a theoretical account prison. which consisted of captives busying cells in the perimeter of a round edifice. leting fewer guards to study them from a cardinal observation point.
While the design was ne’er implemented in its whole. the cardinal thought of surveillance did take clasp in certain prisons. Millbank prison incorporated this thought by constructing little floor surveillance towers for its staff from which they could have and give information. To discourage possible wrongdoers. the architecture manner of prisons was adapted to guarantee maximal secretiveness and pass on the badness of offense. For illustration. in Pentonville. the baronial Gothic manner was used to great consequence. with a portcullis entryway and castellation around the walls. which featured in subsequent prison edifice. Such barriers kept the populace fenced out and sent an inexplicit message about what went on interior. Another illustration would be the felons’ door in Newgate which was besides baleful and predicting with overpoweringly inexorable character” . Such designs gave prisons their ain curious visual aspect. which finally became recognized by the populace.
Prison designers besides sought to implement the separation/confinement school of idea in their design of internal agreements. Large suites for congregated parturiency were replaced with smaller single lone parturiency cells. Partitions were erected in infinites whereby captives were gathered. such as chapels and workshops ( fig. Ten ) . These designs were imposed to forestall interaction among captives and to underscore repentance. At Newgate. the chapel was designed such that male criminals. debitors and adult females would come in it through isolated corridors. The chapel characteristic was fresh for its clip. adhering to reformers’ belief that moral repentance could rehabilitate wrongdoers. In Millbank. captives were separated in soundless cells and could merely graduate to work together in groups through good behavior.
Decision
The nineteenth century is widely seen as the epoch in which England developed into a modern province. owing to the Industrial Revolution which saw the origin of of import innovations such as the steam engine and the development of the railway and Fe industries. Such technological alterations besides gave rise to socioeconomic alterations in England. which affected the manner. construction and stuffs of edifices. Railway Stationss had to be designed to get by with population growing in urban countries driven by economic development. but besides be aesthetically delighting – some became iconic landmarks embedded in the public consciousness. The usage of stuffs besides had to take into history the practicalities of rail operations.
On the other manus. prisons were more affected by societal alterations and penal reforms originating from public argument over offense and penalty. Prisons were expected to integrate elements of rehabilitation in add-on to penalty. Human-centered reformists like Bentham and Howard besides lobbied for the separation of captives instead than fold parturiency. These motions changed the manner prisons were designed and built in the nineteenth century. Both edifice types changed and evolved greatly in the nineteenth century non simply because of technological discoveries. but due to altering beliefs. values and attitudes in English society. which was traveling through an epoch of Enlightenment. Give the far range of the British Empire so. these alterations non merely wedged England at that clip but besides its settlements throughout the universe and remain seeable today.
——————————————–[ 1 ] . Eric Evans. 2001. The Forging of the Modern State: Early Industrial Britain. 1783-1870 by ( 3rd edition ) London: Longman Pearson [ 2 ] . DodgsonL. V. Meeks. 1956. The Railway Station An Architectural History. Yale University Press. USA. Pp. 27 [ 3 ] . Christian Barman. 1950. An Introduction to Railway Architecture. Art and Technics. London. Pp. 16 [ 4 ] . * Carroll L. V. Meeks. 1956. The Railway Station An Architectural History. Yale University Press. USA. Pp. 39 [ 5 ] . The Origin of the English Railway Station
[ 6 ] . Jack Simmons. 2003. The Impact of the Railway on Society in Britain. Ashgate Publishing. Ltd. Pp. 122 [ 7 ] . E2BN. 2006. Victorian Crime and Punishment from E2BN” . East of England Broadband Network. Web. 5 Oct 2012 [ 8 ] . Robin Evans. 1982. The Fabrication of Virtue: English Prison Architecture. 1750-1840. Cambridge University Press. pp 247 [ 9 ] . John Pratt. 1993. ‘This Is Not a Prison’ : Foucault. the Panopticon and Pentonville. Social & A ; Legal Studies December 1993. pp 373-395 [ 10 ] . Harold D. Kalman. 1969. Newgate Prison. Architectural History. Vol 12 1969. pp. 7 [ 11 ] . Harold D. Kalman. 1969. Newgate Prison. Architectural History. Vol 12 1969. pp. 5 [ 12 ] . David Wilson. 2002. Millbank. Panopticon and their Victorian Audiences. The Howard Journal. Vol 41 No. 4 September 2002. Pp 369

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