ELEMENTARY TEACHERS LEARNING THROUGH THE REFLECTIVE PRACTICES

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Teachers ‘ drama a important function in determining the quality and effectivity of the instruction and acquisition patterns. Research on effectual instruction has shown that effectual pattern is linked to inquiry, contemplation, and uninterrupted professional growing ( Harris, 1998 ) . The professional development of instructors takes many signifiers runing from activities set by school disposal to personal brooding patterns about schoolroom experiences. Schon ( 1996 ) defined brooding pattern as thoughtfully sing one ‘s ain experiences in using cognition to pattern while being coached by professionals in the subject. For learning, brooding pattern refers to the procedure of the instructor analyzing his or her ain instruction methods and finding what works best for the pupils. Therefore, instructors ‘ brooding patterns are necessary to learn ‘effectively ‘ and they address an of import issue in supplying meaningful lessons to pupils. Elementary instructors every bit good as the instructors of other classs can be supported to be involved in brooding patterns on their ain experiences.
1.1 Rationale
The schoolroom realisation of course of study reform comes about through the actions of single instructors ( Christou et wholly, 2004 ) . Teachers ‘ beliefs, patterns, and working environment form and direct their execution. Teachers should be able to understand and appreciate the alterations that the course of study is trying to implement and non otherwise. ( Zanzali, 2003 )
There is a literature which presents the procedures and barriers involved in the execution of curricular alteration ( e.g. Fullan, 1991 ; Macnab, 2003 ) . Romberg ( 1997 ) showed that the usage of a new course of study in the schoolroom could make disjunctures between the instructor ‘s former cognition and pattern, which require declaration. The development and execution of any course of study will impact instructors in important ways and if instructors are non helped in get bying with demands brought approximately by alterations in the content, pedagogical and psychological considerations, the execution procedure will non be effectual.
Experience around the universe in developing, industrialized, and information-based states has shown that professional development is the cardinal finding factor for improved schoolroom public presentation. Effective professional development experiences are designed to assist instructors construct new apprehension of instruction and acquisition ( Hea-Jin Lee, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Baird and Rowsy ( 1989 ) , high quality in-service plan should be designed if instructors were to profit from it.
Regardless of peculiar fortunes, an effectual course of study development procedure normally entails a structured professional development plan in order to steer the course of study development procedure. The purpose of this survey is to look into simple instructors ‘ brooding patterns on their mathematics learning as they are involved in a go oning mathematics learning professional development plan as a effect of a two mathematics education plan integrating procedure at a private simple school in Ankara.
In this survey, two simple instructors will take part in the survey and they will be interviewed in order to acquire information about their brooding patterns on their instruction. In add-on to this, those instructors ‘ lessons will be observed in their categories through the professional development plan in order to see their execution. The participants will besides maintain brooding diary on their mathematics learning patterns. The findings will lend to the future in-service preparation plans in Turkey.
1.2 My motive for the survey
As a mathematics teacher learning classs from 6 to 8, I realized that pupils have some jobs related to mathematics larning and some of these jobs are related to their old acquisition experiences in early classs. These jobs are brought to the upper classs if they were non solved in the earlier classs. It can be said that, pupils do non larn good and as we desire and I believe that some of these jobs are related to the instruction, in other words, it is straight related to the manner we teach the mathematics subjects.
In our state, simple school instructors are responsible for learning mathematics every bit good as learning other topics. Equally far as I am concerned, learning mathematics particularly to 4th and 5th classs is hard for many simple school instructors. In this regard, instructors, who are learning in these degrees should be supported by agencies of uninterrupted plan that involves several different constituents such as seminars, lesson observations, interviews, and brooding patterns.
By seeing the possible beginnings of the job and holding some solution thoughts, as a mathematics teacher I can supply support for simple school instructors in my school. That ‘s why, from my point of position, this survey will function a valuable information in order to understand simple school instructors ‘ manner of thought in learning mathematics by agencies of their brooding patterns.
1.3 Research Question
The research inquiry related to this survey is as follows:
What are the simple instructors ‘ brooding patterns on their mathematics learning as they are involved in a go oning mathematics learning professional development plan which is developed as a effect of a two mathematics education plan integrating procedure at a private school in Ankara?
