Organizations get end products because people perform undertakings to a coveted criterion.
Before people can execute their undertakings decently, they must get the hang the particular engineering used by the organisation. This means geting cognition and accomplishments. Sometimes this acquisition is needed when the employee is new to the organisation ; sometimes it is needed as a consequence of some organisational alteration such as new engineering ; sometimes it is necessary if an person is to alter topographic points within the organization-either by sidelong transportation or by publicity.
Training is the acquisition of the engineering which permits employees to execute to standard. Thus preparation may be defined as an experience, a subject, or a regimen that causes people to get new, preset behaviours. Whenever employees need new behaviours, so we need a preparation section. But as we have already noted, developing sections do more than simply make full the spreads in peoples ‘ repertories for transporting out assigned undertakings ; developing specializers are besides now involved in calling development: development people for the following occupation, ” for retirement, and for their functions in society outside the employing organisation.
The universe of work and organisation has become progressively demanding and turbulent ( Burke and Cooper, 2004 ) . Ulrich ( 1997 ) lists eight major challenges presently confronting organisations. These are: globalisation, reactivity to clients, increasing gross and decreasing costs, constructing organisational capableness, alteration and transmutation, implementing engineering, pulling and developing human capital, and guaranting cardinal and durable alteration. Therefore, degrees of competition among organisations have increased. Most organisations today can copy engineering, fabrication procedures, merchandises, and scheme. However, human resource direction ( HRM ) patterns and organisation are difi¬?cult to copy, thereby stand foring a alone competitory advantage ( Pfeffer, 1994,1998 ) . To be successful in the hereafter, organisations will hold to construct organisational capableness. HR professionals and HRM patterns will be required to make value by increasing organisational fight ( Ferris et al. , 1999 ) .
Traditional positions on competitory advantage have emphasized such barriers to entry as economic systems of graduated table, patent protection, entree to capital, and regulated competition. More recent positions have highlighted a different beginning of competitory advantage, a house ‘s human resources and human capital ( Huselid et al. , 1997 ) . New demands confronting organisations as a consequence of heightened competition, globalisation, and technological progresss have put a premium on creativeness and invention, velocity and flexibleness, every bit good as efficiency. The critical house assets do non look on a balance sheet but reside, alternatively, in people and direction systems ( Ichniowski et al. , 1996 ) . The function of house scheme, human resources, and HRM in house public presentation is being rethought. Rather than seeing the HR map as a cost, an HRM system that supports a house ‘s scheme should be seen, alternatively, as an investing, a strategic lever for the organisation in making value.
The Human Resources section is, in consequence, a map charged with reding and directing direction on the investing of its human assets. Though it has traditionally been viewed as an disbursal centre, its attempts can hold important impact on productiveness and net incomes. The magnitude of employee costs entirely should command the attending of top executives. For illustration, Texas Instruments, a high tech electronics house with 65,000 employees worldwide, calculates its employee costs at 55 per centum of operating costs. Even in capital intensive organisations where employee costs are comparatively low, the long-run investing in employees is important. For illustration, see the investing in an employee for the entire length of employment based on sensible premises about expected continuance of employment, anticipated salary additions, and expected additions in benefit costs. When the initial wage is adjusted upward to reflect predicted salary and benefit additions, the investing in an employee rapidly becomes reeling. A major survey conducted in the Upjohn Company revealed that the mean cost of an employee over the full length of employment was 160 times the initial get downing salary. For illustration, a $ 25,000 get downing wage would ensue in a $ 4-million investing for a 30-year continuance of employment, When discounted to today ‘s values, the figure is over a million dollars. Therefore, a determination to engage an employee could be viewed as a million-dollar determination if the employee remains with the organisation for 30 old ages. Although this may be hyperbole, the point is crystal clear: Hour determinations are expensive with this position, it seems logical that an organisation should maximise the effectivity of human resources and guarantee that employees arc decently selected, trained, and supported, and are ever bring forthing at optimal public presentation degrees.
