BP operates in more than 80 states and operates two sections ; Exploration and Operations, Refining and Marketing. The oil and gas industry is divided into three major sectors: Upstream, Midstream and Downstream. BP operates the Upstream which include field development, oil and natural gas geographic expedition and production, and Midstream activities include treating activities and grapevine transit. ( Datamonitor, online ) .
The oil and gas industry high spots increasing volatility of the planetary energy market that is driven by factors like demand alternate energy, demographics etc. Therefore, this analysis is to measure the attraction of the industry and fight of BP, concern scheme every bit good as its Resources and Capabilities that creates competitory advantage over its rivals or equals.
This analysis is aimed at measuring the internal and external environmental factors act uponing the concern activities and schemes of BP over the past five old ages and will measure the endurance of BP. Besides, analysis of the analysis of the resources and capablenesss over the past five old ages showing the extent to which BP has aligned such resources and capablenesss efficaciously to derive competitory advantage over its rivals within the oil and gas industry.
1.1. Competitive environment
‘The Environment is everything and everyone outside the administration: rivals, clients, Government etc, and in order to analyze the environment, it is of import to get down with some basic factors environing the environment ‘ . ( Lynch R, 2006: 78, 80 ) . These include the market portion and degree of strength of competition. The environmental analysis is carried out utilizing porter ‘s five analysis frame work.
1.1.1. Market portion
Oil and gas industry in the UK play an of import function in providing the company ‘s energy demands with oil production amounting to 517million barrels an 58billion three-dimensional meters of gas production which satisfied 94 % and 68 % ingestion severally in 2009. The UK is the largest manufacturer of oil and gas in Europe after Norway and 15th largest of gas and 19th largest oil manufacturer in 2009. 6.4 billion lbs was paid as revenue enhancement stand foring 20 % of entire corporation revenue enhancement paid by all concerns to HM Revenues and usage in 2009-2010 financial old ages. ( Oil and gas UK economic study, 2010 ) .
1.1.2. Market place
BP PLC is a planetary oil and gas company, one of the six ace big leagues in UK. BP is the 3rd largest energy company in UK and in universe evaluation, it ‘s the 4th largest oil company measured by its grosss. BP has operations in about 80 states worldwide and produces approximately 3.8million barrels of oil tantamount per twenty-four hours and 22,400 service Stationss worldwide, with the largest division BP America ( Hargreaves Lansdown )
2.0. Porter ‘s five forces
An scrutiny of the factors act uponing an industry is a general manner to get down the industry analysis and such a survey is use to develop the competitory advantage of the administration to enable it get the better of its challengers. ( Lynch, 2006: 93 ) . This is frequently called porter ‘s five analyses and it identifies five basic forces that can move on the administration.
2.1. Barrier ‘s of entry
Entry barrier in the oil and gas industry is high owing high fixed or capital cost and economic sciences of graduated table ; Government policies and demands to run in the industry. Economicss of graduated table gives incumbent more market portions every bit much as possible to be profitable. The amalgamation of Amoco and British crude oil to organize BP gives BP a larger economic sciences of in the oil industry. New entrants will hold to get the better of the incumbent cost advantage so as to increase the market portion. Challenges from the EU and UK Government to doing important decrease in usage of renewable beginnings of power coevals makes it hard to acquire licenses to run in the industry. ( UK Gas Report, 2010 ) .
2.2. Dickering power of Suppliers
The UK oil and gas industry is dominated by few companies amongst all oil companies ( oil prices-online ) and providers which are equipment and service suppliers are big, extremely diversified companies ; this afford them more bargaining power within the market. Some of the providers of the providers to BP include: TMK, Schlumberger, Halliburton, KCA Deutag, Catobneft, interpipe etc. ( TNK-BP online ) . The insufficient or decreased sum of providers to the industry and their importance, increases supplier power ( energy concern daily, 2010. online ) . The provider power is HIGH.
2.3. Buyer power:
The purchaser power is moderate. BP and it rivals in the oil and gas industry green goods and polish oil as a trade good and non much difference in their merchandises. Power tend to switch to purchasers as they seek lower monetary values and better contract footings but this lone applies to purchasers of high volume and single consumers tend to hold really low negociating power. Oil and gas bring forthing companies are involved in wide graduated table international operations increasing the size and perpendicular nature which grant them power over purchasers ( energy concern daily, 2010 ) . The energy companies, chemical companies and fabrication industries are major purchasers of big volume, which boost their power. ( Oil and gas in Europe, 2010 ) .
2.4. Menace of Substitute
The option to oil and gas are Biofuels, air current, solar, C gaining control and segregation. BP has invested 4 billion dollars on alternate energy since 2006. ( BP one-year study 2009 ) . The High operation cost required run intoing the demands of renewable energy ingestion and production makes its menace as alternate to oil and gas LOW
2.5. Competitive competition
High issue barriers in the oil and gas industry make competition high. Oligopoly exist in the oil industry as it is dominated by some few ace big leagues like shell, BP, ExxonMobil, etc. These companies have big scale operations, and decreased activities in alternate industry, as a consequence create a high degree of competition ( energy concern daily, 2010 ) .