LITERATURU 19 MAYIS HAFTASINDA DUZENLEMEYA° DUAzUNUYORUM, YAPINCA SA°ZE BA°LDA°RECEAzA°M HENUZ YENA° BA°RAzEY EKLEMEDA°M i?S
Chapter II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The end of this survey is to look into simple instructors ‘ brooding patterns on their mathematics learning as they are involved in a go oning mathematics learning professional development plan as a effect of a two mathematics education plan integrating procedure. This chapter is devoted to the reappraisal of literature related to this survey. The issues that will be covered in this chapter are the term contemplation, brooding patterns, and surveies on contemplation and brooding pattern.
What you need is a theory which underlines the contemplation. Not for this assignment, but for your TIK and thesis.
2.1 The term contemplation:
Although the term contemplation became popular after the surveies of Schon, the roots of the term extend to John Dewey. Dewey ( 1933 ) claimed the importance of active and calculated battle with debatable state of affairss in supplying development. He defined contemplation as an Active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed signifier of cognition in the visible radiation of the evidences that support it and the farther decisions to which it tends constitutes rei¬‚ective idea ” ( p. 9 ) . Harmonizing to Dewey ( 1933 ) , rei¬‚ection does non dwell of a series of stairss or processs to be used by instructors. Rather, it is a holistic manner of meeting and reacting to jobs, a manner of being as a instructor. As he stated, rei¬‚ection involves intuition, emotion, and passion and is non something that can be neatly packaged as a set of techniques for instructors to utilize ( p.9 you give the page figure what where is the quotation mark? ) . Dewey ( 1933 ) believed that an person should to hold three profiles in order to reflect ; being open-minded, responsible and whole-hearted. These imply openness to new thoughts and ideas, being cognizant of the significance and effects of one ‘s actions and the capacity to to the full prosecute with new thoughts and actively seek them out severally. He farther stated the four-part experiential-reflective rhythm demoing the relationship between experience, description, reading, and action. Rodgers ( 2002, p. 845 as cited in Lee, 2005 ) characterized Dewey ‘s four standards for rei¬‚ection as follows: Did you take this straight from your 2nd mention? Or did you rephrase them?
1. Is a meaning-making procedure that moves a scholar from one experience into the following with deeper apprehension of its relationships with and connexions to other experiences and thoughts.
2. Is a systematic, strict, disciplined manner of thought, with its roots in scientific enquiry.
3. Needs to go on in community, in interaction with others.
4. Requires attitudes that value the personal and rational growing of oneself and of others.
Dewey ‘s thoughts and the thought of professional contemplation were developed in the eightiess with the Schon ‘s ( 1983 ) new constructs of ‘reflection-in-action ‘ and contemplation on action. Schon stressed the relationship between rei¬‚ection and experience and distinguished between `reflection-on- action ‘ and `reflection-in-action ‘ . While contemplation in action can be described as the contemplation done during the action, contemplation on action is done after the action. Griffiths ( 2000 ) stated that, contemplation both in and after action is of import in order to measure and chair intuitive pattern.
Another differentiation about the types of contemplation is done by Van Manen ( 1995 ) . He stated that the simplest signifiers of contemplation that regularly occur in teacher instruction take topographic point before, during, and after learning, and Van Manen defines them as anticipatory, contemporary, and retrospective types of contemplation.
2.2 Brooding Practice
Jaworski ( 1998 ) defined rei¬‚ective pattern as a instead thoughtful manner of instruction, measuring what occurs and feeding into future be aftering without a demand for open, critical, knowing action ” ( p.7 ) . Similarly, Schon ( 1983 ) defined brooding pattern as thoughtfully sing one ‘s ain experiences in using cognition to pattern while being coached by professionals in the subject. Harmonizing to Pollard ( 2005 ) , brooding instruction implies an active concern with purposes and effects every bit good as agencies and proficient competency ” ( p15 ) . He stated the seven chief features of brooding patterns as follows: I think alternatively of naming them in this manner, you should unite these in a paragraph. You may utilize most of your looks below, but put them through a flow in the paragraph.
1. Brooding instruction implies an active concern with purposes and effects, every bit good as agencies and proficient efficiency.
2. Brooding instruction is applied in a cyclical or gyrating procedure, in which instructors monitor, evaluate and revise their ain pattern continuously.
3. Brooding instruction requires competency in methods of evidence-based schoolroom question, to back up the progressive development of higher criterions of instruction.
4. Brooding instruction requires attitudes of open-mindedness, duty and heartiness.
5. Brooding instruction is based on instructor judgement, informed by evidence- based question and penetrations from other research.
6. Brooding instruction, professional acquisition and personal fulfilment are enhanced by duologue with co-workers.
7. Brooding instruction enables instructors to creatively intercede externally developed models for learning and acquisition.
