An emergent construct in organisational and trade name direction is the usage of emotional leading as a scheme for constructing competitory advantage. In contrast to traditional impressions of leading, emotional leading emphasizes a strong focal point on the human facets of leading and human resource direction as crucial in trade name and service distinction and in driving company public presentation at all degrees of the value concatenation ( Kupers and Weibler, 2006 ) . The significance of emotions in value creative activity is underscored by the demand for effectual leading schemes which would let the company to better satisfaction among both internal and external clients such as employees, clients, and other stakeholders.
The research worker ‘s involvement in how emotional leading can be utilized to heighten consumer value was developed while working for Pleiger Far East in Korea, a little and average endeavor company engaged in fabricating conventional electro-hydraulic systems and pneumatic and electric-operated regulation valves in the ship building industry. The company ‘s top direction has expressed involvement in deriving greater cognition on how emotional leading can be utilized by the company to increase its competitory place in the market. The research worker will therefore analyze how emotional leading can be utilized by a little company to develop a favorable image from internal and external clients based on the best patterns of high-performing organisations sooner from a similar Asiatic context.
The primary aims of the survey are the undermentioned:
Identify the emotional leading schemes used by successful Asiatic companies to pull off human resources and better their value-chain, and
Determine how the emotional leading schemes used by successful Asiatic companies can be utilized by other concerns to construct competitory advantage and increase consumer value.
III. Literature Review
The construct of emotional leading is a reasonably recent one ( Bardzil & A ; Slaski, 2003 ) . It was non until the 1990s, with the acknowledgment and credence of the function of emotions in direction by bookmans such as Nicholls ( 1994 ) or Goleman ( 1998 ) that bookmans and concern leaders likewise began to take involvement in the emotional dimension of leading and its impact on concern success. A primary motive for bookmans, concern leaders, and directors to derive a better apprehension of the emotional constituent of leading in the execution of concern scheme is the increasing competition in both planetary and local markets, on the one manus, and the trouble of accomplishing service and merchandise distinction to pull and retain internal and external clients, on the other manus.
Emotional leading in organisational direction
Most bookmans have taken a comparative attack to specify emotional leading vis-a-vis traditional impressions of leading. For case, Nicholls ( 1994 ) draws a parallel relationship between emotional leading and the ability to animate or take people utilizing the bosom ” through a echt focal point on people ‘s personal beliefs ” as opposed to traditional impressions of managerial leading which is concerned with the scheme of the organisation and the supervising of its operations. ” Likewise, emotional leading has besides been defined based on its relationship with emotional intelligence, wherein organisational leaders have the ability to show non merely passion for the people, merchandises, and clients of the concern but besides sensitiveness and apprehension of the emotional experiences of the leader him/herself and persons around him/her, which enables him/her to pull off these emotions to go a positive organisational force ( Marques, 2007 ) . Hence, emotional leading has besides been equated with emotional labour, wherein leaders are expected non merely to show emotions but to use emotions to heighten their communicating accomplishments and better their transformational leading abilities ( Humprey et al. , 2008 ) .
Advantages of Emotional Leadership
The use of the emotional dimensions of leading is perceived by bookmans as extremely good to modern-day direction pattern. Goleman ( 1998:3 ) argues that emotional intelligence non merely distinguishes outstanding leaders but can besides be linked to strong public presentation. ” The sensed advantages of emotional relationship are related to the increasing value and significance of emotions and emotional direction in many workplaces. For case, Sussan ( 2006 ) emphasizes the importance of developing managerial accomplishment and ability in emotional battle ” to carry through the strategic ends of a concern for bettering employee productiveness, consumer satisfaction, and fiscal public presentation. Sussan ‘s statements are confirmed by the consequences of a survey conducted by Langhorn ( 2004 ) which show that direction public presentation is contingent on emotional self-awareness, the capacity to set up and keep good interpersonal relationships, the ability for designation with the workplace, squad belonging, and societal duty to the local community.
