Telecommuter Productivity On The Egyptian Ict Sector Management Essay

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Its well known that the bulk of telecommuting surveies took topographic point in developed states, chiefly in US and Europe. This points to the spread that should be filled due to the really scarce telework ” literatures in developed states like Egypt. Sing the new challenge of Egyptian economic system due to current political issues and the socio-culture nature of the Egyptians workers, this survey would try to make full that spread. The economic growing based on ICT sector is considered to be the most suited solution for Egypt, because the execution of this engineering depends chiefly on the professionally trained work force, 25 % of the Egyptians are between the age of 18 and 25, and the handiness of the needed infrastructure,1.9 million ADSL endorsers, 2.83 million USB modem users, entire 30.9 million cyberspace users ( MCIT, 2012 ) . ICT sector was one of the most active Egyptian sectors in footings of growing ( 9.05 % ) and part to GDP ( 4.31 % ) ( MCIT, 2012 ) .
Although ICT employees achieves the highest rate of working productiveness but several factors seem to impact their satisfaction, morale and therefore their productiveness. Cairo which include most of ICT companies is considered to be one of the most crowded metropoliss, employees spent long hours transposing to work topographic point which is concentrated in Smart small town ( Cairo ‘s South ) or New Cairo ( Cairo ‘s North ) . Telecommuting would supply a more flexible work agreement that is claimed to increase employee productiveness by extinguishing the above restraints and cut downing the family- work struggle. However this construct is non to the full adopted in Egypt, this survey will try to research those factors and eventually supply employees, directors with penetrations assisting them doing better determinations sing teleworking.
Research Objective
The chief aim of this research is to analyze factors that are impacting telecommuter perceived productiveness, the survey will undertake the relation between the variables below and the telecommuter ‘s sensed productiveness:
Distant work experience & A ; preparation and perceived telecommuter productiveness
Management support and perceived telecommuter productiveness
Degree of connectivity and perceived telecommuter productiveness
Working conditions and perceived telecommuter productiveness
Beliefs and attitudes and perceived telecommuter productiveness
Theoretical Model
The proposed theoretical account used in this research was based on the consequences from past surveies and experiments that showed the importance of the telecommuter ‘s ego efficaciousness, derived from Self-efficacy theory and the societal factors, derived from Theory of planned behaviour ( TBP ) so the research worker will analyze the relationship of both on the sensed productiveness. The variables were derived from other surveies and verified through interviews through SMEs.
( Age – Gender – Family Status – Occupation Level )
Perceived Telecommuter
IT substructure
Management Support & A ; Best Practices
Job Security
Working Conditionss
Beliefs & A ; Attitudes
Figure aˆZ1. Proposed Theoretical Model
Dependent Variables
DEP VAR: Telecommuter ‘s sensed productiveness
This variable is used to mensurate the telecommuter ‘s productiveness from his ain perceptual experience
Independent Variables
INDEP VAR ( X1 ) : Distant work experience and preparation
Relevant preparation and experience provided to the employee on how to efficaciously work remotely
INDEP VAR ( X2 ) : Management Support & A ; Best Practices
The usage of effectual direction and patterns to ease the distant working, Self efficaciousness theory proved that patterning can increase perceived efficaciousness by supplying ways to cover with challenging/threatening issues ( Bandura, 1978 ) .
INDEP VAR ( X3 ) : Degree of Connectivity
The degree of connectivity of an employee to his/her directors and equals, it can besides defined as the type of information engineering resources available to be used by telecommuter, both increase the sum of communicating and information transferred. That was consistent with the surveies explain that practical organisations are extremely enabled by sum of IT being used ( Mowshowitz, 1994, Freedman 1993 ) .
INDEP VAR ( X4 ) : Working Conditionss
Physical working conditions is one of the environmental factors that affects distant worker self-efficacy ( Gist and Mitchell, 1992 ) , being in good working environment can extremely better person ‘s beliefs about his ain public presentation, on the other manus, distractions and noise will negatively impact public presentation.
INDEP VAR ( X5 ) : Beliefs & A ; Attitudes
This variable is one of the of import concepts of the Theory of planned havaior ( TPB ) . Beliefs is the cognitive rating of an person against the effects of a certain behaviour ( e.g. , What will go on if I follow this thought? ” )
Attitudes are the affectional response of an person against that behaviour ( e.g, I truly want to follow this thought ” ) ( G.C. Moore, I. Benbasat, 1991 )
Moderating Variables
The research will analyze the variables below and find its consequence on the relationship between independent – dependent variables.
The age group of the telecommuter
MOD VAR: Gender
Whether the telecommuter is male or female
MOD VAR: Family Status
Whether Telecommuter is married or individual
MOD VAR: Occupation Degree
The business degree of the telecommuter ( Manager or employee )
Research Premises
The current research has been conducted under the premises below:
Premise 1: Any other internal or external variables non addressed in this survey are held changeless
Premise 2: All study respondents have answered the questionnaire objectively and candidly.
