A Historical Overview of the September 11 Attacks

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IntroductionBackgroundWHAT HAPPENED DURING 11 SEPTEMBER?
The events that happened on 11 September 2001 which besides known as ‘9/11’ sent a really immense shockwaves around the universe as the World Trade Centre which situated in New York City, United States has been crashed by hijacked aircrafts.
The terroristshijackedfour aeroplanes that were winging above the US. The terrorists flew two of the planes ( American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 ) into the duplicate towers of the World Trade Center in New York. The onslaught brings the landmark edifices down within two hours. Another plane ( American Airlines Flight 77 ) crashed portion of the Pentagon ( the U.S. military central office ) . The 4th plane ( United Airlines Flight 93 ) crashed into a field, 80 stat mis from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Actually that plane was targeted at Washington DC to destruct either the White House or the U.S. Capitol. However that effort failed after riders on the plane fought the terrorists and tried to get the better of the highjackers from making their end.
TIMELINE 8.38am US clip
US air traffic accountants confirmed a rider plane, American Airlines Flight 11, had been hijacked.
8.45am US clip
Flight 11 crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York.
9.03am US clip
A 2nd hijacked rider plane, United Airlines Flight 175, crashed into the south tower of the World Trade Center.
9.30am US clip
US President George Bush made a Television statement to people in the US, stating: We have had a national calamity. Two airplanes have crashed into the World Trade Center in an evident terrorist onslaught on our state. ”
9.37am US clip
A 3rd hijacked plane, American Airlines Flight 77, crashed into the US military central office in Washington DC.
9.59am US clip
The south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed to the land in New York. Many people were killed, including exigency workers and firemans who went into the edifice to assist people.
10.03am US clip
A 4th hijacked plane, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed into a field.
10.28am US clip
The north tower of the World Trade Center collapsed to the land every bit good. Many more people lost their lives
Theimpactcausedthebuildingstocatchfireand prostration. In all, 2,996 people died in the assaults, this includes the 19 highjackers and 227 civilians on the planes. It besides was the most ambitious incident for firemans and for jurisprudence hatchet mans the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed severally. The onslaughts brought a shocking wakeup call to the universe.
Parties INVOLVED
AL-QAEDAThe onslaughts of September 11, 2001 in the nor’-east United States were an organized terrorist act. Atotalof19terroristshijackedthefourplaneson9/11, and organized by legion members of aterroristgroupcalled al-Qa’ida. The group has been founded by Osama bin Laden between August 1988 and late 1989.
This group implements and patterns an utmost version of their faith, Islam.Furthermore, Al-Qaeda has been regarded as a terrorist organisation by the United States, Russia, United Nations Security Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) , the European Union, and many other states
Since its creative activity, al-Qa’ida has carried out many onslaughts on marks it considers against their involvement particularly sing Islam. Al-Qaeda has attacked civilian and military marks in assorted states, including the 1998 US embassy bombardments, the 2002 Bali bombardments and the September 11 onslaughts.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
As the place of the World Trade centre, the United States is involved in the scene as World Trade Center collapsed in a monolithic cloud of dust and fume.At 7 p.m. , President George W. Bush, returned to the White House after being moved around the state as a safety step. From the Oval Office he delivered a message, stating, Their ( terrorist ) onslaughts can agitate the basicss of our major edifices, but they can non touch the footing of America. These actions destroy steel, but they can non excavate the steel of American resolution.” In a place to the concluding U.S. military determination he said, America will do no division between the terrorists who committed these Acts of the Apostless and those who harbor them.”
On14 September,2001, theCongressauthorizes ( within the significance of subdivision 5 ( B ) of the War PowersResolutionof1973. ) PresidentGeorgeW.Bushtouse ” allnecessaryandappropriate forceagainstthosestates, groups, orpersonshedeterminesintended, approved, dedicatedoraided theterroristattacksthatoccurredon11September2001, orprotectedsuchstates, groupsorpersons, inordertopreventanyfutureactsofinternationalterrorismagainstthe UnitedStatesbysuchstates, groupsorpersons” . TheSeptember11attackschangedthefirsttermofPresidentGeorgeW.Bushandheadedto whathehasnamedtheGlobalWaronTerrorism.