Emotional Leadership and Competitive Advantage
Consequently, emotional leading is besides seen as a important driver towards the development of a competitory advantage. Langhorn ( 2004:228 ) observes, for case, that emotional experiences for clients is destined to go the following large beginning of competitory advantage in the human service field. ” Competitive advantage refers to the ability of a house to accomplish superior public presentation over challengers through the usage of either cost leading or distinction scheme ( Porter, 1985 ) . Many companies, nevertheless, prefer to leverage distinction over cost leading due to the built-in troubles of set uping cost leading in today ‘s extremely competitory environments. The trouble of utilizing cost as a competitory scheme is particularly pronounced for little and average endeavors viing with industry giants with better resources at their bid.
Meanwhile, Porter ‘s ( 1985 ) construct of developing competitory advantage through distinction is underpinned by his premise of that a company can maximise its value-chain to make a alone individuality and market for the services and merchandises of a company. A company can use assorted facets of its value concatenation to lend to the realisation of better operating and net income borders. For case, a company can concentrate on leveraging its ability to invariably introduce or present superior merchandises to pull and retain possible and bing clients. It is in this sense that the emotional dimension of leading is associated with the development of competitory advantage by many bookmans. As Fowley and Wood ( 2009:560 ) , observe, the ability of a company to set up competitory advantage finally rests on the ability of its leaders and directors to make an environment in which their followings are able to react efficaciously to the demands of changeless alteration. ” Figure 2 illustrates, for case, how company leaders ‘ pattern of emotional leading is linked with the company ‘s value concatenation and how it can be utilized to set up and beef up a company ‘s attempts at distinction in today ‘s extremely competitory environment.
( ibid )
As shown in Figure 2, among the three of import countries where a company can leverage the usage of emotional leading are in human resource direction, selling and gross revenues, and client relationship direction. As internal clients of the company, employees and workers perceive the emotional clime and are affected by the emotional shows and behaviours of concern leaders in the same mode that external clients experience the services and environmental facets of a concern. Peters ( 2002:47 ) assert that today ‘s complex and extremely competitory environments demand no less than leaders with high degrees of strength, engagement, the ability to make and convey to life an inspiring vision, a belief in the merchandise, and echt enthusiasm for the work of the front-line bench scientist or check-out clerk. ”
Furthermore, directors and concern leaders must further emotional intelligence within the organisation to increase the ability of employees to accommodate to altering workplace worlds and pull off interpersonal and workplace emphasiss. Carmeli ( 2003 ) argues, for case, that emotional leading can minimise employee dissatisfaction by promoting the development of high emotional intelligence among employees which would enable employees to get healthier temper provinces and positive frame of head in their work. In bend, the positive attitudes of employees contribute to the creative activity of a positive environment for both employees and clients which is necessary in guaranting customer-based trade name equity through positive consumer service ratings. Mann ( 2007:555 ) notes, for case, that clients ‘ service quality outlooks, purchase determinations, and purchase experiences are extremely influenced by the emotional forepart ” that the employees and the full organisation convey. Similarly, Sussan ( 2006:435 ) emphasizes the cardinal function of emotions in consumer relationship direction when he notes that the cardinal difference between a satisfied and an unsated client is the client ‘s emotion. ” The dynamic part of employee attitude and client service quality in guaranting concern success is farther underscored by Bardzil and Slaski ( 2003:97 ) who observe that employee behaviors focused on the fulfillment of clients ‘ demands and desires, when mediated by a positive clime for services within the organisation, will take to additions in client satisfaction degrees. ”
Therefore, the ability to pattern emotional leading has been shown to be a critical factor in concern success through its accent on the value of emotion direction among employees and act uponing the emotions of consumers. Unfortunately, the deductions of emotional leading for Asiatic companies that has non been exhaustively explored by either Western or Asiatic bookmans, directors, and concern leaders. This survey hence seeks to bridge the cognition spread by supplying initial description on the usage of emotional leading in successful Asiatic companies.