The industry is attractive as the five forces are non high. ‘Porter ‘s argued that where all five forces are high, the industry will non be attractive as competition and force per unit area will be excessively much to let net income ‘ . ( Johnson et al, 2008: 60 ) .
3.0. Strategic group analysis
‘Strategic group are administrations within an industry or sector with similar strategic or viing on similar bases ‘ ( Johnson et al, 2008: 73 ) . The oil and gas industry companies are vertically integrated in energy and engineering and the being of oligopoly in the industry makes it to be dominated by few companies that compete with similar scheme. Shell is a diverse company in oil and gas geographic expedition and production, power coevals, fabrication, selling and transportation of oil merchandises and chemicals. It besides has diversified its operation to renewable energy, including air current and solar power undertakings. Shell operates in about 140 states within the Earth and operates its individual trade name retail web functioning in more than 90 states. Shell ‘s fuel merchandises include ; blast V-power, V-power racing, V-power Diesel and pura ( FAME, online ) . BP ‘s operations are extremely diversified and vertically incorporate, with operations in over 80 states. Its merchandises include Aral, Amoco, Arco and Castrol Brands. Companies like Chevron, ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips and Total find, develop, and bring forth crude oil and natural gas. Industry and market fuel and lubricator merchandises trade conveyance and administer crude oil and merchandises ( FAME, online ) . Therefore, BP and shell are runing with similar schemes by diversifying into BP renewable and shell solar power and are extremely integrated in trade names and service runing with a maximal efficiency to cut cost of operation
4.0. BP concern scheme utilizing Porter ‘s generic scheme
Generic concern scheme gives an industry the peculiar construction of its competitory land and advantage versus its rivals that consequence above mean profitableness. ( Hill and Jones, 2010:155 ) ‘Porter ‘s argued that there three generic schemes open to any concern: cost leader, distinction and focal point ‘ . ( Lynch, 2006: 451 ) . A cost leader represents the low cost manufacturer in the industry who must happen and work all beginnings of cost advantages ( Johnson et al, 2008: 232 ) . Differentiation occurs when the merchandise of an industry meet the demands of certain clients in the market better than others. ( Lynch, 2006: 453 ) . BP operations are diversified, offering different oil merchandises to the market such as bitumen and LPG ( concern beginning complete, 2010 ) and active gas power and solar power coevals. ( FAME, 2010 ) . BP reduces its hazard by diversifying its operations. BP on a regular footing reviews its portfolio to better resource allotment within its strategic and fiscal model. This is achieved by depriving some of its concern operations such as its fuel selling units in Namibia, Botswana and Zambia to Puma energy ( BP- online ) , BP west Java subordinate to pertamina, Indonesia ( your oil and gas news-online ) , and fuel selling concern in Greece to Hellenic crude oil for $ 500M. BP has controlled its entire hard currency cost of operations to a lower limit by cutting occupations and cost. In 2009, Upstream 12 % lower compared to 2008 ; downstream 15 % lower and group as a whole around 60 % tantamount to $ 4bn. In October 2009, BP main executive Tony Hayward, ‘warned that productiveness and efficiency ” thrusts would ensue in materially higher ” redundancies than the 5,000 the company had already announced ‘ ( The independent, 2009 ) . ‘BP released Q309 consequences in October 2009, describing replacing cost net income ( RCP ) of US $ 4.98bn, a 50 % bead from US $ 10.03bn achieved in Q308’as a consequence of its cost scheme ( concern beginning complete, 2010 ) . BP hence operates as a low cost leader as it focuses on maximising net income by cutting cost of operations. Though Grant, ( 2008 ) besides described the state of affairs where a house attempts to accomplish both cost leading and distinction schemes as ‘stacked in the center ‘ . BP differentiated by diversifying its operations and BP is vertically integrated into Gas and gasoline Stationss, motor oil and lubricators, which gives it important competitory advantage in the industry. ( Datamonitor, 2010 ) .
5.0. Resources and Capabilities
John et Al ( 1995 ) defined strategic capablenesss as ‘the resources and competences of an administration needed for it to last and thrive ‘ . This could be analysed utilizing several models: Resource Based View holds ‘ that house can gain sustainable, supranormal returns if merely they have superior resources and those resources are protected by some signifier of insulating mechanism forestalling their diffusion throughout their industry ‘ ( Barney, 1986 ) ; and Bieger Wengerfelt ( 1984 ) suggests that ‘there can be firm-level differences among houses which allows them to prolong competitory advantage ‘ .
The value concatenation of a company links the value of its activities to its chief functional parts Porter1998 sited in Lynch ( 2003 ) . The primary activities are straight concerned with creative activity or bringing of a merchandise or service ( Johnson et al 2008 ) . Therefore the resources and capablenesss of BP are analysed below utilizing porter ‘s value concatenation analysis. BP operates in the upstream that includes geographic expedition and production and downstream activities are polishing and selling.