Premise 3: The surveyed sample represents the employees working in the ICT sector in Egypt.
Research Restrictions
Lim1: The theoretical model is merely limited to the variables included in the theoretical account.
Lim2: The research is limited to the clip of the survey.
Research inquiries
Major Research Question
( MjRQ1 ) What are the factors that affect Telecommuter ‘s sensed productiveness in the Egyptian ICT sector.
Minor Research Questions
( MnRQ1 ) What is the consequence of the distant work experience and preparation on the telecommuter perceived productiveness?
( MnRQ2 ) What is the consequence of the direction support on the telecommuter perceived productiveness?
( MnRQ3 ) What is the consequence of the degree of connectivity on the telecommuter perceived productiveness?
( MnRQ4 ) What is the consequence of the physical working status on the telecommuter perceived productiveness?
( MnRQ5 ) What is the consequence of the Beliefs and attitudes on the telecommuter perceived productiveness
( MnRQ6 ) To what extent does the telecommuter ‘s gender chair the relationship between the independent variables and the sensed productiveness
( MnRQ7 ) To what extent does the telecommuter ‘s age moderate the relationship between the independent variables and the sensed productiveness
( MnRQ8 ) To what extent does the telecommuter ‘s household position moderate the relationship between the independent variables and the sensed productiveness
( MnRQ9 ) To what extent does the telecommuter ‘s business degree moderate the relationship between the independent variables and the sensed productiveness
Research Methodology
Research Type
This research is considered to be an analytical research trying to find and analyze the factors impacting the sensed productiveness of the employees enrolled in telecommuting plans and working in the ICT sector in Egypt.
Sampling Method
Paradigm: Quantitative
Purpose: Analytic
Results: Applied
Logic: Deductive
Procedure: Qualitative and quantitative
Methodology: Cross-sectional interviews and questionnaire
The research worker used non-probability trying techniques by convenience sample.
1 ) The Semi-Structured Interviews Sample
Sample 1: Capable Matter Experts
Applied Tool: Semi-structured interviews
Population I: Employees working in ICT sectors.
Sampling Methods: Judgmental sampling
Sample Size: 4 Experts
Purpose: To formalize the proposed theoretical account concepts before planing the questionnaire.
2 ) The Survey Sample
Sample 2: Egyptian ICT employees
Applied Tool: Surveies
Population II: Egyptian ICT employees
Sampling Methods: non-probability trying – convenience sampling
Sample size: 400
Data Analysis Methods
The quantitative informations were analyzed utilizing description analysis and illative analysis affecting different statistical methods. The analysis methods were conducted utilizing the SPSS application ( Statistical Package for the Social Science ) .
Descriptive Analysis
Cronbach Alpha dependability trial was conducted to analyze the internal consistence of the information. Descriptive statistics are foremost used to foreground sample features and descriptive frequence analysis.
Inferential Analysis
The research worker starts with the normalcy trial to place whether parametric or non-parametric testing attacks are to be employed. Then correlativity trial is applied to prove the
Thesis Structure
This survey is composed of five chapters.
Chapter 1: provides an debut of the research that contains the overview, job
Chapter 4: provides the elaborate results of the SMEs interviews and elaborate descriptive and illative analysis of the collected information. The chapter is foregrounding informations aggregation, informations analysis and findings.
Chapter 5: The last chapter and it provides the decisions of the research, stressing the recommendations every bit good as countries for future work.
: state-of-the-art
Commuting to office work is disused. It is now
boundlessly easier, cheaper and faster to. . . move
information. . . to where the people are. ”
Peter F. Drucker
To be continued..
Telecommuting Defined
Telecommuting, telework, distant work, working at place is an agreement where employees do n’t necessitate to transpose to the physical work location in order to execute their occupation undertakings. Employees use what is called satellite offices ” , it can be a java store, client location or merely working at place ( Blair-Loy & A ; Wharton, 2002 ) . A individual who telecommutes normally called telecommuter ” or teleworker ” . The challenge of set abouting teleworking is that it does n’t hold a cosmopolitan definition ( Salomon, Mokhtarian, and Choo 2005 ) , but the most in agreement definition is the trust on information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) to execute the occupation. This requires a specific technological substructure including Internet entree, phone, facsimile, e-mail and of class a proper broadband connexion to manage the information transportation. In publications, the term teleworking and telecommuting are being used interchangeably but telework is considered to hold a broader significance covering a wider scope of work distribution, on the other manus, telecommuting refers specifically to the work performed in a location that reduces the commutation clip. Telework with its broader construct has four dimensions, work location, that could be any topographic point outside the cardinal office ; ICT ( Information and telecommunication engineering ) as the bosom of the telework substructure ; Time Distribution, the sum of clip spent during telecommuting outside cardinal office ; Employment type, mentioning to the relationship between employee and employer runing from contract to full clip occupation ( Kelly Garrett, James N. Danziger )
Telecommuting History and Timeline
The wheels of telecommuting began to run in the 1990 ‘s with the aid of the information age that facilitated the thought. However, telecommuting existed before that clip. During the clip between 1950 ‘s to 1970 ‘s, some mills has adopted the construct of telecommuting and applied it to some merchandises that has been built manually, this allowed a flexible work for some employees at place, peculiarly adult females and immature kids. As the technological progress took topographic point in the 2nd half of the 20th century following World War II, specially in the field of ICT, telecommuting started to take a presence.