HRM patterns influence employee accomplishments through the acquisition and development of human capital ( Wright et al. , 1994 ) . Effective enlisting and choice patterns can supply the house with extremely qualified appliers. Training and development chances contribute to increasing human capital. HRM patterns can besides act upon degrees of motive through the usage of public presentation assessments, pay-for-performance inducements, and internal publicities systems based on virtue ( Brown et al. , 2003 ) . HRM patterns can besides act upon the design of work so that extremely motivated and skilled employees can utilize what they know in executing their occupations ( Wright and Boswell, 2002 ) .
There is grounds that sometimes even odes non work in bettering overall profitableness of the organisation. There are legion grounds behind the failure of the old traditional methods of preparation
traditional attacks to preparation can be fraught with jobs in today ‘s organisations. These jobs can normally be classified into four general classs. First, developing frequently lacks focal point. Second, it lacks direction support. Third, it is non ever planned and conducted consistently in ways consistent with what have long been known to be effectual attacks to developing design. Fourth and last, it is non efficaciously linked to other organisational enterprises. Each job warrants extra attending because each may dramatise the demand to travel beyond traditional training-and preparation as a stand-alone alteration strategy-to focal point on more holistic attacks to heightening human public presentation.
Training Lacks Focus
What should developing be called? This inquiry has larger deductions than may be instantly evident. The issue amounts to much more than a inquiry about semantics or definitions ; instead, it goes to the bosom of what preparation and development professionals should be making. Confusion over the name of the preparation field underscores developing ‘s deficiency of focal point.
Training Lacks Management Support
Constructing direction support is a time-consuming attempt. Often it must get down with the directors instead than with a gross revenues attempt by developing and development professionals. Directors must value human parts to organisational productiveness. They must besides value attempts to better human public presentation and experience that such attempts are merely every bit of import as projects intended to better the organisation ‘s i¬?nancial, selling, and production/service bringing public presentation. From that point, preparation and development professionals can take extra stairss to construct direction support by turn outing that specii¬?c preparation undertakings can pay off. Customers of developing attempts should be involved in many, if non all, stairss in the preparation procedure so that they have shared ownership in the consequences finally achieved.
On the other manus, if directors do non value human parts and do non believe that investings in them can give mensurable productiveness betterment, so the job resides non with preparation and development professionals but with the directors themselves. They may lose chances for accomplishing dramatic discoveries in productiveness betterment. Small can be done to convert some hard-eyed sceptics, so preparation and development professionals should work with those who are more supportive of human public presentation sweetening and who are willing to defend such attempts.
Training Is Not Conducted Systematically
Over the old ages, systematic theoretical accounts for instructional design and development have been devised that, if decently applied, will accomplish incontrovertible consequences. Many such theoretical accounts exist, but they all have certain characteristics in common.Each measure in preparation or instructional design should be consistently linked to other stairss.
Figure 1: A theoretical account of instructional systems design ( ISD ) .
Training Is Not Linked to Other Organizational Enterprises
Training is sometimes approached as a lone attempt that is non linked to, or integrated with, other organisational enterprises, such as corporate scheme, policy, wagess, or publicities. The often dissatisfactory consequences are sometimes blamed on the training-or, worse, on the preparation and development professionals spearheading the attempt. Possibly the best illustrations of this job are alleged sheep-dip preparation experiences, in which the same preparation is delivered to everyone randomly to construct consciousness. Almost every experient preparation and development professional has had the bad luck of carry oning at least some sheep-dip preparation, though few are proud to acknowledge it. The ground: Sheep-dip preparation is seldom effectual.
Tendencies Affecting Organizations
Organizations and their preparation plans have been affected by many tendencies in recent old ages. Each tendency has created the demand for developing professionals to take a new expression at what they do and has created an drift for traveling beyond preparation as a lone alteration scheme and alternatively concentrating on more holistic attacks to heightening human public presentation.