HowdidAmericarespondto9/11?
Basically, the War on Terror ( WOT ) , besides known as the Global War on Terrorism ( GWOT ) , is a term applied to the international military run that started after the 11 September 2001 terrorist onslaughts on the United States. The operation led to an international run to extinguish al-Qaeda and other aggressive organisations.
It was originally used with a peculiar focal point on Muslim states associated with Islamic terrorist act organisations including al-Qaeda and like-minded groups. The Mandate for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists or AUMF ” was made jurisprudence on 14 September, 2001, to authorise the usage of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the onslaughts on 11 September 2001.
InOctober2001, theU.S.anditsalliesoccupiedAfghanistan, whereAlQaedawasgrounded. TheextremeIslamicgroupthatranAfghanistan’sregime, knownastheTaliban, wasdefendingBinLadenandtoleratingAlQaedatoruntrainingcampsinthecountry.U.S.ranarmed forcessoontodefeattheTaliban.Theyarestillworkingtohelpreconstructand stabilizethenation.ManyAlQaedamembershavebeencapturedorkilledsince2001. Operation Digesting Freedom, the American-led international attempt to throw out the Taliban government in Afghanistan and destruct Osama bin Laden’s terrorist nexus centered at that place, started on October 7. In two months, U.S. armed forces had successfully detached the Taliban from operative authorization, but the war sustained, as U.S. and confederation forces tried to get the better of a Taliban rebellion run based in neighbouring Pakistan.
Osama bin Laden, the originator behind the onslaughts, continued at big until 2 May 2011, when he was eventually tracked down and executed by U.S. forces at a hideaway in Pakistan.
Relation BETWEEN AL-QAEDA AND IRAQ
TheU.S.invadedIraqin2003becausePresidentGeorgeW.Bushandhisinferiorthoughtthat thecountry’sruler, SaddamHussein, washidingabysmalweaponsthatcouldbegivento terrorists.Iraq had been listed as a State patron of terrorist act by the US since 1990, when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. The Bush disposal besides stated the Iraq war was portion of the War on Terror, something subsequently quizzed or argued since there is no equal grounds to associate those parties.
Inbasicterms, theofficialUSgovernmentjustificationfortheIraqWarareSaddamHusseinwasamaterialsupporterofterroristgroupslikealA­QaedaparticularlytheIslamicmilitantAbu MusabZarqawiofferingsafeharborand/ortrainingfacilitiesfortheminIraq.Ontopofthisis therelatedclaimthatHusseinwasactivelypursuing ” weaponsofmassdestruction, ” utilizing ” mobilebioA­weaponslabs, ” aswellas ” aluminumtubes ” forcentrifugesinareconstitutednuclear arms plan.
Regardless, the Commission clearly did happen that there was a relationship.Thomas Kean, co-chairman of the 9/11 Commission said about the affair: There was no inquiry in our heads that there was a relationship between Al Qaeda Iraq. ” The Commissioners are watchful that there has been extra grounds of a relationship uncovered since their concluding study was published. Here is what Bob Kerrey, another 9/11 Commissioner, said when he was shown an Iraqi intelligence papers, which has been authenticated by the U.S. intelligence community and which discussed the relationship between the two sides in the mid-1990s.
This is a really important set of facts. I personally and strongly believe you do n’t hold to turn out that Iraq was collaborating against Osama bin Laden on the September 11 onslaughts to turn out he was an enemy and that he would join forces with people who would endanger our state. This facts should non be applied to bind Saddam to assail on September 11. It does associate him into a group that meant to harm the United States.”
The Iraq War began in March 2003 with an air operation, which was straight followed by a U.S.-led land conquering. The Bush authorities stated the invasion was the serious effects ” spoken of in the UNSC Resolution 1441, slightly on the foundation of Iraq having arms of mass devastation.
MotivationReportedly financed by Saudi fleeting Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda terrorist organisation, they were allegedly moving in revenge for America’s support of Israel, its engagement in the Iranian Gulf War and its continued military presence in the Middle East. Some of the terrorists had lived in the United States for more than a twelvemonth and had taken winging lessons at American commercial flight schools. Others had slipped into the state in the months before September 11 and acted as the muscle” in the operation.