By 1970 teleworking gained a possible precedency. Jack Nilles, known as The male parent of telework and teleworking ” , started his research in 1972 in a response of the realisation of the OPEC oil crisis and the dramatic addition of the universe fossil-fuel, Nilles realized that the long term commute to work will hold a terrible impact on the energy ingestion and increase the depletion of the fossil fuels. With his work at NASA and US Air Force, the thought of telecommuting ” or telework ” came to topographic point. Nilles implemented a undertaking to let 30 employees to telework. Between 1970 and 1980 along with the eased up of the oil crisis, computing machines started to turn up to help the edifice block of teleworking.
By 1979, Frank Schiff published the first teleworking article in Washington station, named Working At Home Can Save Gasoline ” . By 1980 companies following telework started to distribute in Europe, in add-on, private and public sectors in USA initiated telework for their employees. Equally early as 1980, the first teleworking conferences were held by another innovator in that field Gil Gordon.
By 1990, telecommuting gained a possible importance and the US Congress led by Frank Wolf and Steny Hoyer started to develop telecenters in California. By 1990, big private sectors penetrated the teleworking universe, AT & A ; T is one of the leaders who shared in increasing the consciousness of telecommuting. In 1995 AT & A ; T in corporation with several authorities bureaus provided educational plans to the populace. In 1996, the president ‘s council of direction introduced the National teleworking Initiative ” to increase the figure of teleworkers to 60,000
Telecommuting constituents and types
Three chief constituents can be identified for telecommuting ( Boisvert, Pinsonneault, 1996 )
Use of information engineering ( IT )
The chief procedure of telecommuting depends chiefly on the transportation of information between work centre and the distant employee, therefore, information engineering ( IT ) represents a major constituent for telecommuting because it provides a changeless communicating between the employees and their organisation and co-workers.
Link with an organisation
Another constituent of telecommuting depends on the type of contact between employees and organisations, telecommuters normally have strong relationship with organisations in contrast to independent workers ( Bailyn, 1994 ) . Telecommuting is non limited to lasting workers, contractual employees besides telecommute. Researchers found differentiations between those types and came to the decision that telecommuting with contractual workers normally generate troubles ( Huws, 1984, 1993 ; Ramsower, 1985 )
De-localization of work
Delocalization of work can take several signifiers depending on the infinite ” and the topographic point ” of the worker, four different signifiers are outlined below:
Telecommuting from place ( home-based ) : One of the most popular methods, normally takes topographic point at the worker abode, this type of telecommuting requires a proper substructure ( equipments and communications ) , installing of those equipments can be subsidized by organisations ( Nilles, 1994 ) .
Satellite office: It ‘s a distant office location ; normally take the signifier of little organisational affiliates placed in an country that has a propinquity to employee ‘s abodes. The chief intent is to supply a lasting nexus to central offices ( Nilles, 1994, Doswell, 1992 ) .
This type of telecommuting provides an interesting via media for organisations that want to maintain their workers in a traditional environment ( work like environment ) and near their places at the same clip.
Neighborhood work centre: in contrast to satellite offices, this is a private information centres to supply a workspace for employees from different companies in a certain location. This work centre is responsible for all needed administrative undertakings and telecommunication tools ( Olson, 1987a ) .
Mobile telecommuting: one of the newest signifiers of telecommuting that empowers employees with the capacity and freedom of making different activities in different topographic points utilizing laptops, Mobiles and smart phones. In this instance, telecommuter ‘s office can be a auto, in a plane, in a hotel room or even in the route. It depends on the usage of new engineering to set up a dependable nexus to their organisations.
Therefore, one can state that telecommuter is non limited to a certain type and does n’t take a peculiar signifier and the topographic point is non merely place on a full clip footing.
Benefits of telecommuting
Telecommuting provides a scope of benefits to a three chief groups: The company or organisation which decides to follow telecommuting to some or all of its employees, the person or the employee who wants to take this advantage and the society who gets affected by this procedure.
Benefits on organisations
Those employers who decided to follow telecommuting found it a extremely positive experience, a survey held by Lafferty ( 2000 ) studied the sensed advantages of telecommuting among organisations that adopted telecommuting. Table twenty is demoing the increased workers ‘ productiveness, the usage of telecommunication and information engineering and the increased flexibleness of the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours work.