McKenna ( 1999 as cited in Jay and Johnson, 2002 ) listed the features of practician who is ‘rei¬‚ective ‘ by stating he ;
1. focal points on some dimension of their teaching method ;
2. sees that dimension from a assortment of positions utilizing techniques of reframing and rei¬‚ective hearing ; and
3. engages in duologue with their equals in order to light the boundaries and frames of idea which limited their current position, with the end being to take action based on a thorough and rei¬‚ective apprehension of events, options, and moralss ( p. 13 ) . Again, you have page figure but where the quotation mark begins and ends ( citation Markss ) is losing. Alternatively, you should compose these in your ain words in a paragraph.
2.3 Surveies on contemplation and brooding pattern
Try to avoid speaking about the article. Alternatively, talk about the survey or the thoughts presented. Zerrin bu bolumu ve genel olarak literature mumkun oldugu kadar bir karA±AYA±m AYeklinde sunman gerek. Falanca bunu yapmA±AY , filanca sunu yapmis degil de, oncelikle bu calismalarin ve bulabilirsen baAYka calA±AYmalarA±n ortak olarak ortaya koyduAYu onemli noktalari ver. Daha sonra senin calismana yardimci olacak, senin calismanin onemini ortaya cikaracak, onu destekleyecek, ayni zamanda alandaki eksikligi gosterecek bir kac calismayi ayrintili ver. Bunu hem proposal hem de tez icin bu sekilde dusun olur mu? Sonucta literature kismini bu ders kapsaminda degerlendirmiyorum, ama ben onume bu tip bir sey gelince o rain tree onu okuyup ona bir feedback vermek isterim. Sen literature kisminda ilerleme gosterdikce bana Haber ver, O bill of exchange Te literature de bakayim. Yoksa dosya bu sekilde aramizda gidip gelebilir, ben ders kapsamindaki bolumlerle ilgilenirim daha cok. One survey that deals with the definition of the term contemplation and its relevancy to teacher instruction is done by Griffiths. Griffiths ( 2000 ) , discussed the term contemplation as it relates to instructors and teacher instruction. She drew peculiarly on Schon ‘s ( Year ) definitions of two types of contemplation, which are reflection-in-action and refection-on-action. In the article, differing definitions of contemplation and their inter-relationship are explored, and how these relate to classs of initial instructor instruction in a assortment of states and cultural contexts is discussed. In add-on to this, inquiries about the value and intent of contemplation were besides raised, particularly in the context of its practical relevancy to teacher instruction.
Another survey is done by Jay and Johnson ( 2002 ) who explored the aspects of contemplation. They provided a typology designed to steer instructor pedagogues in learning rei¬‚ection to pre-service instructors. After a short reappraisal on contemplation, they defined the term contemplation, contemplation procedure and its content, and the typology of contemplation is presented. The proi¬?le of typology consisted of three dimensions of rei¬‚ective idea which are descriptive, comparative, and critical.
In her article Frid ( 2000 ) discussed that although it has framed many mathematics teacher instruction patterns in the last decennary, it has finally non had significant impact on schoolroom patterns yet. Therefore she examined some grounds for this deficiency of impact. In the article, the phases and focal point of instructor development are underlined from the phase of get downing pupil instructor to an independent instructor. In this paper the importance of widening and encompassing constructivist teaching method more to the full were mentioned in order to supply ways for the development of pupil instructors as professionals who have proficient cognition and accomplishments every bit good as capacities for life long learning, flexibleness and liberty.
Jaworski ( 2006 ) defined learning as acquisition pattern and she addressed the challenge of developing theory in relation to the patterns of mathematics learning and its development. She specially dealt with enquiry in mathematics larning, mathematics instruction and the development of patterns of learning in communities affecting instructors and pedagogues. Jaworski handle the enquiry as a tool which can take to developing enquiry as a manner of being when practiced as portion of a community, in which members collaborate, as scholars to develop their pattern. The paper offered some ways for mathematics learning development.
In his authorship, Farell ( 2008 ) described the foundations and constituents of brooding pattern to ease the usage of this attack among pedagogues who work with big English linguistic communication scholars. He foremost defined the brooding pattern by giving briefly the related research and so he mentioned about pattern, by discoursing some techniques and tools such as action research, learning diaries, learning development groups. He farther discussed the continuum of contemplation and how can teachers prosecute in the brooding patterns in order to do uninterrupted development in their calling.
