Information Technology Prevent Medication Error Health And Social Care Essay

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Many lives and one million millions of dollars are lost each twelvemonth due to medicine mistakes, which have been happening for decennaries. The National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention defines a medicine mistake as ” any preventable event that may do or take to inappropriate medicine usage or patient injury while the medicine is in the control of the wellness attention professional, patient, or consumer related to professional pattern, wellness attention merchandises, processs, and systems, including prescribing ; order communicating ; merchandise labeling, packaging, and terminology ; intensifying ; distributing ; distribution ; disposal ; instruction ; monitoring ; and utilize ” . Information engineering has been identified by both authoritiess and health care bureaus as a method to cut down medicine mistakes every bit good as addition efficiency and better quality of attention in wellness attention establishment. Medicine mistakes have been progressively recognized as a major cause of decease exceeding. An of import survey published by the Institute of Medicine ( IOM ) estimated that 44,000 to 98,000 hospitalized patients die in the United States each twelvemonth due to such mistakes.
Prevention of medicine mistake has become a high precedence. There is grounds that healthcare institiutions that a usage engineering is a cardinal constituent of schemes to forestall medicine mistake. Harmonizing to Clin Pharmacol, Hospitals with automated notes and records, order entry and clinical determination support have fewer complications, lower mortality rates, and lower costs. In this paper, I intend to province some of the engineering that can assist cut downing medication mistakes in healthcare establishment. I will originate some thoughts sing on developing an attack utilizing engineering and other mechanical device to diminish the medicine mistake rate.
Statement of Problem
Tonss of surveies have conducted worldwide supplying grounds that medicine mistakes occurs every twenty-four hours in healthcare scenes. The causes of medicine mistakes have been carefully studied by authorities and health care bureaus in order to present engineering into public and private infirmaries to cut down medicine mistakes. In a survey by the Food and Drug Administration that evaluated studies of fatal medicine mistakes from 1993 to 1998, the most common mistake affecting medicines was related to disposal of an improper dosage of medical specialty, accounting for 41 % of fatal medicine mistakes. Giving the incorrect drug and utilizing the incorrect path of disposal each accounted for 16 % of the mistakes. Almost half of the fatal medicine mistakes occurred in people over the age of 60. All this complication and job can be resolved by implementing assorted technological methods.
Unfortunately medication mistakes take topographic point in health care sphere every twenty-four hours. Most of the times these mistakes lead to human ‘s decease and could non be changed. This is why this job considered as the serious one and should be resolved every bit shortly as possible. The monetary value of such error is excessively high. It was reported that people die from medical mistakes more frequently than from AIDS, auto accidents, or malignant neoplastic disease, in other words people that should remain alive dice with absurd decease.
The mistakes that occurred in such topographic points as: clinic, infirmary, physician ‘s office, outpatient surgery centre, nursing place, pharmaceuticss, patient ‘s place etc. , can be named as medical 1s.
Normally medical error can go on out of the blue in common state of affairs, when cipher expects it. Even the most everyday state of affairs can do to unpredictable error. Fortunately sometimes go on non really serious medical mistakes that can be changed and serve as a lesson for medical professionals.
About 30 000 studies of errors in health care sphere were sent to the Food and Drug Administration during the period of 17 old ages. It should be noted that all these studies were voluntary so the existent figure of medicine mistakes is many times higher. As the experience shows, there are no indistinguishable mistakes. Sometimes healthcare professionals, patients or their households are guilty in peculiar mistakes. Usually fatal accidents could be caused with fallowing grounds: medical specialty name confusion ; faulty medical equipment ; incorrect or misunderstood diagnosings ; unpredictable state of affairss during the surgery ; hidden facts about wellness status ; misconstruing handwriting with prescriptions ; confounding the dose of retarding forces, medical specialty labels ; unprofessional health care employer etc. Paul Seligman, manager of the Food and Drug Administration ‘s Office of Pharmacoepidemiology and Statistical Science commented the state of affairs: But it ‘s of import to acknowledge that such mistakes are due to multiple factors in a complex medical system. In most instances, medicine mistakes ca n’t be blamed on a individual individual ” ( FDA U.S. , 2009 ) .
It is non so of import to understand who is guilty in peculiar medicine mistake, it is more of import to happen the ways to cut down these sorts of mistakes in health care sphere. About 25 international and national organisations were united in the council to analyze chief medicine mistakes and happen effectual ways to cut down their measure.