% figure of evaluation as
Highly Important ”
Increased Productiveness
Increased usage of IT
More flexible work
Better Retention of experient employees
Increased employee morale
Beginning: Lafferty 2000
Recruitment and Retention
The traditional theoretical account for most companies places geographical restraints when engaging new employee, normally, companies seek employees populating in moderately short distances to work location or employees decided to relocate to abodes near to the concern office. Telecommuting provides a great opportunity to happen experient campaigners in different functions irrespective of their locations ( Lister 2010 ) . On the other manus following telework and supplying high grade of flexibleness can pull possible employees from distant locations ( Yasbel 2004 ) .
Once the company has adopted teleworking and utilized it to enroll good campaigners, it will be able to maintain them. In the concern market, employees decide to vacate in order to travel to another chance, telework will enable the keeping of those employees. It has been found that, by following telecommuting houses can maintain up to 7 % of the employees decided to go forth to another chance ( Lister 2011 ) .
When an employee resigns, he normally take portion of the corporate cognition and occupation experience, significance that the house will lose an tantamount sum of productiveness, at least on the short term. Furthermore, there are excess disbursals should be paid by the house in order to engage a new employee ( the advertisement, HR procedure.. etc ) , even after engaging the employee, there should be a long period of preparation and cognition transportation before this employee is considered to be productive. A survey by ( Telstra 2008 ) estimated these costs to be 15 % of the one-year wage of the going employee, other surveies estimated the cost to be higher, 33 % of the one-year wage ( US Department of Labor )
A survey by Rane ( 2011 ) reported the impact of telecommuting on maintaining employees, they found that on norm, more than 60 % of concerns who implemented telecommuting believed that it helped with both recruiting and keeping of workers.
Figure xx.x: Impact of work flexibleness on enlisting and keeping
Beginning: Rane 2011
Although teleworking does non halt employees from being ill but it may take to a decrease in unwellness and other personal leave factors that interrupt the working hours ( Dixon, 2003 ) . The handiness of teleworking among house ‘s employees should enable employees to work in the instance of non mild unwellness such as cold, without impacting their productiveness. That means an employee can work at place even if he is sick, this will avoid spreading diseases among other healthy employees at office by maintaining the septic 1s at place.
A survey carried out by Lister ( 2011 ) to demo the possible benefits of telecommuting in Canada, it revealed that 15 % of the personal foliages taken by employees was non due being sick, but it was taken for other personal issues like taking attention of a household member. With teleworking, those employees are still capable of transporting out their work and maintain it near to full productiveness.
Telework besides helps in cut downing work clip break due to hours spent outside work location to director personal personal businesss. The flexibleness provided by telecommuting enables employee to hold a time-off during the standard working hours and compensate for those hours without losing the work clip. In the absence of this flexibleness, employee normally takes a leave to mange his personal demands or even cut his working clip and leaves early ( Doherty, 2000 ) . The tabular array below describes the rate of personal foliages when telecommuting is non available.
Rate ( % )
Take personal foliages
Take sick go forth
Leave early
Late reaching to work
Figure xx.x: How telecommuters manage their personal demands if they do n’t telework
Beginning: ( Doherty, 2000 )
Business continuity
Telecommuting is one of the possible solutions in instance of exigencies ; it ‘s one of the chief ways to maintain the concern productive to avoid the unplanned closure. This applies to employees involved or even non officially involved in telework plans. Below are state of affairss where telework can supply concern resiliency against those unplanned closures:
Menaces: for illustration during the H1N1 infection in 2009, there was an advice to the persons to be quarantined even if they do n’t demo H1N1 symptoms, here telecommuting will maintain those persons productive.
Natural catastrophe – for illustration the Jan 2011 inundations in Brisbane – Australia, employees working from the caput office were prevented from making their occupations, nevertheless other employees working from place in un-affected countries remain productive. Same instance applied to the latest Sandy hurricane October 2012, Oracle employees holding internet connexion were able to stay working from their places.
Public failure – like public transit issues due to temblors, storms or work stoppages, this prevent employees from accessing the workplace, non-teleworkers normally take foliages until jobs are cleared.
Furthermore telecommuting aid concerns to last and execute good in the clip of economic recession, during the planetary fiscal crisis ( GFC ) , many US concerns took stairss in cut downing operational costs and labours to remain in the market, telecommuting provides an alternate manner to cut down the transit costs, public-service corporation disbursals, office leases.. etc, it was estimated that 19 % of those houses took this attack by increasing telecommuting rates ( Galinsky, 2009 )
Productivity addition
The productiveness betterment and the quality of work related to telecommuting is one of the possible organisational benefits, nevertheless few surveies tackle this point due to the troubles in mensurating productiveness. Harmonizing to a survey by Baard ( 2010 ) , telecommuters are more productive compared to their co-workers working in the traditional work topographic point ; several grounds were identified for this productiveness betterment:
The place based office provides a quiet environment for work, no breaks from co-workers, no noise ; it can be tailored harmonizing to telecommuter ‘s penchants.