As Frid ( 2000 ) and Jaworski ( 2006 ) mentioned, it is easy to put relationship between constructivism, enquiry method and brooding patterns. The importance of brooding instruction is a cardinal constituent for planing instruction and acquisition experiences for instructors. ( Lowery, 2003, p.23 ) . Harmonizing to Van Manen ( 1995 ) in mundane life, the pattern of teaching method can merely be brooding in a qualified and limited sense ” ( p.35 ) . Brooding pattern occurs when instructors consciously take on the function of brooding practician, capable their ain beliefs about instruction and larning to critical analysis, take full duty for their actions in the schoolroom, and go on to better their instruction pattern ( Farrell, 2008 ; Jay & A ; Johnson, 2002 ) . Teachers can prosecute in these brooding patterns in a constructivist mode in any clip they need to develop themselves.
2.4. Developing a brooding practice-empirical research surveies
It is apparent that there is an accent on the literature that contemplation is strongly related with experience, in other words pattern. Van Manen ( 1995 ) raised some inquiries about the significance and topographic point of practical contemplation in instruction and about the relation between cognition and action in instruction. He underlined the importance of reflective thought which has a complex array of cognitively and philosophically distinguishable methods and attitudes. He defined different contemplation profiles viz. retrospective contemplation on ( past ) experiences, prevenient contemplation on ( hereafter ) experiences, and contemporary contemplation. He raised the inquiries sing different instances, such as for novitiate instructors, experienced instructors, and explains the different findings in different occasions.
In her article Lowery ( 2003 ) mentioned the importance of brooding instruction in supplying development in instructor cognition and research consequences that defines the brooding thought as separating scheme between experienced and novice instructors. She discussed the importance of teacher contemplation ; she describes the three-level program to advance brooding instruction, which are understanding the importance of brooding thought, implementing brooding schemes – the brooding rhythm and developing a brooding locale.
Another survey was performed by Loughran. Loughran ( 2002 ) examined the nature of contemplation and to propose how it might go effectual brooding pattern that can be developed and enhanced through teacher readying plans, He underlined the inefficiency of experience entirely is mentioned and importance of contemplation for larning. The chief message he gave in the article that, if acquisition through pattern affairs, so contemplation on pattern is important, and teacher readying is the obvious topographic point for it to be initiated and nurtured ” ( p.42 ) .
2.4.1. Brooding Practice among Preservice Teachers
In their article, Harford and MacRuairc ( 2008 ) reported on the survey they performed among 20 preservice instructors with the purpose of analyzing the usage of peer-videoing in the schoolroom as a tool to advance rei¬‚ective pattern among pupil instructors. The pre-service instructors who were participated in the survey were from a assortment of capable subjects take parting in a Post-Graduate Diploma in Education plan in an Irish university. They defined the intent of this paper as to lend to the international argument over best pattern in back uping, promoting and scaffolding rei¬‚ective pattern ” . The findings of the survey indicated that the usage of equal videoing in the schoolroom has a powerful map as a accelerator for contemplation and critical duologue among instructors.
In another survey, Kullman ( 1998 ) focused on what transpired during a wise man preparation class in Hungary. This wise man developing class involved prospective wise mans and pupil English Language instructors. In the class, function dramas proved to be the stimulation for an geographic expedition of how far the theoretical account of mentoring normally promoted takes sufficient history of contextual factors. He discussed the wise man ‘s functions, the ways in assisting pupil instructors reflect on their schoolroom experience and how to advance contemplation in relation with the contextual factors.
The survey of Lee ( 2005 ) has the intent of look intoing how the procedure of rei¬‚ective thought develops in preservice instructors and reexamining the standard for measuring rei¬‚ective thought. Lee performed the survey with the participants who enrolled as juniors in a secondary mathematics plan in Korea. The informations were collected by interviews, observations and written paperss such as study questionnaires and journal entries. Rei¬‚ections of preservice instructors are assessed from two positions, one of them is content and the other one is deepness. In the survey, it is found that brooding believing depends on personal background, i¬?eld experience contexts, and the manner of communicating. The standard for deepness of contemplation are defined as callback, rationalisation and brooding degrees.
In her article McDuffie ( 2004 ) reported on the survey which has the purpose of look intoing the pre-service instructors ‘ believing with respect to rei¬‚ective procedures and how they use their pedagogical content cognition in their patterns. The instance survey was done with two simple preservice instructors during their pupil learning internship plan. She found that the pre-service instructors use their pedagogical content cognition in expecting debatable events and in rei¬‚ecting on debatable events in direction. She farther founded that the limited sum of pedagogical content cognition and deficiency of coni¬?dence had consequence on the pre-service instructors ‘ rei¬‚ection while in the act of learning ; therefore they were more likely to rei¬‚ect on their patterns outside of the act of instruction.