The institute of Medicine study that was released in 1999 forced all USA wellness services to presume the steps harmonizing to cut downing the degree of medicine mistakes. Among their ends were to strength the cheque systems that could do to fatal errors. The state of affairs was taken under rigorous control by Human Services and U.S. Department of Health. The Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force was organized in 2000 by these two organisations and federal bureaus.
Every organisation had its ain sentiment how to decide this job. For illustration, Food and Drug Administration decided to take under their control the job of drug safety. Jerry Phillips, the former manager of Technical support and Division of Medication Errors in Food and Drug Administration interviewed: FDA works to forestall medicine mistakes before a drug reaches the market and proctors any mistakes that may happen after that ” ( FDA U.S. , 2009 ) .
FDA suggested new system that would avoid medical mistakes. They suggested a new regulation that would necessitate saloon codifications on peculiar biological merchandise labels and drugs. Nurses and other medical workers would hold a particular system for scanning to place the right medical specialty in a right dosage for a right patient. Food and Drug Administration enforce control on automatic system that would ne’er do error. More item about modern system says nursing decision maker of Medical Center Lottie Lockett: When patients enter the infirmary, they get a bar-coded designation wristband that can convey information to the infirmary ‘s computing machine. Nurses have laptop computing machines and scanners on top of medicine carts that they bring to patients ‘ suites. Nurses use the scanners to scan the patient ‘s wristband and the medicines to be given. The saloon codifications provide alone, identifying information about drugs given at the patient ‘s bedside. Before giving medicines, nurses use the scanner to draw up a patient ‘s full name and societal security figure on the laptops, along with the medicines. If there is non a lucifer between the patient and the medicine or some other job, a warning box pops up on the screen ” ( FDA U.S. , 2009 ) .
Hospitals and other different health care organisations were involved in the procedure of protecting from medical mistakes. All these wellness attention organisations see the resolution of the job in bettering the procedure and utilizing new engineerings that are more safe and dependable. Sometimes medical errors were caused non by homo ‘s activity but with upset of hospital equipment. That is why their methods for cut downing medical mistakes were approved.
The Computerized Physician Order Entry was involved in wellness attention system some clip ago. During short period of clip it helped to avoid a batch of medical errors. All medicine orders were loaded into computing machine base. This method was more dependable and better because computing machine had been ne’er mistaken. The information does non incorporate abbreviations, deficits and other footings can non be misinterpreted as it was with scripts. Computerized Physician Order Entry method became really popular, in present yearss it is used about in all infirmaries.
The Pittsburgh infirmary unveiled its CPOE system in October 2002. Developed by the infirmary and the Cerner Corp. in Kansas City, Mo. , Children’sNet has replaced most paper signifiers and prescription tablets. Wiener says that, unlike with grownups, most drug orders for kids are by and large based on weight ” ( FDA U.S. , 2009 ) . The computing machine does non let seting the order in the system if kid ‘s weight is losing. The system is besides really valuable because it gives all sorts of information about medical specialties: from what illnesses it is, how to take or medicate complications that can happen.
Doctor Robert Hayward of the Centre for Health Evidence suggested the definition for new computing machine package that had the end to help wellness workers with such inquiries as finding diagnosing of patient informations. It was named as clinical determination support system. This system contains the information about wellness observation and wellness cognition to do a right remedy pick. CDSS helps to find patient ‘s analysis and diagnosing without errors. The first theories contained actual utilizing of this package. Medical workers would lade the information and delay till the system gives right reply ” . The new method of utilizing CDSS involves both engagement of system and clinical consequences. This manner of finding patient ‘s diagnosing is more effectual. The package is really simple to utilize and gives right information.
Reducing medical mistakes with nomadic engineerings became really popular during the last old ages. Mistakes, skips and incompatibilities frequently occur during the written text of medical prescriptions, informations about administrating drugs, or from the double prescription of conflicting medicines due to a deficiency of on-hand information. MOBI-DEV can assist work out these jobs and that is evidently important for patients ” ( ARTT ) . The new nomadic devices were programmed for medical professionals. This new engineering is really convenient and saves a batch of clip. It can give the physician patient ‘s information really rapidly at any clip when it is required. The new coevals device can assist at the watchful state of affairs when medical workers have no clip to wait. This system was tested already in urogenital medicine and cardiology sections. The professionals noted that new engineering helps to avoid extra work that took much clip and much of the paper work that was necessary. Though the most of import and advanced characteristic of this device is the possibility to take patient ‘s information from the infirmary edifice merely pressing the button. The information is wholly secret, people can acquire it merely with a aid of digital certifications or smart cards. Dr Jose Monteagudo of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III interviewed: Mobile telephones were the first measure down that route, but this system will take place attention much, much further. It is genuinely open uping in that regard ” ( ARTT ) .