Unless you need to take part in a face to confront meeting or a picture conference, you have the freedom to work with your favourite apparels, in your comfort country.
Reduced emphasis by avoiding the concern of the traffic when transposing daily to work. Telecommuting as a benefit for employee raises the grade of satisfaction and the belongingness to the organisation.
Productivity additions originating from the benefits to the employee by avoiding the long commute to work, besides it ‘s a benefit for organisation since employees save the clip lost in traffic and replace it with an existent work, therefore productiveness increased. A survey by Lister ( 2011 ) showed that 60 % of the clip consumed during transposing to work can be added to the work hours.
A survey conducted by ( Duxbury and Higgins, 1995 ) at Statistics Canada on 20 telecommuters, 17 supervisors and 23 employees showed that telecommuters showed a high grade of regard against scheduling and restraints and were able to expeditiously form their work at place and trade with the household duties. Another survey by Huws ( 1993 ) indicated that telecommuters were 47 % productive than their opposite numbers, informations was collected straight from their directors.
Adopting telecommuting particularly for employees working in ICT sector will supply a new dimension of coaction across several sites, therefore enabling the organisation to work wider endowments and experiences normally non available in the traditional work topographic point ( Riswadkar 2009 ) .
Cost economy
It ‘s good known that using telecommuting requires extra cost ; nevertheless a survey by ( Mallia 2000 ) estimated that companies will salvage $ 2 for each $ 1 spent by companies on implementing telecommuting including equipment and broadband lines. Beginnings for that cost economy are described below:
Office infinite – when companies implement telecommuting and increase the figure of employees in this plan, it can let go of some of the office infinite used by those employees and salvage the rental cost
Utility expense – when companies reduces the staff and direct them place, several disbursals can be reduced like electricity, gas and H2O ingestion.
Office decentalisation – when companies have a considerable figure of telecommuters, there will be no demand to hold a caput office in a cardinal location in an expensive rental countries, now, caput office can be located to other lower cost topographic points.
Benefits on Persons
Telecommuting has a broad scope of benefits on employees, different beginnings of benefits are outlined below:
Cost economy
Employees are able to derive a considerable sum of cost economy by following teleworking ( Riswadkar 2009 ) , this can be summarized as follows:
Fuel disbursals are extremely avoided for employees drive to work daily, or the transit disbursals for those who take public or private transit, this is translated to the dollar ‘s value of the disbursals or the value of the clip wasted in transposing to work.
Even the vesture and dry cleansing costs
Avoided the seashore of repasts, employees working at place take a homemade repasts alternatively of traveling out to tiffin.
A survey by Baruch and Nicholson ( 1997 ) on 62 portion clip telecommuters showed that 75 % of them ( directors and professionals ) reported that there was about 1 hr salvaging per twenty-four hours by cut downing both clip and distance required for the traditional commutation to work. Even for employees who are non often telecommuting, the cost economy is high, a survey by Cisco and Telework Exchange ( 2011 ) estimated that employees working 2 days/week at place is tantamount to giving them a $ 3439 one-year rise, due to the avoided costs.
Work-life balance
Telecommuting provides a high degree of freedom and flexibleness in pull offing clip between work, leisure activities and household duties ( Reinsch, 1997 ) . A study conducted on 20 telecommuters showed that the increased flexibleness and the personal freedom were the most of import incentives for following telework ( Knight and Westbrook, 1999 ) . Actually the addition in flexibleness is a possible factor to increase satisfaction and productiveness. However this flexibleness has a bound, normally concern activities require continues communicating between employee and his co-workers and directors in the criterion working hours ( Byrne 2005 ) .
Telecommuting contributes to the betterment of the work-life balance, the clip saved due to avoiding the long hours spent in transposing to and from the work can be used for leisure activities, even avoiding the haste hours reduces the emphasis and improves the quality of life. The flexibleness of telecommuting and using the flexible work agreement ( FWA ) provides a good opportunity for the telecommuter to choose the best clip for leisure. FWA besides has a positive impact on the physical and physiological wellness for employees ( Working Families 2011 ) .
Job Satisfaction
The betterment in work/life balance provided by telecommuting and the decreased emphasis makes the employee to experience more positive against his employer. In fact, the addition in satisfaction arises from the sense of authorization that employee has toward the trust from his employer by directing him place with no closer monitoring to guarantee that he is working hard. This authorization is a chief cause for the increased occupation satisfaction ( Lister, 2011 ) . Bing involved in telecommuting plan addition the feeling of telecommuter to be more valued from the employer, this increases the committedness and trueness toward the organisation ( Baard, 2010 ) .