5.1. Exploration and production: holds a alone place in geographic expedition in the oil and gas industry. In 2009, BP made the Tiber find in the deepwater Gulf of M’xico by boring the deepest oil and gas good ( BP one-year reappraisal 2009 ) . In May 2008, BP discovered oil at block 16/23, located 230KM N/E offshore Aberdeen and the block is operated by BP ( 77 % ) aboard Eni UK ( 16.67 % ) and petro acme investing ( 62.7 % ) ( concern beginning complete ) . In 2009, Bp besides discovered the extremist deep H2O Block 31 in Angola and the natural gas with Ellice J27 good in Canada. Bp was successful in measuring new resource chances in Indonesia, Iraq ( Rumalia ) , Egypt, Jordan, and West Papua ( Block land 111 ) ( BP Annual reappraisal ) . Bp production in Thunder Horse field in the Gulf of M’xico has grown from 240,000 barrels of oil tantamount per twenty-four hours in 2007 to above 400,000 barrels of oil per twenty-four hours in 2009 ( Bp Annual Review ) and production in Trinidad from Savonette, Atlantis Phase 2, Dorado and King South. BP besides discovered gas in Hodoa, located in West Mediterranean Deepwater, Nile delta grant off Egypt in November 2010. BP operates and holds 80 % of the grant and RWE Dea holds 20 % ( offshore engineering, 2010 ) . Therefore, BP create value by pull outing and runing globally with maximal efficiency in its extraction procedure and this lower cost, which leads to BP ‘s competitory advantage.
5.2. Selling and Refining: Refining ( operations ) and selling activity is accountable for the supply and trading, refinement, fabrication, selling and transit of Crude oil, and related services to sweeping and retail clients ( BP 2010 ) . In 2008, polishing and selling turned in an unexpected US $ 1.2bn net income, despite lower borders and throughput ( oil and gas penetration, 2008 ) . Value is added through an advanced simulation exercising known as FVCs and IBs. Fuel Value Chains integrate activities of refinement, selling logistics, supply and trading in regional countries. The international concerns ( IBs ) include the fabrication, supply and selling of lubricators, air power fuels and Liquefied Petroleum Gas ( BP-Refining & A ; selling ) . BP ‘s refinement section besides transport Crude oil and petrochemical merchandises and other services to clients ( sweeping and retail ) through the Aral, Amoco, Arco and Castrol Brands ( UK finance, 2010 ) . As portion of BPs selling scheme, it signed a contract in June 2008 to be the official fuel provider for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. This tremendous supply and distribution web create great efficiency and lowers cost for BP outbound logistics.
5.3. Supportive activities of the ‘value concatenation provide inputs that let the primary activities to take topographic point ‘ ( hill and Jones, ) . BP Plc supportive activities include research and development ( R & A ; D ) , human resources direction and BP substructure.
5.4. Research and Development: – Bp is valued globally in deep Waterss for its invention in research and development. Bp prioritized its research and development and engineering investing. In 2009 Bp maximized new resources and 60 % of its oil production was supported by Bright WaterTM and LosalTM Technology, which pushes out oil from reservoir with H2O. This delivered more than 9million barrels at a development cost less than US $ 6 per barrel ( BP one-year reappraisal, 2009 ) . However, harmonizing to Bps frailty president on engineering provinces that Bp invests into targeted R & A ; D which gives Bp the highest growing in the oil and gas industry. Therefore, BP ‘s focal point on R & A ; D by developing new engineerings generates efficient procedures and operations which make it cost effectual.
5.5. Human resource direction: Human Resource planning helps an administration to incorporate cardinal Human Resource patterns to heighten and run into the public presentation demands of concern scheme ( Bratton and Gold, 2007: 199 ) . BP acknowledge the values of HR direction to employee development and in position of this was the first company to subscribe its HR concern outsourcing in 1998 ( HROA, 2009 ) . BP besides in 2008 was among eight companies that signed in the accomplishment pledge recommended in the leitch reappraisal of accomplishments ; by perpetrating to back up employees attain a minimal degree 2 making ( forces today, 2008 )
5.6. Government dealingss: The UK authorities in its command to protect wild life has cut back licenses of oil and gas geographic expedition in UK ( BBC online, 2010 ) . BP has a good authorities relationship as this is confirmed by the award of seven offshore geographic expedition licenses on 3rd November, 2010 in UK 26th several licencing unit of ammunition and an award of 100 % involvement in the North arafura oil and gas production sharing contract in papua state of Indonesia on 26th November, 2010 ( oilvoice online, 2010 ) .
This paper has analysed the concern environment, strategic group, porter ‘s generic scheme and the value concatenation of British crude oil within the oil and gas industry and its attack to achieve competitory advantage. Currently, BP is diversifying its portfolio by adding the combination of renewable gas undertakings to oil and gas geographic expedition and boring. Despite the high degree of competition in the UK oil and gas industry, this study clearly demonstrates how BP wholly leverages on its achieved excellence and repute in R & A ; D. The application of new signifiers of engineering has significantly reduced the cost of operation which is in connexion with BP ‘s scheme. Despite the degree of competition in the industry, BP has attained success over the old ages and the late awarded licenses to bore in the North Sea, Indonesia and Egypt is a great chance for BP to increase its