2.4.2. Brooding Practice among Novice Teachers
In the literature, the sum of surveies done with adept instructors and preservice instructors is greater than that of novitiate instructors. In one of these surveies Roehrig et. Al. ( 2008 ) conducted a grounded theory analysis in order to research the potency for mentoring to back up novice instructors ‘ usage of effectual instruction patterns. The survey was conducted with six get downing primary instructors in the US, and with their wise mans. The informations were collected by agencies of study, interview, and observation. The consequences of informations analysis revealed that some factors, other than type of mentoring plan were related to get downing instructors ‘ success in bettering schoolroom patterns. It was found that more effectual get downing instructors ‘ wise mans had more experience as wise mans and were more effectual instructors than other wise mans. In add-on to this, more effectual beginning instructors communicated more with wise mans, more accurately self-reported usage of effectual instruction patterns, and were more unfastened to mentoring.
Another survey with novice instructors was performed by Cavanagh and Prescott ( 2010 ) . They reported on their survey that was conducted with three get downing secondary mathematics instructors. The purpose of the survey was to construe how get downing instructors ‘ brooding patterns developed during a annual university instructor instruction plan and coincident professional fieldwork experience or practicum. The informations were collected through the interviews during the practicum and one time more in their first twelvemonth. A three-stage, hierarchal theoretical account of brooding pattern of Lee was used to construe the interview responses. Consequences of the survey revealed that the participants ‘ showed betterment in their ability to reflect on their instruction during the practicum.
2.4.3 Brooding Practice among Expert instructors
One of the surveies performed with adept instructors is done by Curtis and Szestay ( 2005 ) . They reported on the larning results of experient instructors who attended a plan designed to enable them to come together and prosecute in professional development through structured and systematic reflective pattern. They used both qualitative and quantitative informations aggregation and analysis methods. As a quantitative information aggregation method, they used questionnaire and as qualitative methods, they used one-to- one, face-to-face sound recorded interviews. They interviewed with seven past seminar participants, three primary school instructors, three high school instructors and one in-between school instructor. Six subjects emerged from the instructor responses. These are, renewed enthusiasm for instruction, looking at learning with fresh eyes ” , displacements in understanding instruction, going more brooding and cognizant as instructors, heightening the quality of pupil acquisition and edifice professional communities.
As another survey, Jaworski ( 1998 ) discussed the survey of instructor research workers set abouting research into their ain mathematics learning at the secondary degree. The survey used qualitative methods to research the procedures and patterns of Mathematics Teacher Enquiry ( MTE ) undertaking research. Two of import considerations were the particular nature of mathematics in this research, and the function of external research workers in the MTE undertaking. In this survey, the instructors were seen as rei¬‚ective practicians, who develop cognition and consciousness through enhanced metacognitive activity. Their research was characterized as evolutionary, in contrast with established forms of action research. This survey reveals the fact that, instructors ‘ researches have commonalties and some differences, and these consequences provide possible for the development of mathematics learning.
In her article, Walshaw ( 2010 ) dealt with the ways of understanding what structures a instructor ‘s narrative about his pattern. This survey was a portion of the larger undertaking that represented the New Zealand constituent of the international Learner ‘s Perspective Study ( LPS ) and on one instructor ‘s rei¬‚ections on a sequence of algebra lessons at the secondary school degree, in a larger undertaking. The informations were collected through schoolroom picture records, interviews with and classroom researcher observations. As a consequence of the undertaking, Walshaw pointed out that rei¬‚ections are more than instruments of alteration ; they are besides instruments of societal reproduction.
Zaslavsky and Leikin ( 2004 ) performed a survey with junior and senior high school mathematics instructors with the purpose of analysing the procedures encountered by the instructor pedagogues, as members of a community of pattern, which contributed to their growing as instructor pedagogues. In add-on to this, thy aimed at proving their theoretical three-layer theoretical account of growing through pattern in particular context, which is professional development of mathematics teacher pedagogues. The survey was conducted as grounded theory attack within in-service professional development plan.
In another survey, Farell ( 2001 ) reported on the survey that he performed with one non-native talker, a instructor of English as a foreign linguistic communication in Korea, during a 16-week period with the purpose of understanding what the instructor talked about in the three manners of contemplation: group meetings, single meetings and what she wrote approximately in her diary ; and what was the degree of her contemplation in each activity: descriptive or critical. The consequences of the survey revealed that the instructor shows a clear penchant for group treatments as her method of contemplation over the other two activities: diary authorship and schoolroom observations.