Four tendencies have exerted possibly the most profound influence on organisations. First, they are being challenged to maintain gait with rapid external environmental alteration. Second, attempts are under manner to set up high-performance work environments that are optimally contributing to human productiveness. Third, work activities are progressively being organized in advanced ways, focus oning on squads or contingent or impermanent workers or trusting on outsourcing. Fourth, employees themselves are happening that they must fix themselves for continually upgrading their competences in existent clip. Each tendency is a driving force behind holistic attacks to bettering human public presentation. Of class, other
Training Is n’t Always Useful
As we have frequently noted, there is no sense in developing people to make what they can already make. Training is an appropriate solution to job-related jobs for people who have what we call DK ( lack of cognition ) or DP ( lack of pattern ) , both of which cause public presentation jobs and lacks in cognition, accomplishments, or abilities.
Diagrammatically, the procedure looks like Figure 2.Our focal point is the left side ( lacks of executing [ DEs ] ) , the jobs that developing will non work out. As solutions for the DEs, we will see feedback systems, eventuality direction, occupation design/reengineering, and organisational development.
Aims of the Research
Critical analysis of the effectivity of Training and Development of employees
Our specific aims are
We will look into the causes of failure of preparation plans
Suggest and measure new developing solutions that will assist in increasing the Growth of an Organization
Suggest and measure new schemes in conformity with the demands of globalisation
Trouble-shooting Human Performance Problems and Analyzing Human Performance Improvement Opportunities
Finding Opportunities for Bettering Human Performance Selecting and Implementing HPE Schemes: Intervening for Change
Scope of the Research
Able people may turn to a point where they are ready for duties beyond their initial assignments. When this happens, the organisation can profitably assist them develop new, larger capablenesss. In bend, public presentation betterments single and organizational-result. That ‘s why it ‘s called a Training and Development Department. Furthermore, the organisation itself may turn and develop. The cafeteria may get other cafeterias, or open an alien ” coffeehouse that specializes in foreign culinary art. It might put up a catering service that delivers nutrient to industrial or institutional clients. It might even choose wholly different end products by establishing an Institute of Haute Cuisine or purchasing an bing house that is unrelated to nutrient.
After all, ours is the epoch of the originative pudding stone. The point is this: Training and development has become concerned non merely with assisting persons to make full their places adequately but besides with assisting full organisations and sub sections to turn and develop. Thus the mark on the door has changed from Training and Development ” to titles reflecting missions such as Employee Development, ” Organization Development, ” or Human Resource Development. ”
This tendency makes it wise for us to look a spot more closely at the interrelatedness of the four inputs: people, engineering, stuffs, and clip.
Training and development, though chiefly concerned with people, is besides concerned with engineering and procedures, or the precise manner an organisation does concern. That engineering might be the manner a flight attender greets a rider on an airliner, or the manner an egg is fried ; it might be the formula that makes one soft imbibe clearly different from all other soft drinks. It might be the design that makes one car more attractive or more efficient than its rivals. It might include the processs for blending and bottling the drink, or for piecing the car. The point is this: To carry through the coveted concluding end product, an organisation requires work. That work is divided among places ; and places are divided into tasks-and undertakings are assigned to people.
This right manner ” is called a standard-and one major map of preparation is to bring forth people who do their work at criterion. ” In fact, one simple manner to visualize how preparation contributes is to look at the stairss by which people control their places:
Measure 1. Specify the right ( or criterion ) manner for executing all the undertakings needed by the organisation.
Measure 2. Secure people to execute these undertakings.
Measure 3. Find out how much of the undertaking they can already execute. ( What is their stock list ” of the necessary engineering? )
Measure 4. Train them to run into skill gaps-the difference in what they can non already make and the criterion for executing the undertaking.
Measure 5. Test them to do certain they can execute their assigned undertakings to minimal criterions.
Measure 6. Give them the resources necessary to execute their undertakings.
From that six-step procedure, we can besides place the two staying inputs: clip and stuff. Peoples ca n’t be miracle workers who create something from nil. So we give them stuffs such as cloth from which they can cut frocks ; parts they can piece into machines ; parts of a broken machine they can analyse and mend. In all these state of affairss, direction normally makes some statement about quality ; it specifies what the finished merchandise must look like. By saying how many units should be repaired in an hr, or how many frocks sewn in a twenty-four hours, direction besides sets measure criterions. The occupation of the preparation section is to end product ” people who can run into those criterions, both in quality and measure.