This survey utilized a non-experimental, non-randomized attack to carry on an in-depth analysis of how emotional leading is utilized by successful planetary companies with Asiatic country-of-origins to drive assorted facets of their concern and optimise their value ironss. The companies included in the research were selected through a combination of purposive and convenience sampling. First, the companies were chosen for their ability to run into a specified standard wherein inclusion was based on the undermentioned demands:
1 ) Inclusion in the top 100 planetary corporations based on the Forbes listing ; 2 ) grounds of use of emotional leading in organisational direction based on secondary literature ; and 3 ) grounds of use of emotional leading in trade name or merchandise direction based on secondary literature beginnings. Then, the list of the selected companies was narrowed down based on the sum of bing literature available on the company. Companies which did non hold sufficient coverage in secondary literature beginnings were eliminated from the concluding list due to clip and resource restrictions of the research worker.
Both qualitative and quantitative informations were collected and analyzed from available literature on the companies to place how emotional leading is utilized by the companies to carry through the followers:
1 ) Ensure concern procedure efficiency and better organisational growing and acquisition
2 ) Increase employee satisfaction and motive within the organisation and cut down employee turn-over,
3 ) Strengthen relationships with clients and increase consumer satisfaction with merchandises and services
4 ) Build trade name equity and increase value of company and merchandises from a consumer position.
Contented analysis was done on available secondary literature beginnings, including peer-reviewed diaries, books, and company publications to bring forth a case-study of the companies included in the survey which focuses on their use of emotional leading schemes to turn to the four countries of concern and value concatenation operations as antecedently outlined.
V. Results and Discussion of Findingss
A sum of 19 companies with an Asiatic country-of-origin were identified from the Forbes ( 2009 ) Global 2000 list of companies. Chinese and Nipponese companies dominated the rankings, with a sum of 11 Nipponese companies, 7 Chinese companies, and 1 South Korean company included within the top 100 of the Forbes listing. An internet database hunt of the Asiatic companies included in the Forbes listing narrowed down the companies included in the survey to four ( 4 ) due to the deficiency of equal information and secondary literature beginnings on the usage of emotional leading in the excluded companies. Two ( 2 ) of the companies included were Nipponese companies with planetary operations, one ( 1 ) was from China, and one ( 1 ) from South Korea.
Table Asiatic Companies in Forbes ( 2009 ) Global 2000 Listing
( $ bil )
Net incomes ( $ bil )
( $ bil )
Technology Hardware & A ; Equip.
The first company in the survey, Toyota Motor Corporation, is presently the planetary leader in the car industry and is graded 3rd in the Forbes list of planetary companies. The influence of Toyota ‘s direction doctrine extends beyond the planetary car industry to other industries, with bookmans, concern leaders, and directors likewise trying to retroflex the company ‘s success in auto fabrication and selling at their ain companies and concerns. The 2nd company, Samsung Electronics, is a cardinal participant in South Korea ‘s semiconducting material market. In add-on to the semi-conductor market, Samsung is a extremely diversified company viing in the planetary Mobile telecommunications, lasting consumer goods and contraptions, consumer electronics, and personal computing machine industries. The 3rd company included in the survey is China Mobile, a taking participant in China ‘s telecommunications industry and the universe ‘s no. 1 nomadic telecommunications operator in footings of client base ” ( China Mobile Limited, 2009:2 ) . Although China Mobile chiefly operates in Hongkong and China, it has been able to take advantage of the turning demand for nomadic telecommunications merchandises and services within mainland China to drive its concern growing and public presentation. The last company in the survey is the Nipponese company Sony which is one of the taking planetary participants in the consumer electronics, games, film and picture production, music, and fiscal services industries ( Sony Corporation, 2009 ) . Similar to Toyota and Samsung, Sony has leveraged its extremely diversified concern portfolio to set up a strong presence in several regional markets including North America, Europe, Latin America, and Asia.