2.4.4 Summary of literature reappraisal on instructors ‘ contemplation and brooding pattern
Burasi duracak. Sonunda bu calismalarin benzer yonlerini, birbirlerinden ayrA±lan yonlerini, alanda daha cok calA±AYmanA±n yapA±ldA±AYA± durumlarA± , daha AZ calA±AYmanA±n yapA±ldA±AYA± durumlarA± yazacaksA±n.
From the literature reappraisal, we can sum up the undermentioned statements.
To get down with, the theory and pattern division is dominant in the literature related to the contemplation and brooding pattern. Second, it is learned from literature that, brooding pattern is a valuable and of import constituent in instructor development. It is promoted to be included in preservice instructors ‘ instruction plan every bit good as in-service instructor development plans. Third, when we look at the literature from the facets of tools and methods in order to advance brooding patterns, we see that brooding diary authorship, usage of pictures, observations, equal observations, brooding duologue are the most common preferable ways.
Another thing that attracts our attending in the literature reappraisal is that it relates constructivism and enquiry with brooding patterns of instructors. As a last statement, we can advert on the literature which emphasize on the societal facet of contemplations.
The literature reappraisal on brooding patterns of instructors revealed some farther research demands. First of all, surveies are needed sing how the incorporation of effectual ways in a uninterrupted development plan be achieved so that instructors benefits from these patterns. In add-on to this, some research would be good on collaborative brooding patterns of instructors on their teaching country every bit good as on instruction in general. Further, the function of scaffolding in developing instructors ‘ brooding patterns can besides be a survey country. Some research on measuring the effectivity of brooding patterns would be good. From the literature reappraisal it is seen that that contemplation is a trademark for development of instructors and for supplying quality in instruction ; it should be given importance to supply development of instructors both in undergraduate plans and uninterrupted instruction plans.
Chapter III
Methodology
3.1 The research site
The present research is a qualitative survey utilizing simple instructors ‘ brooding patterns. The survey will be conducted with two simple instructors in one private simple school in Ankara. Two mathematics plans, viz. Primary Old ages Math Program ( PYP-math ) and mathematics plan designed by Ministry of National Education ( MoNE ) have been integrated in this school in 2010.
There are about 100 staff including coordinator, rule and frailty principals, instructors, counsellors, plan development expert, and measuring and rating expert in this school. The school has about 700 pupils from kindergarten to 8th class. There are four subdivisions at each class degree. The school starts at 8.30 in the forenoon and coatings at 15.35 and instructors are to be at school during whole hebdomad between these hours except for one half twenty-four hours in a hebdomad. In add-on to these, for Tuesdays and Thursdays the working clip extends to 17.00 and all the meetings and workshops are planned in this period.
The school is implementing a new plan for two old ages for K5 classs. This plan is called Primary Old ages Program ( PYP ) , which is a portion of International Baccalaureate Program ( IB ) developed by International Baccalaureate Organization ( IBO ) . The International Baccalaureate Organization ( IBO ) was established in 1968 and is a non-profit, international educational foundation registered in Switzerland. The PYP is based on the enquiry and thematic in nature. Teachers learning the same class degree come together and develop six transdisciplinary thematic units to be covered during whole twelvemonth.
3.2 The Overall Research Design of the Study
The information will be collected by agencies of brooding diaries, in-depth interviews and lesson observations. When we look at the literature from the facets of methods in order to be used for informations aggregation for instructors ‘ brooding patterns, we see that observations and interviews are really normally preferred ( Cavanagh and Prescott, 2010 ; Curtis and Szestay, 2005 ; Lee, 2005, Roehrig et. al. , 2008 ) . In add-on to this, diary authorship is found a valuable tool in the literature to advance instructors ‘ brooding patterns. ( Farell, 2001, 2008 ; Lee, 2005 )
3.3 The Participants
Two simple instructors will take part in the survey. In the school, one group of simple instructors Teachs to the classs 1-3 and the other group Teachs to the classs 4 and 5. The participants of the survey will be selected from those who by and large teach to 4th and 5th classs since in these class degrees, mathematics content is more intensive when compared to take down class degrees. The participants will be selected harmonizing to figure of old ages in learning in school and learning experience overall. Teachers holding five to fifteen old ages of experience will be preferred as participants. ( BurayA± uygun literaturle biraz daha desteklemeyi duAYunuyorum, okulda yeni mezun sA±nA±f oAYretmeni yok, cok deneyimlilerle calA±AYmayA± duAYunmuyorum, ulaAYA±labilir deAYiller, bir de reflective diary yazmaya, goruAYme yapmaya vb. sA±cak bakmayabilirler )
Classroom instructors are all female in this school ; therefore the participants will be female.