Significance of the Research
The ability to acknowledge the systems and subsystems of an organisation is an of import component in all preparation and development activities. Training and development exists to advance single and organisational excellence by supplying chances to develop workplace accomplishments. The design and execution of set uping developing intercessions can non be accomplished without first placing the assorted procedures runing within the system.
Because growing and alteration are built-in in organisations, they create a overplus of preparation demands. The term learning organisation ” has become a popular cant to depict the manner organisations must get by with their dynamic nature. A learning organisation is based upon the rule of uninterrupted acquisition, or a systematic method designed to increase larning within an organisation, thereby enabling a more effectual response to organisational alteration.
Learning organisations emphasize the importance of larning at the person, squad, and organisational degrees, thereby increasing the likeliness of farther developing a competent and competitory work force. Peter Senge defines the term as an organisation that is continually spread outing its capacity to make it ‘s future. ” Making so requires that persons improve bing accomplishments every bit good as learn new accomplishments. Jointly, these freshly acquired or refined accomplishments can carry through shared organisational ends. And, by expecting future alterations and working toward the cognition and accomplishments necessary to run into the demands ensuing from these alterations, the organisation can consistently spread out its capacity.
The ultimate intent of all development prosodies is to reply the basic inquiry, Does employee development pay off? ” Everywhere we go, human resource professionals and other directors are hungry for clear grounds that development resources are being efficaciously used. At a gut degree, most believe in development, but can non bring forth informations when challenged to supply grounds that will support development investings. We have proposed new prosodies that we believe will enable organisations to put in more effectual answerability systems and therefore be able to reply that inquiry continuously during their development attempts. Unfortunately, we have non yet received informations and consequences from organisations utilizing our proposed prosodies.
However, there is a turning organic structure of obliging grounds from a assortment of beginnings that clearly indicates development attempts work when decently designed and carried out. The intent of this subdivision is to supply an overview of surveies and informations and show that when resources are invested in development and keeping, they do finally pay off-and normally rather well.
Traditionally, development consequences have been assessed on the footing of perceptual experiences of participants, and, sometimes, knowledge-type acquisition ( e.g. , trials ) . However, the strategic value of development prevarications in public presentation consequences ( system and fiscal ) that are achieved merely through developing expertness consequences ( e.g. , altering occupation behaviours ) . Unfortunately, studies of consequences assessment pattern over the last 40 old ages show that really few development attempts assess public presentation consequences, and at that place has non been much addition in public presentation consequences assessment ( Twitchell, Holton, and Trott 2000 ) . Therefore, the inquiry of whether development truly pays off continues to linger. Therefore, we will concentrate here on available informations that provides grounds of a final payment for investings in development, either through alteration in public presentation or in fiscal returns.
Because there is non yet one important beginning that paperss such returns, we will pull on a assortment of informations beginnings to piece a mosaic of grounds that jointly demonstrates that development does so pay off.
These informations beginnings are divided into the undermentioned subdivisions:
aˆ? American Society for Training and Development ( ASTD ) Learning Out comes Report-one of the largest samples of larning results informations available.
aˆ? High Performance Work Practices Studies-these show the relationship between high-performance work patterns that have development as a nucleus constituent.
aˆ? Program Results Assessment Case Studies-a big organic structure of instance survey literature showing that important returns on investing are possible when development is done right.
American Society for Training and Development ( ASTD ) Learning Outcomes Report
ASTD ‘s 2000 Learning Outcomes Report ( Bassi and Ahlstrand 2000 ) is its 2nd one-year study of consequences from houses utilizing its measurement kit. It covers merely outcomes from formal preparation plans. The 2000 study includes out come informations obtained at two points-at the terminal of preparation and during follow-up after preparation. For terminal of preparation informations, the results represent 7,917 classs and 375,704 participants. Follow-up information represents 2,397 courses,14,386 scholar responses, supervisory responses on 1,695 classs, and 9,825 single supervisor studies. The respondents represent a wide cross-section of states, house size, and developing type.Of most involvement to us here are the post-training follow-up responses. These responses would be considered Learning-Expertise consequences utilizing the consequences assessment model discussed in the debut. Two inquiries were asked of supervisors and developing participants: What per centum alteration occurred in participants ‘ public presentation on the class aims and in the participants ‘ overall occupation public presentation? Because the supervisors ‘ evaluations tended to be lower than the participants ‘ , we will utilize them because they are the more conservative estimation.