Workforce engagement
Telecommuting provides a good opportunity for certain groups in society that faced troubles in fall ining work ; some of these groups are outlined below:
Disabled people – persons with disablement still have the experience and mental capableness to execute the needed occupation but might confront handiness jobs with transit and office edifices ( Baard, 2010 )
Peoples, who provide caring for others like female parents and kids, may hold troubles in working full clip. Even some of them accept lower occupation function because they do n’t hold the flexibleness to pull off their personal life demands ( Bourke 2011 ) .
Persons populating in a hapless distant locations normally do n’t hold a opportunity to happen good local occupations even if they are skilled plenty and may non be able to relocate. Telework would supply a manner to fall in large companies in centralised metropoliss without necessitating to travel ( Baard, 2010 ) .
Challenges of telecommuting
Although telecommuting have positive effects on organisations and employees ( flexibleness,
increased productiveness, satisfaction and motive ) , but it besides have some negative effects on the
Employee and organisation degree, those factors are outlined below:
On Organizations
Technical issue
One of the chief barriers to teleworking is the loss of proper substructure like a good cyberspace connexion, any possibility of break to the web bandwidth or unexpected awkwardness will straight impact telecommuter productiveness, this means that if telecommuter does n’t hold a stable high velocity connexion at place, so his productiveness is non guaranteed ( Scholefield, 2009 )
Not all employees involved in telecommuting plan have a an entree to a high velocity cyberspace connexion at place, those who are populating in a distant countries or in a location off from the telephone exchange will hold a slower connexions, direction should take actions to except them from telecommuting plans due to the proficient restrictions they have.
Implementing telecommuting plans can be expensive for the houses that do n’t hold the proper substructure ( for illustration, Laptops, high velocity web, file waiters, secured connexions to entree the organisation resources remotely ) . Furthermore there should be a impermanent productiveness issues at the get downing stage of the plan due to the needed preparation, seting model and puting up regulations and restraints. Most of the cost is incurred in the puting up stage particularly in the first twelvemonth ( Nilles, 1994 ) .
Some organisations allow their employees portion the telecommuting cost like the cyberspace connexion cost as it ‘s besides used for personal intents and the per centum is determined by the direction, nevertheless the fact that telecommuting cost is incurred in forepart and the benefits are expected to be accrued over old ages, direction still experience loath toward the thought.
Management and communicating
Telework direction is still new particularly in the underdeveloped states ; traditional direction and communicating manner have to be changed prior to implement telecommuting. Old direction manner is ever tied to the face to confront supervising nevertheless this is non possible in telecommuting. There should be a tight and to the full controlled work model given to employees to enable the direction to mensurate productiveness and determine when the telecommuter is over or under worked.
It ‘s of import that supervisors and co-workers at office understand that telecommuters working from place are available to speak as if they are in the office, if this construct is to the full adopted, so little treatments for little issues will be avoided and by clip there will be a diminution in the overall communicating ( Meyer, 2000 ) . Furthermore, there ‘s another cost at the initial stage of using telecommuting which is the cost of altering direction theoretical accounts, this is normally easier for little companies, nevertheless large organisations will incur possible costs, even it ‘s non easy to alter outlook and perceptual experience of directors towards telecommuting ( Christensen, 1992 ) .
Another job that may originate is the loss of synergism due to the physical absence of employee, really motive and coordination and the sense of trueness can non be sustained in the teleworking context. A survey in UK was conducted to find the factors impacting opposition to telecommuting showed that over 35 % of the directors believed that telecommuting will endanger corporate construction ( Gray, Hodson, and Gordon, 1993 ) .
Trust and civilization related issues
Some research workers found that there ‘s a civilization opposition toward telecommuting from colleagues and directors, it has been considered to be one of the most effectual factors ( ATAC, 2006 ) . There still a deficiency of trust within directors believing that telecommuters will non maintain the same degree of productiveness without a closer monitoring ( Scholefield 2009 ) . Both directors and in-office colleagues believe that telecommuters are non working hard at place because of the possible distractions such as telecastings, kids and pets. Although many surveies showed that there ‘s an addition in productiveness with telecommuting but it depends at the terminal on the telecommuter ‘s environment at place and whether he will be able to cover with struggles and breaks or non.
Data Security
Most of the teleworking concern is carried out over cyberspace, this broad unbarred web is considered to be the chief menace for organisations, Security of IT systems and the high confidential information is a direction potency concern in telework. The hazard arises in the malicious security breaches due to the large transportation of information between office and place web, cognizing that security restraints at place is lower than the chief office ( Whiteman, 2006 ) . Directors are concerned that company information is non merely hacked by an unauthorised parties but besides it can be manipulated ( Greenstein and Feinberg, 1999 ) .
The security protocols implemented at office like watchword policies and anti-virus plans are barricading viruses and malwares and even forestall employees from accessing endangering web sites, those restraints are non likely to be found at place which increase the hazard for viruses to perforate the corporate web.