The facts above shows the figure of advantages MOBI-DEV device. But the barriers for its utilizing still exist. Most of health care establishments get used to their systems and do non appreciate new alterations. Though, their concern and theoretical accounts of work organisation are based on paper authorship. A batch of infirmaries around the universe still use old information system, the degree of engineerings there hapless developed. As a consequence medical workers spend a batch of extra clip and costs, but the most debatable is that many medical mistakes occur.
The information above shows that different national and international organisations were involved in this serious job in health care sphere. Their control and new engineerings help to cut down the measure of medical errors but patient ‘s and his household ‘s engagement is necessary to accomplish better consequences.
What can you make to avoid medical mistake?
Every patient must take part in the procedure of his recover.
No affair if the patient has medical instruction, he should non obey physicians blindly. Every individual must take an active portion in his recover procedure. If you have no opportunity to make this, inquire the members of your household to command the state of affairs, to speak to the physician and inquire about your degree of wellness and methods of remedy. The experience shows that patients that were involved in remedy procedure get better consequences.
Make sure that you truly necessitate the intervention.
Before the patient get down his intervention, he has a right to do trials in other infirmary or clinics and to confer with with other physician to do certain he truly needs to bring around. Every patient can inquire about the manner of intervention, how it supposed to assist?
Talking about drugs and medical specialties:
Make certain that your physician informed about all sorts of medical specialties and drugs you are taking.
This is really of import issue in your wellness attention inquiry. If you decided to use for a aid to the other physician, be honest with him, give him full study of your degree of wellness and the names of medical specialties you are taking. At least one time in a twelvemonth you must demo your physician the bag with all your medical specialties. This fact would assist your physician to maintain the state of affairs under control and regenerate the information about your records. This fact would assist you to acquire better consequences for short clip and avoid medical specialty error.
You must be certain that your physician knows about all negative reactions and allergic reactions of you have had to drugs and medical specialties.
Doctor must cognize about any sort of allergic reaction or other negative reaction of patient ‘s being to medical specialties. Even if the patient is non certain that bad concern or insomnia was caused by taking the medical specialties, he must state his physician about these indispositions. The more information patient gives the more opportunities he gets to avoid taking harmful medical specialties.
After the physician prescribe you peculiar medical specialties, make certain that you can compose his script.
It is necessary to read the prescription in the physician ‘s presence. The patient can happen there the medical specialties he took already or medical specialties that caused some bad indispositions. This issue is besides of import because the patient must discourse the prescription with his physician. He should non be diffident to inquire such inquiries as:
What prescribed medical specialties or drugs for?
How to take the peculiar medical specialties and for what period of clip?
What kinds of contra-indications can happen after these medical specialties? What am I supposed to make if they appear?
Are these medical specialties compatible with those that I take already?
What sort of activity, nutrient or drink should be avoided during taking these medical specialties?
Make sure that druggist packed all the medical specialties you need.
This sort of error happens non so frequently but still patient must command it. A survey by the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences found that 88 per centum of medicine mistakes involved the incorrect drug or the incorrect dosage ” ( U.S. DHHS, 2000 ) . Patient ‘s heedlessness can take to serious effects, sometimes to human ‘s decease.
Feel free to inquire the inquiries harmonizing to waies on your medical labels.
Most of patients know that sometimes it is really difficult to understand medical specialty labels. If it says that the patient must take the dose day-to-day, inquire to explicate this point. Does it intend to take the medical specialty during wake uping hours or to take your dose every six hours around the clock? The pharmaceutical chemist in drug shop must explicate all the inside informations connected with taking the drugs or medical specialties. Any patient should non experience diffident to inquire any inquiries because his degree of wellness depends on his apprehension.
If you have been prescribed liquid medical specialties, inquire your druggist in a drug shop about the best methods of mensurating the liquid.