For alteration in public presentation on the class aims, the mean betterment across all preparation types was 34 per centum, runing from 24 to 40 per centum for developing other than new employee orientation, which reported 67 per centum betterment. This step indicates how much alteration occurred in accomplishment countries specifically targeted by the preparation. For alteration in overall occupation public presentation, the mean betterment across all preparation types was 29 per centum, runing from 20 to 43 per centum for developing other than new employee orientation, which reported a 66 per centum betterment. Participant evaluations on betterment were close to supervisor evaluations, though normally somewhat higher. Reported betterment per centums for different preparation types are shown in Table 1
These informations clearly suggest strong public presentation betterment from training.Although there is no information here to bespeak whether the changed public presentation resulted in fiscal returns, the strong betterments in overall occupation public presentation as reported by supervisors of participants ( who are less likely to give colored consequences than the participants ‘ responses ) is obliging. Clearly, developing makes a difference. The ASTD Learning Outcomes data points to this decision:
Core Conclusion # 1
Training and Development can alter occupation behaviours and overall occupation public presentation.
Surveies in High-Performance Human Resource Practices
In recent old ages, research workers have focused on showing the value of human resource patterns in bettering organisational public presentation. Assorted labels are attached to the set of patterns, but high-performance human resource ( HR ) patterns ” seems most appropriate. A core portion of high-performance human resource pattern is a strong committedness to employee development, peculiarly of accomplishments critical to the success of the organisation. Therefore, these surveies provide utile grounds of development ‘s value, although they do non insulate the consequence of development entirely.
Because these surveies appear in academic diaries, many practicians are non cognizant of them. This subdivision will supply cardinal findings from these surveies that are utile to HR practicians. The primary advantage of the findings in this subdivision is that they are based on strict research methodological analysiss that are normally generalizable to some extent. All represent organisation, or plant-level, informations, as opposed to traditional program-level consequences appraisal and are considered cardinal surveies in warranting the value of HR development.
Surveies of a Broad Cross-Section of Companies
Huselid ( 1997 ) surveyed 3,452 houses stand foring all major industries in the United States. The concluding sample was of 968 houses. The study consisted of 13 high-performance work patterns that were clustered into two groups: Employee accomplishments and organisation construction ( which contains development ) and employee motive. He so obtained fiscal informations on each house from publically available beginnings to measure the impact of the high-performance patterns on turnover, productiveness ( gross revenues per employee ) and fiscal public presentation ( Tobin ‘s Q and gross rate of return on capital ) while commanding for a figure of factors such as house size and industry.
Table 2 Practical Consequences of Huselid
Guzzo, Jette, and Katzell ( 1985 ) used a statistical technique called metaanalysis to aggregate the consequences from 98 surveies where what we now call high-performance work patterns were introduced into organisations. The patterns they examined included enlisting and choice, preparation and direction, assessment and feedback, direction by aims, end scene, work redesign, fiscal compensation, decisionmaking techniques, sociotechnical intercessions, supervisory methods, and work rescheduling. Three types of public presentation were examined: end product, backdown from the organisation, and breaks in the organisation ( accidents, work stoppages, etc. ) . Therefore, this is a really comprehensive analysis. The consequences are impressive:
aˆ? Over all the surveies and intercession types, the mean productiveness of the worker having the intercessions was 0.44 standard divergences above the mean worker non having them. This is a really substantialdifference.
aˆ? The consequence was largest for break steps ( consequence = 0.82 venereal disease. dev. ) and following largest for end product ( consequence = 0.63 venereal disease. dev. ) .
aˆ? Training, end scene, and sociotechnical systems design had the most powerful effects.
aˆ? For developing entirely, the mean productiveness for those having the intercessions was 0.78 standard divergences above the mean worker.
aˆ? The largest consequence for preparation was 0.85 on the end product step, bespeaking that workers having preparation intercessions performed 0.85 standard divergences above the worker non having preparation.