Challenges on Persons
Although telecommuting adds many benefits to telecommuter in the work and life contexts, but it besides may bring forth some unwanted effects as follows:
Feeling of isolation and loss of morale
Telecommuting normally take topographic point at place, employee spends long hours working entirely off from his co-workers, directors and clients, even sociable employees are affected by that individualised construct of work ( Baard, 2010 ) . Working entirely for drawn-out hours may cut down the ability of employees to interact with their colleagues and the face to confront contact, this loss of effectual communicating may impact the morale of the employee and how he feels against his organisation. A survey conducted on telecommuters showed that 29 % of the employees believe that telecommuting left them out of the office and increased the feeling of isolation ( Reinsch, 1997 ) .
Career patterned advance
Some employees think that working outside the work topographic point may negatively impact their calling, this may happen due to losing the sense of competition against their co-workers and the ability to compare productiveness, by clip employee may lose the public presentation demands that lead to exceed public presentation and hence losing calling chances.
We may happen other perceptual experiences within employees like Out of site out of head ” construct, when it comes to publicities and chances. They believe that those chances normally come to seeable employees at work. ( Meyer, 2000 ) .
Lack of proficient aid
A study conducted on telecommuters found that 30 % of employees working from place believe that they did n’t have a proper proficient aid ( Scholefield 2009 ) . This may be due to non being physically seeable at office, so IT specializers take other precedences and get down functioning employees at the work topographic point. Supporting proficient issues straight at office is much easier than the distant aid ” while employees being at place.
Work – Family struggle
One of the possible negative impacts related to teleworking is the work/family struggles or the blurring function ” between work and life. The deficiency of physical separation between work and personal life can bring forth troubles in commanding employee ‘s outlook to hold two alone functions and being emotionally separated ( Baard, 2010 ) . Modern engineerings like smart phones, laptops provide the feeling of ever on ” this increases the struggle between work and leisure clip. Another impact of that struggle is the decreased productiveness at place due to the distractions and break abound ( Mogelonsky, 1995 ) .
Telecommuting and the community
Traffic congestion is one of the most possible issues in Egypt particularly in big metropoliss, this lead to an extended costs due to the long clip wasted in transposing to work topographic point in the high traffic roads every bit good as the depreciation cost of the vehicle itself. In a state like Egypt, approximately 42.7 per centum of population is populating in urban countries which are chiefly the capital metropoliss like Cairo and Alexandria ( World Bank Indicators ) , the following graph shows urban population ( % of entire ) in Egypt for the period from 2002 to 2010.
ScreenHunter_01 Feb. 02 02.04.gif
Figure xx.x Urban population ( % of entire ) in Egypt
Beginning: World Bank Indicators – Egypt – Density & A ; urbanisation
This all worsen the state of affairs and increase the traffic jobs. In the last few old ages and particularly after the Jan25 revolution, traffic has become a major job in Egypt that is bing the state an extended sum of money and lives. In a recent study by the ( World Bank, 2012 ) , it was estimated that traffic congestions costs the state over EGP 50 billion yearly which is considered to be 4 % of the entire GDP of Egypt. This sum is four times other metropoliss with the same size. This is added to about 4000 hurts plus 1000 died each twelvemonth. The figures were calculated by gauging the cost of the employees ‘ clip being idle in the traffic jam, besides the cost of vehicle ‘s fuel and the environmental effects due to the fuels emanations, impairment of roads and other public public-service corporations.
Adopting teleworking can be a possible solution by cut downing the traffic congestion, as the increased figure of telecommuters will be off the roads during the haste hours. A survey by ( Fuhr, 2007 ) estimated that for every 1 % decreases in autos on the route, there will be 3 % decrease in traffic congestion.
Sing the degree of congestions is reduced in Egypt harmonizing to the increased figure of telecommuters, there will be a less demand to increase the substructure and capacity of the roads and besides will cut down the cost of care which will supply an extended economy for the authorities to airt it to other sectors like wellness or instruction.
Telecommuting restraints
Resources required for telecommuting
Communication is one of the most of import factors that is found in any telecommuting plan, A survey by ( Neufeld and Fang, 2005 ) found that telecommuter ‘s productiveness is strongly associated with quality of relationship with his directors, colleagues and his household members.
Normally in traditional work agreement a physical being and face to confront interaction is required ( Kraut, 1989 ) , unluckily telecommuters do n’t hold this advantage, they normally lose the physical propinquity to colleagues, directors and even clients every bit good as the decreased opportunity to entree information at office for undertaking completion ( Hamilton, 1987 ) . Hence communicating is a compulsory constituent in telecommuting agreement, and there ‘s a demand to change over traditional work procedure into a practical work construction. As a decision, telecommuters working in different clip and infinite demand to be bridged by communicating to accomplish the same productiveness ( Kugelmass, 1995 ) .