In 1998 Osama bin Laden said Your place against Muslims in Palestine is ugly and disgraceful.America has no shame.We believe that the worst stealers in the universe today and the worst terrorists are the Americans. Nothing could halt you except possibly revenge in sort. We do non hold to distinguish between military or civilian. Equally far as we are concerned, they are all marks, and this is what the fatwah says. The fatwah is general ( comprehensive ) and it includes all those who participate in, or assist the Judaic residents in killing Muslims. In Bin Laden ‘s November 2002 Letter to America ” , he explicitly stated that al-Qa’ida ‘s motivations for their onslaughts include: Western support for assailing Muslims in Somalia, back uping Russian atrociousnesss against Muslims in Chechnya, back uping the Indian subjugation against Muslims in Kashmir, the Judaic aggression against Muslims in Lebanon, the presence of U.S. military personnels in Saudi Arabia, U.S. support of Israel, and countenances against Iraq.

Effects ON PARTIES INVOLVED
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
EconomyThe economic effects originating from the September 11 onslaughts were initial daze doing planetary stock markets to drop sharply.The September 11 onslaughts themselves resulted in about $ 40 billion in insurance losingss, doing it one of the largest insured events of all time. The gap of the New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE ) was delayed after the first plane crashed into the World Trade Center ‘s North Tower, and trading for the twenty-four hours was canceled after the 2nd plane crashed into the South Tower. NASDAQ besides canceled trading. The New York Stock Exchange was so evacuated every bit good as about all Bankss and fiscal establishments on Wall Street and in many metropoliss across the state. The London Stock Exchange and other stock exchanges around the universe were besides closed down and evacuated in fright of follow-up terrorist onslaughts.
Airlines and air power
Flights were grounded in assorted topographic points across the United States and Canada that did non needfully hold the operational support in topographic point, such as dedicated land crews. A big figure of transatlantic flights landed in Gander in Newfoundland and in Halifax, Nova Scotia, with the logistics handled by Transport Canada in Operation Yellow Ribbon. To assist with immediate demands for victims ‘ households, United Airlines and American Airlines both provided initial payments of $ 25,000.The air hoses were besides required to return ticket purchases for anyone unable to wing.
The 9/11 onslaughts compounded fiscal problems that the air hose industry already was sing before the onslaughts. Share monetary values of air hoses and aeroplane makers plummeted after the onslaughts. Midway Airlines, already on the threshold of bankruptcy, shut down operations about instantly afterwards.
Other air hoses were threatened with bankruptcy, and 10s of 1000s of layoffs were announced in the hebdomad following the onslaughts. To assist the industry, the federal authorities provided an assistance bundle to the industry, including $ 10 billion in loan warrants, along with $ 5 billion for short-run aid.
Tourism
Tourism in New York City plummeted, doing monolithic losingss in a sector which employed 280,000 people and generated $ 25 billion per twelvemonth. In the hebdomad following the onslaught, hotel tenancy fell below 40 % , and 3,000 employees were laid away. Tourism, hotel tenancy and air travel besides fell drastically across the state.
The reluctance to wing may hold been due to increased fright of a repetition onslaught. Suzanne Thompson, Professor of Psychology at Pomona College, California conducted interviews of 501 people who were non direct victims of 9/11. From this, she concluded that Most participants felt more hurt ( 65 per centum ) and a stronger fright of winging ( 55 per centum ) instantly after the event than they did before the onslaughts. ”
Security
Since the 9/11 onslaughts, significant resources have been put towards bettering security, in the countries of fatherland security, national defence, and in the private sector
Sociacubic decimeter The organic structure count sum of the 9/11 calamity was good over 3,000 people. Some kids were left without their parents, and had cipher to take attention of them. Many parents lost their spouse and had to raise their childs on their ain. The onslaughts heightened consciousness of planetary events for a coevals of childs, shattered their semblances of a peaceable universe, and changed perceptual experiences they had their state as Godhead and invulnerable.
This event besides had addition of nationalism, since many joined military.Furthermore, the addition of hate offense is besides blooming.This happened as many people started being biass against Muslims. The term Islamophobia which famous in 1991 started being used once more to depict baseless ill will towards Muslims, and hence fright or disfavor of all or most Muslims. Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a planetary racial construction through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.