3.4 Data Collection Procedure
The participants will be interviewed in the beginning of the procedure in order to garner general information approximately them as instructors. After that, their lessons will be observed within at least five whole observation rhythms, including five pre-interview Sessionss, five lesson observations and five post-interview Sessionss. The lessons will be video-taped and participants will be provided a transcript of each ascertained lesson picture in order to do contemplation on it before coming to the post-interview session. Each of the observation rhythms will be completed in two hebdomads, hence the observation rhythm procedure will last about 10 hebdomads. In add-on to this, the participants will maintain brooding diary during these 10 hebdomads and the diary entries will be checked at the terminal of each observation period. The general design of the informations aggregation process is in the Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Data aggregation process
Week 1 Initial General Interview
Week 2 & A ; 3 Observation Cycle 1 Reflective Journal Entries 1 & A ; 2 ( Pre- Interview-
Lesson Observation-
Post- Interview ) Reflective Journal Entry Sharing 1
Week 4 & A ; 5 Observation Cycle 2 Reflective Journal Entries 3 & A ; 4 ( Pre- Interview-
Lesson Observation-
Post- Interview ) Reflective Journal Entry Sharing 2
Week 6 & A ; 7 Observation Cycle 3 Reflective Journal Entries 5 & A ; 6 ( Pre- Interview-
Lesson Observation-
Post- Interview ) Reflective Journal Entry Sharing 3
Week 8 & A ; 9 Observation Cycle 4 Reflective Journal Entries 7 & A ; 8 ( Pre- Interview-
Lesson Observation-
Post- Interview ) Reflective Journal Entry Sharing 4
Week 10 & A ; 11 Observation Cycle 5 Reflective Journal Entries 9 & A ; 10 ( Pre- Interview-
Lesson Observation-
Post- Interview ) Reflective Journal Entry Sharing 5
Week 12 Meeting with participants – terminal of informations aggregation procedure
3.4.1 Interviews
3.4.1.1. General Interview
The participants of the survey will be interviewed at the beginning of the whole procedure. The purpose of the interview is to garner general information about the participants in the context of their instruction mode, their planning attack, schemes they use, stuffs and beginnings they use, their sentiments about their instruction, their brooding actions, actions related to professional development of themselves. In order to make this purpose, the participants will be asked 20 four open-ended inquiries in three subheadings, which are general information, instruction and professional development. The interview will last about 90 proceedingss. The interview protocol is available in Appendix A.
3.4.1.2 Pre-Interview and Post-Interview
There will be two interview Sessionss in each observation rhythms, viz. pre-interview and post- interview. In the pre-interview, the participants are expected to speak about their program related to the lesson that is to be observed. In this session issues related to the general and subordinate purposes of the lesson, timetable tantrum, stuffs, category profile, anticipated jobs and possible solutions, peculiar instances in the category, ways of supplying pupil battle, organisation of larning experiences, oppugning schemes, appraisal schemes, distinction and excess planning will be discussed. The pre-interview session will last about fourty proceedingss. The pre-interview is available in Appendix D.
In the post-interview, the participants ‘ general feelings about the lesson, issues related to degree of accomplishment in general and related to purposes of each phase of the lesson, engagement of the pupils, satisfaction related to lesson, points to see for the following instruction session, rating of the lesson in footings of awaited jobs. In add-on to this, the participants are expected to see the things that they have acquired through this procedure and the things that they want to accomplish after this procedure. The pre-interview session will last about 30 proceedingss. Post-interview protocol is available in Appendix E.