Emotional Leadership in Business Process Improvements
Part of the success of all four Asiatic companies can be attributed to these companies ‘ use of emotional leading in guaranting uninterrupted concern procedure betterment and organisational acquisition. Liker and Hoseus ( 2008:37 ) observe, for case, that one of the cardinal factors to Toyota ‘s continued laterality in the car industry is its accent on long-run thought, standardisation, invention, and problem-solving. ” Toyota ‘s committedness to following a long-run scheme to concern public presentation sustainability underscores the importance of constructing long-run relationships with its stakeholders through the usage of emotional direction schemes particularly in times of uncertainness and crisis, when other companies normally sacrifice either employee public assistance or merchandise quality for fiscal expedience. Similarly, Korean company Samsung Electronics utilizes emotional leading to construct a corporate civilization of originative invention, ” a vision that was established through its history of magnetic leading under one of its former Presidents ( Cho, 1999:95 ) . In this sense, Samsung ‘s passion for open uping the development and bringing of high-technology and ultramodern merchandises ( Samsung Electronics, 2008 ) has enabled the company to set up market leading non merely in South Korea but in its international operations. The same passion for conveying new and technologically-superior merchandises characterizes the companies China Mobile and Sony. China Mobile, for case, has dominated the Chinese nomadic telecommunications market through uninterrupted sweetenings to its engineering substructure, thereby promoting the faster acceptance of newer nomadic engineerings among Chinese consumers ( China Mobile Limited, 2009 ) . For its portion, Sony has invariably strived to prolong its leading in the market segments it is located by developing and establishing new and sophisticated merchandises in the market ( Sony Corporation, 2009 ) which has enabled the company to prolong its public presentation and profitableness for many old ages.
Emotional Leadership in Human Resource Management
Another critical factor in the success of Toyota Motor, Samsung Electronics, China Mobile, and Sony is their usage of emotional leading schemes in human resource direction. Toyota, for case, differs remarkably with other companies in its ability to keep labor-management dealingss founded on common trust ” ( Liker and Hoseus, 2008:36 ) as opposed to conflict. Toyota direction ‘s accent on honestness and transparence in covering with its workers has allowed it to boom despite meeting terrible internal and external troubles in its history as a company. Likewise, Samsung utilized its built-in strength for planning and the accomplishments and endowments of its directors and employees for cutting-edge design to emerge as a cardinal participant in several planetary markets ( Cho, 1999 ) . Sony has besides encouraged a risk-taking attitude among directors and employees and pioneered the pattern of engaging and advancing employees based on their ain virtue and public presentation, a system that was virtually counter-culture in Japan ( Cho, 1998 ) . These three companies ‘ human resource patterns reflect the emotional leading construct which emphasizes the ability of concern leaders to develop, inspire, and actuate employees to go bold and originative in the face of troubles and rapid alterations in the external concern environment.
Emotional Leadership in Customer Relationship Management
Furthermore, a critical factor in the success of the four companies is their ability to use emotional leading schemes in constructing client trueness and guaranting client satisfaction with their merchandises and services. Indeed, Toyota ‘s high degree of sensitiveness to consumer quality concerns and demands has been a primary driver in Toyota ‘s continued leading in the car industry, with its focal point on making the right thing for the client ” although it entails important costs to the company ( Liker, 2004:74 ) . Toyota ‘s high degree of client orientation is besides echoed by Samsung Electronics in its mission statement, which is to set up planetary leading by making the heads of people ” ( Cho, 1999:93 ) . Another of import emotional constituent utilized by both companies is the association with socially responsible concern pattern, which is based on the premise that consumers will be loyal to a company whose values they can associate to in a meaningful manner ( Sussan, 2006 ) . This emotional leading scheme is apparent in Toyota and Samsung ‘s focal point on developing merchandises that are more environment-friendly and energy-efficient merchandises in the context of turning concern over the impact of concern and unabated ingestion on the universe ‘s clime and natural resources.