IraqThe 2003 invasion of Iraq lasted from 19 March to 1 May 2003 ( the last U.S. military personnels left Iraq was on 18 December 2011 ) and signaled the start of the struggle that subsequently came to be known as the Iraq War, which was dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States.This operation left a immense impacts on Iraq exhaustively.
Human-centered Crisis
Iraq ‘s decease rate has risen aggressively. With stepped up Coalition bombardment and land onslaughts every bit good as rise in sectarian force, a turning figure of Iraqis are being forced to go forth their places and minority groups are now earnestly at hazard. Harmonizing to UNHCR, there are 1.9 million internally displaced people in the state and 2 million refugees escaped to neighbouring states, particularly Syria and Jordan. Unemployment and poorness rose aggressively, excessively. Harmonizing to the United Nations Development Programme, tierce of the population now lives in poorness. Education has broken down. Further, Iraqis basic demands in imbibing H2O, nutrient, sanitation and electricity are non met. Hospitals lack basic medical supplies and are short-handed.Economic Consequences
Iraq experienced old ages of convulsion under Saddam Hussein ensuing in economic misdirection, a war with Iran and UN-imposed countenances. After four old ages of US business, Iraq suffers from utmost unemployment and poorness, with over 4 million internally and externally displaced refugees. The state ‘s substructure is in ruins and US Reconstruction programs have been mired in fraud, misdirection and incompetency.
Destruction of Cultural Heritage
The United States and its Alliess ignored the warnings of organisations and bookmans refering the protection of Iraq ‘s cultural heritage, including museums, libraries, archeological sites and other cherished depositories. Arsonists severely burned the National Library and plunderers pillaged the National Museum. Looters besides damaged or destroyed many historic edifices and artefacts. The US constructed a military base on the site of ancient Babylon. Alliance forces destroyed or severely damaged many historic urban countries and edifices, while stealers have ruined 1000s of uncomparable, unprotected archaeological sites.
DecisionThe Bush administration’s primary justification for establishing the Iraq War is fundamentally because of an alleged WMD ( arm of mass devastation ) plan that ne’er exist. However, the important parts of Americans still believe that Saddam and al-Qa’idas were in cahoots and collaborated in the 9/11 onslaughts. The motive is simple, the authorities told them. We can get down to derive some position on the impact of that twenty-four hours ‘s terrorist onslaughts on U.S. foreign policy. There remains a normal inclination to state that the onslaughts changed everything. In my sentiment as an international dealingss pupil, I believe that the invasion of the United States towards Iraq was done hurriedly. The US authorities did non happen any strong grounds to claim that Iraq has WMD. This is because no reserves of arms of mass devastation were found, although approximately 500 abandoned chemical weaponries, largely degraded, staying from Iraq ‘s Iran-Iraq war, were collected from around the country.The devastation caused after the World Trade Center onslaught is worst compared to the 9/11 onslaught.
I see this act as a misdemeanor of international jurisprudence as they are interrupting the UN Charter particularly since the U.S. failed to procure U.N. support for an invasion of Iraq. In 41 states the bulk of the public did non back up an invasion of Iraq without U.N. countenance and half said an invasion should non happen under any circumstances.This is clear to reason that there is unfairness in the invasion and this shall non go on once more to procure the universe as a safe topographic point to populate.





Mentions
Latimer, C.P. ( 2011 ) . Chapter 5. twenty-first Century Enactments Concerning War On Terror. InCivil autonomies and the province: A docudrama and mention usher( p.257 ) . Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.




Manuel Jimenez, Mobilizations against the Iraq War in Spain: Background, Participants and Electoral Implications, ”South European Society and Politicss, Vol. 12, No 3 ( September 2007 ) Evan Thomas and Mark Hosenball, Bush: ‘We’re at War, ” Newsweek, September 24, 2001 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newsweek.com/id/76065 ) . David Ray Griffin, Christian Faith and the Truth behind 9/11 ( Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2006 ) , Chap. 1, 9/11 and Prior False Flag Operations.”
Revisited – The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War in Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth, by William Clark, updated: Jan 2004. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/RRiraqWar.html

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