3.4.2 Observations
The participants ‘ lessons will be observed at least five times in informations aggregation period. In the first observation, lessons will be observed in general. In the undermentioned four observations, they will be observed with a focal point. In each observation period, except the first one, lesson content will be from different larning countries of the mathematics, viz. geometry, Numberss, measuring and chance and statistics. Although the purpose of each observation session is the same in general, each session will supply some peculiar information about instruction and contemplation of the participants in different larning countries in mathematics. In each instance, the lessons will are expected to give information about the issues discussed in the interview at the beginning of the procedure. The observation protocol is available in Appendix B and the lesson observation standards. The points in lesson observation standards is prepared by synthesising the standards in Mathematicss Teaching Efficiency Criteria ” papers which is prepared by Ministry of Education ( MoNE ) and the standards of the school prepared based on the school policies and the International Baccalaureate Organization Standards and Practices papers. The original versions of these paperss are available in Appendix F and G, severally. During each observation period, running commentary signifier, which is available in Appendix B, will be used. After the lesson observation, the running commentary will be examined in the visible radiation of the points in standards. The purpose is to acknowledge the participants ‘ strong points and countries for farther development and discoursing them during post-interview session. In this session both the synthesis of the rating in the visible radiation of the standards and instructors contemplations will be discussed. The list of lesson observation standards is available in Appendix C.
3.4.3 Brooding Diaries
GELECEK HAFTA BURAYA REFLECTIVE JOURNAL A°LE A°LGA°LA° BA°RAZ LA°TERATUR EKLEYA°P NE OLDUAzUNU ve YARARLARINI ACIKLAMAYI DUAzUNUYORUM.
In add-on to observation rhythms and interviews, the participants will maintain a brooding diary for 10 hebdomads. The focal point of contemplation for each hebdomad will be decided by the participants in the line of the observation rhythm. The general construction of the diary will be as a notebook format and separate parts will be filled in after each observation rhythm. The sample page format for brooding diary is given in Figure 3.1.
REFLECTIION ACTION
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Question 1.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Question 2.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Question 3.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Question 4.
1.JOUNAL Entry
Date:
Figure 3.1 Sample brooding diary page
Three or four open-ended inquiries are expected to be answered in each portion and these inquiries will be helpful for participants in concentrating their authorship and forming their ideas. The inquiries will be related to the reflecting on larning about both learning procedure in the ascertained lesson and about the treatments, recommendations, illustrations during the pre-interview, station interview and lesson observation periods. Discussion on the entries in brooding diary will be discussed after the post-interview session in the same hebdomad. The photocopy of the brooding diary entry pages will be taken form participants at least one twenty-four hours before the meeting which will be held for discoursing on brooding diary entries. The participants expected to make full in the contemplation portion and action portion before the meeting. In add-on to this, some points in action portion can be generated as a consequence of treatment during those meetings.
3.5 Data Analysis
Creswell ( 2007 ) states that informations analysis in qualitative research consists of fixing and forming informations ( i.e. , text information as in transcripts, or image informations as in exposure ) for analysis, so cut downing the information into subjects through a procedure of coding and distilling the codifications, and eventually stand foring the information in figures, tabular arraies or a treatment ” ( p.148 ) . For this survey, these stairss will be used for informations analysis.
First of wholly, the informations from different beginnings in the survey, such as general interview informations, pre and station interview informations for each observation period, observation signifiers, and journal entries will be organized in a file. After forming the information, coding procedure will be applied. In this procedure, the general interview and one set of pre and station interview transcripts and running commentary signifier kept during the observation and one of the diary entries will be coded. After doing the list of codifications, they will be classified under some coding subjects or classs. These classs and codifications may come from different beginnings, such as literature, research workers own cognition or experiences, and participants knowledge or experiences. When codifications and classs are decided, table including the classs, codifications and brief descriptions will be prepared. After fixing the coding scheme or model, staying informations will be analyzed in the visible radiation of this coding scheme.
3.6 Trustworthiness
To set up the trustiness of a survey, Lincoln and Guba ( 1985 ) ( as cited in Creswell, 2007 ) , used alone footings, such as credibleness ” , genuineness ” , transferability ” , dependableness ” and conformability ” ( p.202 ) .
GELECEK HAFTA BURADA HER BA°RA°NA°N TANIMINI LA°TERATURLE BA°RAZ DAHA DESTEKLEYEREK VERMEYA° DUAzUNUYORUM.
In this survey, to set up the credibleness, techniques of triangulation of beginnings, triangulation of methods and drawn-out battle in the field will be used. In add-on to this, techniques of member checking and equal reappraisal will be used in order to guarantee the credibleness.
In order to set up both the transferability and dependableness, thick description of the informations aggregation procedure, informations analysis procedure and other procedures will be used. In add-on to this, utilizing different informations aggregation methods will function to guarantee the dependableness.
To set up conformability research worker prejudice will be clarified. In add-on to this, techniques that are used to guarantee the credibleness, transferability and dependableness such as triangulation, thick description, equal reviewing and statements such as my motive for this survey and restrictions would turn out utile in cut downing the research worker prejudice.

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