Emotional Leadership in Gross saless and Selling
Further, Toyota, Samsung, and Sony demonstrate the usage of emotional leading in their attempts to hike and better gross revenues and marketing public presentation of merchandises and services. This is apparent in the mode by which Toyota utilizes emotions to place its cars non as simple agencies of transit ” but as objects that convey exhilaration and joy to the lives of the people who drive them ” ( Toyota Motor Corporation, 2009:3 ) . Similarly, Samsung has sought to keep consumer involvement in its merchandises and services by crafting gross revenues and selling messages that convince consumers to draw a bead on for a higher degree of life made possible through engineering. Kamath, et. al. , ( 2007 ) observe that Samsung ‘s emotional entreaty has been chiefly effectual at aiming younger market sections who are more manner and status-conscious and are hence more sensitive to the entreaties of the cutting-edge engineering merchandises offered by the company. In the same mode, Sony ‘s success was built on its ability to reinvent the constructs and image of engineering in the heads of spoting consumers, leting it to make a distinguishable market for Sony merchandises. Cho ( 1998:6 ) argues that Sony ‘s selling scheme leveraged the counter-culture entreaty of Sony during its beginning, which enabled it to make Sonymen, ” loyal clients to Sony merchandises. A survey conducted by ExperEmotive Analytics ( 2009 ) on the impact of Samsung and Sony ‘s emotional selling attacks reveal the resemblance between the emotional places of both trade names among consumers, peculiarly those from a younger demographic, who demonstrated high degree of penchant for Samsung and Sony merchandises due to their promise of being playful and exciting.
Successful Asiatic companies such as Toyota Motor, Samsung Electronics, China Mobile, and Sony Corporation clearly utilize emotional leading schemes which have enabled them to leverage their internal strengths in footings of engineering, human resources, and client entreaty to maximise growing chances within their several industries and market sections. A common emotional dimension identified across the four companies is their accent on values of honestness, self-awareness, risk-taking, passion, invention, and corporate duty, which has allowed these companies to pull and retain loyal clients. Consequently, little and average Asiatic concerns could larn important lessons from the pattern of emotional leading by successful, planetary Asiatic companies in their enterprises at bettering concern public presentation and developing competitory advantage through enhanced relationships with internal and external clients. The continued success of companies such as Toyota, Samsung, China Mobile, and Sony can be attributed to their ability to implement and use emotions to drive concern public presentation and prolong client involvement which efficaciously contribute to their competitory advantage over their rivals. However, the leaders and directors of little and average concerns must besides be cognizant that most of the emotional leading schemes utilized by extremely successful Asiatic companies can non be dogmatically applied to their ain local contexts. Rather, little and average concerns must carefully measure their ain internal strengths and resources to find which emotion-based leading schemes would be most effectual harmonizing to their chosen scheme, vision, and concern ends.
VIII. Restrictions of the Study and Directions for Future Research
One of the major restrictions of the current survey is its trust on secondary literature beginnings to find the use of emotional leading in successful Asiatic companies. The deficiency of available published beginnings on Asiatic companies limited the ability of the survey to demo how emotional leading is concretely practiced by Asiatic directors. Likewise, the deficiency of available informations prevented the survey from supplying a cross-cultural comparing of how emotional leading is utilised across Asiatic states and industries. Hence, future research attempts should concentrate on researching the usage of emotional leading in the context of Asiatic companies through the use of primary informations assemblage techniques and schemes to widen awareness both of bookmans and concern leaders of the benefits and tradeoffs of emotional leading schemes for direction pattern.
Bardzil, P. & A ; Slaski, N. ( 2003 ) , Emotional intelligence: cardinal competences for enhanced service proviso, Managing Service Quality, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 97-104. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.markslaski.com/eifcesc.pdf. Accessed 20/03/10.
Carmeli, A. ( 2003 ) , The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behaviour and results: An scrutiny among senior directors, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 788-813. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mba.biu.ac.il/stfhome/carmeli/data/JMP % 2018 % 288 % 29.pdf. Accessed 20/03/10.
China Mobile Limited. ( 2009 ) , Annual Report, China Mobile Limited, China. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.chinamobileltd.com/ir.php? menu=3. Accessed 10/03/10.
Cho, D. ( 1998 ) , The environment making mechanism of a house — -A route to sustained endurance and growing: Case surveies of Sony and Samsung, Paper presented to the twenty-fifth Fuji Business History Conference, Vol. 28, no.4, pp. 84-100. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dongsungcho.net/lib/file/download.asp? FilePath=/files/press/020701.pdf. Accessed 10/03/10.