Factors impacting successful teleworking
Telecommuting in Numberss
In Egypt
Put the graph for the cyberspace users in Egypt
Internet and figure of users
Companies following telecommuting
The Government enterprise towards telecommuting
Productivity has gained a singular attending in the economic and disposal context, this is because of its possible benefits in the economic, societal and cultural facets. Productivity is a major factor for mensurating states ‘ economic system and national income. This is really of import non merely for developed states but besides developing states aim to increase productiveness as a agency to increase the gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) .
Productivity is traditionally defined as the ratio between end product related to a specific input, in other words, it refers to the relationship between results from a system and what is consumed inside this system to bring forth that end product ( D.H. Harris, 1994 ) . Productivity is non a measuring tool for production or even how much end product is generated. It ‘s a step of how expeditiously a house utilizes and combines available resources to bring forth desirable consequences. The construct of productiveness is related to many factors in work environment, the concluding end product consequence can be calculated by the amount of those factors each with a specific ratio ( Bain, 1982 ) .
Telecommuter productiveness
As mentioned in the literature, telecommuting surveies can be organized based on three degrees: societal ( e.g. , traffic congestion, chances for handicapped, greenhouse consequence ) , organisational ( e.g. , cost economy, GDP economy, employee satisfaction, communicating ) and single ( e.g. , work-life balance, work flexibleness and productiveness ) . In this survey research worker will concentrate on the single degree of telecommuter productiveness and its related factors. At single degree the computation of measuring is different, it can be defined as the effectivity of the employee on using his endowments and accomplishments to execute work utilizing the available resources and stuffs in a specific timeframe ( W.A. Ruch, 1994 ) .
However there ‘s a challenge in mensurating telecommuter public presentation, in a survey by Bosch-Sijtsema et Al. ( 2009 ; 2010 ) it has been found that the existent productiveness is hard to be measured in the work agreement that have multi-locational workplace where employees spend most of their clip outside the work topographic point, sing client sites, going or working from place. The traditional theory of productiveness can be merely applied here because there ‘s no direct relationship between end product and input due to many intervening factors like the complexness and the intangibleness nature of the work, besides mensurating existent productiveness required a type of information that is merely available at governmental governments like the fuel ingestion, travel analysis, salvaging in GDP and internet entree statistics ( Perincherry, 2009 ) . Furthermore existent productiveness measuring can be more hard in the field of information engineering field or even of the work is based on the information transportation like making contents, screening or recovering knowledge the merchandise in this instance is intangible and hard to quantify ( Bosch-Sijtsema et al. , 2009 ; 2010 ) . Many research workers tried to work out this troubles by developing a self-reported steps written by the telecommuter himself, though it might be misinterpreted due to the biasing issues related to self reported informations. ( Martinez-Sanchez et al. , 2007 )
Productiveness and production
Attitudes of Arabian employees toward telecommuting construct
There are few surveies tackle the construct of telecommuting in the Arab universe and Middle East compared to international surveies in US and Europe. A survey by an Egyptian research worker ( Abdel-Wahab, 2007 ) aimed to research the attitude of the Egyptian employees towards the construct of teleworking and step the relationship between attitude and employee ‘s productiveness and satisfaction, the survey revealed that 50 % of the sample size was in favour of telecommuting other than other ( about 24 % ) who are non. He found that those employees who have a positive attitude toward telecommuting have been affected by the followers:
In a developed state like Egypt every cost economy is of import, so salvaging the transit cost and clip is considered.
The avoided emphasis from the long commutes in the high traffic roads
Improvement of work-life struggle specially for female parents who take attention of immature kids.
In a similar survey in US by Joseph J. Grippaldi ( 2002 ) , among finance experts in the American authorities more than 69 % or the respondents was in favour of teleworking, harmonizing to the research worker, the chief grounds behind that discrepancy in attitude between Egyptian and American workers can be outlined below:
There ‘s still a spread in the IT substructure between the two states
The degree of proficiency differences in Software and hardware between the two workers
The lodging chronic job in Egypt makes it hard for the telecommuter to delegate a separate topographic point in his house for his distant work.
In an Arab state like Egypt with a male dominated civilization and the old traditions, working from place might non be encouraged.
Egyptian ICT sector
The information and communicating engineering in Egypt play an of import function in the development of its economic system every bit good as lending to the development of other sectors like wellness, instruction and national trade, since ICT is considered to be the tool to increase the productiveness and efficiency of other sectors by take downing the clip and cost of minutess.
As mentioned in the literature, IT substructure is the land base for any telecommuting agreement. In Egypt, the authorities has made extended attempts to increase both the quality and the coverage of the service.
Infrastructure and teleworking
The rating of the substructure required by a house and the connectivity demands for its employees to execute their occupations remotely is an of import measure when planing the telecommuting plan. Company need to supply an estimation of the figure of telecommuters and their occupation type every bit good as the topographic point where the employee should work ( whether from place, hotel, telework centre, on the route… etc ) . The being of dependable and various communicating substructure will assist the company to accomplish a successful

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