The patient must be certain that he takes medical specialty as it was prescribed with right doses. As it turned out most of people, purchasing the medical specialty in the drug shop, do non cognize how to mensurate the liquid medical specialty in a right manner. Though this fact is necessary for speedy and effectual recover. Otherwise wrong liquid step can do the injury to homo ‘s being.
Ask your druggist to compose all contraindications that can look after taking the medical specialties.
These Hagiographas help to place the job really fast. If you feel any sort of indispositions that were noted in the paper from a drug shop, you can travel to your physician or druggist until the degree of wellness get worse. Any patient must procure himself from the deficiency of cognition.
All facts above shows that the patient must be really attentive and take an active portion in recover procedure. His engagement normally gives better consequences and avoid from medical mistakes. There are besides advices connected with remaining in clinics or infirmaries.
If you have a opportunity, you better take the most appropriate infirmary.
It is better to take the infirmary or clinic that has great experience of bring arounding patient ‘s disease. Medical professionals would bring around more efficaciously and faster if they had trade with a similar wellness job. This pick gives the chance to hold all the processs or surgery the patient requires in the same edifice.
Staying in the infirmary experience free to inquire all medical professionals that work with you, if they washed their custodies before checking.
Researches show that most of people in the infirmary ne’er ask this sort of inquiry. Some people feel uncomfortable to inquire, the other trust physicians and ne’er pay attending at such unimportant fact. Irresponsible infirmary workers spread the sources that can do serious unwellnesss. Hand lavation is a basic manner to forestall the spread of sources. Every patient must retrieve about such simple regulations and ne’er experience uncomfortable to inquire this sort of inquiries.
If you are traveling to go on your intervention at place after being in the infirmary, inquire your physician about all inside informations connected with your intervention.
Before patient continues his intervention at place, he must do certain he was informed about all inside informations he needs. This issue involves knowledge about the system of taking medical specialties, how long these medical specialties should be taken, when the patient would hold a opportunity to come back to his usual manner of life and activity? The experience shows that most of physicians think that patients know all inside informations connected with their intervention, so the medical workers do non give any extra accounts. This deficiency of cognition can take to serious wellness jobs.
Ask your physician when you should come following clip, to look into the degree of your wellness after intervention?
Sometimes physicians do non inform their patients about the day of the month of following cheque. They think that patient must understand when the clip of taking medical specialties finished it is clip to do new cheques. Sometimes it is necessary to see physician before the class of taking medical specialties finished. Ask the physician, non to lose of import minute in your wellness status.
If you need any sort of surgery, talk to your physician and sawbones to be certain that all of you are agree and clearly understand the job and the ways of its resolution.
Though it happens really rare but still, the physician must hold the clear image of what should be done. This is really serious state of affairss that should non incorporate misinterpretations. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons urges its members to subscribe their initials straight on the site to be operated on before the surgery ” ( U.S. DHHS, 2000 ) .
Make non maintain silent if you have any inquiries or expostulations.
Any patient must experience free to inquire any inquiry connected with his wellness status. He has a right to decline from taking any sort of medical specialties that can harm his wellness status.
All the medical specialty workers that involved in remedy procedure must hold adequate cognition about inside informations of your wellness status.
The chief statement of every medical professional is: Do non harm! ” But this bad state of affairs frequently happens because the physician does non hold full information about his patient. Such unimportant inside informations as allergic reaction or inherited jobs with tummy can take to serious wellness jobs during intervention.
You have a right to inquire your close comparative or friend stay with you and to assist you if it would be needed.
Normally people used to swear physicians and fallow their recommendations blindly but sometimes friend ‘s or comparative ‘s presence is necessary. Patient can necessitate individual that would talk if the old has no opportunity or possibility to, person that would assist in this or that state of affairs, or merely comparative individual for support.
If you got a trial consequence but you were non certain about its significance, inquire your physician, do non seek to think.
The researches prove that trial consequences apprehensions can take to serious medical mistakes. Some patients are certain they understood their trials in a right manner so they can bring around themselves without physician ‘s aid. These illustrations of self-treatment cause bad consequences. Peoples must retrieve that it is better to use for physician ‘s aid!
Every twelvemonth 1000s of lives and 1000000s of dollars are lost because of medicine mistakes. The worst is that these sorts of mistakes sometimes are irreversible and lead to fatal consequences. Both healthcare bureaus and authoritiess are certain that information engineerings can function to decide medicine mistakes job. Health sphere needs new engineerings to cut down the job because medicine errors were determined as a major cause of homo ‘s decease. The monetary value of such misinterpretations is excessively high. The information from studies shows that people die from medical mistakes more frequently than from AIDS, auto accidents, or malignant neoplastic disease.
Medicine mistakes occur in such topographic points as physician ‘s office, outpatient surgery centre, nursing place, pharmaceuticss, patient ‘s place, clinic, infirmary etc. Most of these errors are unexpected and unpredictable.
The Food and Drug Administration got 30A 000 voluntary studies based on the facts of medicine errors. The existent figure of the mistakes is many times higher. After these studies the wellness attention organisations, infirmaries, clinics, Food and Drug Administration, authorities sections began to look for the ways of cut downing medicine mistakes.
The nature of medicine mistakes is really different, so it is impossible to happen the lone manner for errors devastation. As it was said there are no indistinguishable mistakes. Commonly errors in health care domain could be caused with fallowing grounds: medical specialty name confusion ; faulty medical equipment ; incorrect or misunderstood diagnosings ; unpredictable state of affairss during the surgery ; hidden facts about wellness status ; misconstruing handwriting with prescriptions ; confounding the dose of retarding forces, medical specialty labels ; unprofessional health care employer etc. As the mistakes have different nature it is impossible to fault lone physicians or patients in the state of affairs.
The institute of Medicine study that was released in 1999 forced all USA wellness services to presume the steps harmonizing to the cut downing the degree of medicine mistakes. Among their ends were to strength the cheque systems that could do to fatal errors. The state of affairs was taken under rigorous control by Human Services and U.S. Department of Health. The Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force was organized in 2000 by these two organisations and federal bureaus.
All the health care organisations had their ain positions how to decide the job. Food and Drug Administration took drug quality under their control. They tried to forestall medicine mistakes before a medical specialty come to the market, and did everything possible to divine any mistake that may happen.
Most of organisations and sections considered new engineerings as the most effectual manner to cut down medicine errors. FDA, for illustration, suggested a new regulation that would necessitate saloon codifications on peculiar biological merchandise labels and drugs. The scanning systems in clinics and infirmaries would place right medical specialty in a right dosage for a right patient. Any dedicational error would be impossible in this instance.
Sometimes it was non a physician but medical equipment that was guilty in medicine mistake. That is why new medical engineerings and improved medical equipment was required.
The Computerized Physician Order Entry was involved in wellness attention system non long clip ago but during this short period it helped to avoid a batch of errors in the health care sphere. All medicine orders were loaded into computing machine base. There were no abbreviations, deficits or other footings that could be misunderstood by homo. The most of import that the system minimized utilizing of scripts that normally caused misinterpretations. Computerized Physician Order Entry method became really popular, in present yearss it is used about in all infirmaries of the universe.
The CPOE system was used in Pittsburg infirmary in 2002. It was good known that drugs prescriptions for kids were based on their weight. So this system does non let to set the order in the system if kid ‘s weight is losing. This engineering is really convenient and utile because it gives all sorts of information about medical specialties: from what illnesses it is, how to take or medicate complications that can happen.
Such engineering as clinical determination support system besides deserved attending. It had the end to help wellness workers with such inquiries as finding diagnosing of patient informations. The system contains the information about wellness observation and wellness cognition to do a right remedy pick. The new method of utilizing CDSS involves both engagement of system and clinical consequences. The package is really simple to utilize and gives right information.
Mobile engineerings became the following measure to cut downing medicine mistakes. The new nomadic devices were programmed for medical professionals. This new engineering is really convenient and saves a batch of clip. It can give the physician patient ‘s information really rapidly at any clip when it is required. The professionals made a note that new engineering helped to avoid extra work, to salvage cherished clip.
Human ‘s accomplishments in the engineering sphere helps to cut down medicine mistakes. But patients and their households must take an active portion in the recovery procedure. Peoples should non swear physicians blindly because the old can do misidentify in any state of affairs. Every patient must be cognizant about his rights and duties. Every individual must retrieve the followers:
every patient must take part in the procedure of his recover ;
do certain that you truly necessitate the intervention ;
do certain that your physician informed about all sorts of medical specialties and drugs you are taking ;
you must be certain that your physician knows about all negative reactions and allergic reactions of you have had to drugs and medical specialties ;
after the physician prescribe you peculiar medical specialties, make certain that you can compose his script ;
do certain that druggist packed all the medical specialties you need ;
experience free to inquire the inquiries harmonizing to waies on your medical labels ;
if you have been prescribed liquid medical specialties, inquire your druggist in a drug shop about the best methods of mensurating the liquid ;
inquire your druggist to compose all contraindications that can look after taking the medical specialties ;
if you have a opportunity, you better take the most appropriate infirmary ;
remaining in the infirmary experience free to inquire all medical professionals that work with you, if they washed their custodies before checking ;
if you are traveling to go on your intervention at place after being in the infirmary, inquire your physician about all inside informations connected with your intervention ;
inquire your physician when you should come following clip, to look into the degree of your wellness after intervention?