Cho, D. ( 1999 ) , The mechanism for industry leading: Seven instances of Korea ‘s environment-creating companies, International Studies of Management and Organization, vol. 28, n0. 4, pp. 84-100. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dongsungcho.net/lib/file/download.asp? FilePath=/files/press/981201.pdf. Accessed 10/01/10.
Dawar, N & A ; Frost, T. ( 1999 ) , Competing with giants: endurance schemes for local companies in emerging markets, Harvard Business Review. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.chungnam.ac.kr/~jkpark/GM/CompetingwithGiants.pdf. Accessed 10/03/10.
ExperEmotive Analytics. ( 2009 ) , Emotional profiles of Samsung and Sony: Discovering evident and concealed feelings for improved emotional selling, ExperEmotive Analytics, St. Louis, MO. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.experiemotive.com/samsung-sony-EP-thank-you. Accessed 10/03/10.
Forbes, LLC. ( 2009 ) , The planetary 2000, viewed 20 March, 2010. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.forbes.com/lists/2009/18/global-09_The-Global-2000_Rank.html. Accessed 10/03/10.
Fowley, J & A ; Wood, M. ( 2009 ) , The emotional impact of leaders ‘ behaviors, Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 559-572.
Goleman, D. ( 1998 ) , What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, Harvard Business School Publishing. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //depts.washington.edu/pulmcc/LeadershipMentoring/Whatmakesaleader.pdf. Accessed 07/03/10.
Kamath, S. , Kulheyko, I. , Kuvik, I. , NizioA‚ek, P. ( 2007 ) , A Historic and Strategic Overview of South Korea ‘s Champion Chaebol: Samsung Electronics, STUDENCKI PRZEGLA„D EKONOMICZNO-SPOA?ECZNY, viewed 20 March, 2010, Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //akson.sgh.waw.pl/sknfm/pliki/publikacje/spes/SPES % 20IV-V.2007 % 20 % 283-4 % 29.pdf # page=15. Accessed 10/03/10.
Kupers, W & A ; Weibler, J. ( 2006 ) , How emotional is transformational leading truly? Leadership & A ; Organization Development Journal, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 368-383. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0220270503.pdf. Accessed 03/03/10.
Langhorn, S. ( 2004 ) , How emotional intelligence can better direction public presentation, ” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 220-230. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0410160402.pdf. Accessed 03/03/10.
Liker, J. ( 2004 ) , The Toyota Way: 14 direction rules from the universe ‘s greatest maker, McGraw-Hill, United States.
Liker, J & A ; Hoseus, M. ( 2008 ) , Toyota civilization: the bosom and psyche of the Toyota manner, McGraw-Hill, United States.
Mann, S. ( 2007 ) , Expectations of emotional show in the workplace: An American/British comparative survey, ” Leadership & A ; Organization Development Journal, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 552-570. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //assets.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0220280604.html. Accessed 03/02/10.
Trade names, J. ( 2007 ) , Leadership: emotional intelligence, passion and. . .what else? Journal of Management Development, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 644-651. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0260260702.pdf. Accessed 10/02/10.
Nicholls, J. ( 1994 ) , The bosom, caput and custodies ” of transforming leading, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, vol 15, no. 6, pp. 9-15. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0220150602.pdf. Accessed 08/02/10.
Peters, T. ( 2002 ) , Tom Peters revisited: The emotional side ” of direction, Office Solutions vol.19, no. 7, pp. 46-47.
Porter, M. ( 1985 ) , Competitive advantage: Creating and prolonging superior public presentation, Free Press, United States.
Samsung Electronics. ( 2008 ) , Annual Report, Samsung Electronics, South Korea.
Sony Corporation. ( 2009 ) , Annual Report, Sony Corporation, Japan.
Sussan, A. ( 2006 ) , Management by emotion ( MBE ) , Competition Forum, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 433-437. Internet hypertext transfer protocol: //www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1268524341.html. Accessed 23/02/10.
Toyota Motor Corporation. ( 2009 ) , Annual Report, Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan.