3.1 pointed out that, the culture of

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3.1 Organizational culture in Saudi universities
Introduction? Always introduce a new topic and its context.
Yousef and Andrew (2018) pointed out that, the culture of Saudi Arabian universities is closely adjuvant with the principles laid down by Islam. The ideology being followed by the universities of the kingdom is to provide education for both genders without exhibiting any sort of discriminations. However, the codes of segregation need to be followed says who?. Separate campuses and spaces are built for men and women students (Lipsky, 1959). Nonetheless, the management and supervision of the female campuses lie on the discretion of a male educational staff. Several restrictions have been lifted off from students in Saudi universities. Ever since the last decade, the number of campuses has been raised by a total of 10 campuses.
In addition Yousef and Andrew (2018) said that, significant expansions have been extended in the educational system of Saudi Arabia during the last decade, featuring several initiatives underpinned with the intent of expansion. Such an initiative incorporates the inauguration of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) in 2005 by the government. It features the sponsorship of Saudi students to pursue their education in developed countries. The scheme has facilitated 174,333 students during the academic period of 2015-16.
In 2006, the national five-year plan compelled the adoption of strategic guidelines under which, prime focus was shifted to develop human resources with academic leadership development at local universities (Yousef and Andrew, 2018). The ministry of Saudi Arabia developed a specific center in 2009, known as the Academic Leadership Center (ALC). ALC strived to ascertain a meaningful contribution in developing and spreading the culture of leadership in universities and cultivate the practices based on innovation, success, and excellence (Al Dali, 2010). You are relying to heavily on Yousef and Andrew. Other relevant literature?
However, bringing major changes in the deep-rooted cultures of the educational institutions of Saudi Arabia is not an easy task says who? . Interchange of global and domestic cultural variables in the educational context has created several challenges for the Saudi government. The dilemma is not limited to inducing a more western style culture but to become an authoritative economic and educational competitor globally. Conjecture without evidence.
3.2 The difference of what? from western models
The researcher agrees with Yousef and Andrew (2018) both have pointed out that, the Arab culture is quite different from western cultural models. The inclination of Arab culture is more collectivist in nature. This is so because of its Islamic teachings and Arab traditions which follow the codes of loyalty, respect, and humility. These traits, when practiced in organizational settings, are found to have a profound effect on individuals, employees, and the organization as a whole. Specifically, in an educational organization, these values are highly regarded as of the fact that educational organizations are the places where these teachings are taught to others. It makes it compulsory for the people in those organizations to adhere to the prescribed rules and guidelines.
The researcher infers that NB: you cannot infer, Nasiem. You have to base your comments/ opinions on the facts as they are embedded within the literature and practice. Where they are, you need to provide evidence, otherwise it is conjecture , as we studied before, the models of Johnson and Scholes and the typology of Goffee and Jones highlighted several areas, where there are several diversions when compared to the culture of Arab organizations. For example, the cultural web allows the exchange of stories and myths in an organization (Cordesman, 2004). Whereas Arab organizations adhere to the teaching of forwarding only those words which are true and verified. Stories filled with confusions and ambiguities are not allowed to be communicated unless proved to be true. Please avoid making statements like this. How can you prove what is ‘true’? Evidence to support your claims?
3.3 Saudi collectivist culture and its effect on organizations
Collectivist culture determines a sense of affiliation and adherence to a particular culture or ethnic group. Collectivist culture requires the person to be a part of it and actively engaged in the learning and adoption of traditions, values, customs, heritage, ancestry, language, religious aspects, beliefs, and norms of that culture (Brennan, 2008). Nonetheless, conflicts are arising regarding the imposition and implementation of the collectivist culture in organizations of Saudi Arabia. As a matter of fact, organizations and businesses are very much affected by the national culture, anywhere in the world.
Since the locals, majorly the female population is quite impressed by the western cultural aspects, they have started to voice their thought with regard to being given more freedom in making their choices and decisions (Yousef and Andrew, 2018). This inculcates gender discrimination in various industrial sectors including the educational sector (Alotaibi, 2015). They want an equal treatment with regard to admissions or placement in educational campuses. Furthermore, these discriminations and protests are even extended to the matters regarding relationships, and marriages. Such family pressures have a philosophical effect on individuals studying or working in organizations. The ultimate result is an evident decline in the productivity of employees.
2.7.11 Summary
In this chapter the researcher has showed and compiled sufficient evidence regarding the culture of an organization in terms of its creation, practices, and influencing factors. Also, she sowed several types of cultures along with their significance have been communicated. The chapter also entails the use of models to better induce the aspects of organizational culture. It is to the best of our knowledge that different cultures exert different benefits or circumstances. Moreover, researcher has also observed that certain features of the culture of an organization are intricately connected so that bringing change in one feature might manipulate or distort another feature. Hence, it is crucial to identify the real cause of problems and areas for improvement so that the culture of an organization could sustain and grow in a positive direction (Al-Otaibi, & Al-Zahrani, 2004).
The studied aspects of culture, when studied in the context of Saudi Arabian organizations, gave out an indication that the kingdom is moving towards the acquisition and implementation of several foreign cultural variables what are these?. The practices have shifted to a more modern and global approach and this is significant in improving the productivity of employees in the organizations and educational institutions of Saudi Arabia. A more focused and detailed literature review is required here. You need to keep the aim, research question and objectives in mind at all times.

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