If you need any sort of surgery, talk to your physician and sawbones to be certain that all of you are agree and clearly understand the job and the ways of its resolution ;
make non maintain silent if you have any inquiries or expostulations ;
all the medical specialty workers that involved in remedy procedure must hold adequate cognition about inside informations of your wellness status ;
you have a right to inquire your close comparative or friend stay with you and to assist you if it would be needed ;
if you got a trial consequence but you were non certain about its significance, inquire your physician, do non seek to think.
Recourses
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Schemes to Reduce Medication Mistakes: Working to Improve Medication Safety. May 21, 2009. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm143553.htm ) .
ARTT Romanian Association for Telework and Teleactivities: Reducing medical mistakes through nomadic engineerings. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.teleorg.org/telemedicine/errors.htm ) .
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( DHHS ) : 20 Tips to Help Prevent Medical Errors. Patient Fact Sheet. February, 2000. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ahrq.gov/consumer/20tips.htm ) .
Wild Iris Medical Education. inc. : Reducing Medical Mistakes. March, 2008. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nursingceu.com/courses/240/index_nceu.html ) .
Vernon JA, Trujillo A, Rosenbaum S, DeBuono B. ( 2007 ) . Low wellness literacy: Deductions for national wellness policy. University of Connecticut, Storrs. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gwumc.edu/sphhs/departments/healthpolicy/chsrp/
downloads/LowHealthLiteracyReport10_4_07.pdf ) .
Molly Hennessy-Fiske ( 2010 ) . 13 California infirmaries fined for medical mistakes. Los Angeles Times. January 28, 2010. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //articles.latimes.com/2010/jan/28/local/la-me-hospital-fines28-2010jan28 ) .
Matthew Grissinger php, Fascp Nancy J. ( 2004 ) . How Technology Affects Your Hazard of Medication Errors. Nurcingcenter. January, 2004. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp? tid=446738 ) .
Claudia Kalb ( 2010 ) . Do No Harm. Medical mistakes kill some 100, 000 Americans every twelvemonth. How we can change by reversal the tendency. Newsweek ‘s Education Site. September 27, 2010. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newsweek.com/2010/09/27/how-we-can-prevent-medical-errors.html ) .
National Patient Recognition Week: Reducing Medical Errorsaˆ¦ Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nprw.com/Medical_Errors.html ) .
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( DHHS ) : Advancing Patient Safety. A Decade of Evidence, Design and Implementation. November, 2009. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ahrq.gov/qual/advptsafety.htm ) .
Orac ( 2010 ) . Inexcusable medical mistakes. Science Blogs. January 27, 2010. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //scienceblogs.com/insolence/2010/01/unforgivable_medical_errors.php ) .
David W. Bates, M.D. , and Atul A. Gawande, M.D. ( 2003 ) . Bettering Safety with Information Technology. The New England Journal of Medicine. England J Med 348:2526-2534. June 19, 2003. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa020847 ) .
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( DHHS ) : Five Stairss to Safer Health Care. Patient Fact Sheet. February, 2004. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ahrq.gov/consumer/5steps.htm ) .
Lebowitz and Mzhen ( 2010 ) . Maryland Hospitals Decrease Medication Error with New Technology. Pharmact Error Injury Lawyer Blog. November 18, 2010. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pharmacyerrorinjurylawyer.com/2010/11/maryland_hospitals_increase_me_1.html ) .
James G. Anderson, PhD, Stephen J. Jay, MD, Marilyn Anderson, BA, and Thaddeus J. Hunt, BA ( 2003 ) . Measuring the Impact of Information Technology on Medication Mistakes: A Simulation. JAMIA. 2003 May-Jun ; 10 ( 3 ) : 292-293. Retrieved from ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC342060/ ) .

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