Delaney and Huselid ( 1996 ) besides used the NOS information set but analyzed the informations a small otherwise. They constructed steps of nine different HR patterns from the NOS informations and tested the ability of these steps to foretell two public presentation steps: perceived organisational public presentation and perceived public presentation in the merchandise market place. The correlativity of developing entirely with public presentation in the merchandise market place was 0.19 but merely 0.06 with organisational public presentation. Training and the other HR patterns together explained about 18.5 per centum of the discrepancy in organisational public presentation and 26.5 per centum of the discrepancy in merchandise public presentation.
Table 3 Correlations of Regression Analysis of Training with Perceived Performance Measures
Survival of Firms with IPOs
Welbourne and Andrews ( 1996 ) examined the prospectuses of 136 nonfinancial IPO ( initial public offering ) houses to find their accent on human capital/resources, including preparation. They so analyzed the informations to find the impact of stressing human capital on market value and five-year endurance rates. After commanding for cardinal immaterial variables, they found that the houses puting greater accent on human resources were more likely to last for five old ages. In fact, valuing human resources along with wagess for public presentation right predicted 71 per centum of the houses that survived for five old ages.
Why Training Is Not Adequate
Problems with Traditional Approachs to Training
Tendencies Affecting Organizations
Introduction of Human Performance Enhancement
Performance Breakthroughs Are the Results of Human Choices, Not Technological Wizardry
Transforming a Training Department into a Human Performance Enhancement Department
Constructing Awareness of the Need for Change
Constructing Awareness of Possible Directions for Change
Assessing and Building Support for Change
Making a Flexible Road Map for Change
Building Competencies Is Key to the Change Effort
Communicating the Need for Change
Training Peoples to Think Like HPE Professionals
Trouble-shooting Human Performance Problems and Analyzing Human Performance Improvement Opportunities
Analyzing What Is Happening
What Prompted the Investigation?
Gathering and Documenting Facts and Percepts
Analyzing Present Conditionss
The Competencies of the Auditor ‘s Role
Visualizing What Should Be Happening
What Does It Mean to Visualize What Should Be Happening?
What Are the Roles of the HPE Consultant and Their Clients in
Visualizing What Should Be Happening?
What Sources Provide Clues About What Should Be Happening?
What Methods May Be Used to Roll up Information About What Should Be Happening?
The Competencies of the Visionary Role
Finding Opportunities for Bettering Human Performance
Clarifying Present and Future Performance Gaps
Specifying a Performance Gap
Identifying Performance Gaps
Measuring Present and Future Performance Gaps
The Competencies of the Gap Assessor Role
Determining the Importance of Performance Gaps
Who Determines Importance?
The Competencies of the HPE Facilitator
The HPE Consultant ‘s Role in Determining the Importance of Performance Gaps
Identifying the Underliing Causes of Performance Gaps
Distinguishing a Cause from a Symptom
Who Determines the Causes of Human Performance Gaps?
When Should Cause Be Identii¬?ed?
What Is Known About the Causes of Human Performance Problems?
Identifying the Causes of Human Performance Gaps
How and Why Do Causes Change over Time?
The Competencies of the Strategic Troubleshooter Role
The Roles of the HPE Consultant and Their Clients in Identifying the
Underliing Causes of Performance Gaps
Choosing and Implementing HPE Schemes: Intervening for Change
Choosing Human Performance Enhancement ( HPE ) Schemes
What Is a Human Performance Enhancement Strategy?
What Assumptions Guide the Selection of HPE Strategies?
What Is the Range of Possible HPE Strategies?
How Often Are HPE Strategies Used?
How Should HPE Strategies Be Selected?
The Competencies of the HPE Methods Specialist Role, the Forecaster of Consequences Role and the Action Plan Facilitator Role
What Are the Roles of the HPE Consultant and Their Clients in Selecting and Implementing HPE Strategies?
Implementing Human Performance Enhancement Strategies to Address Organizational Environment Problems or Opportunities
Who Are the Most Important External Stakeholders?
How Well Is the Organization Interacting with the Most Important External Stakeholders?
What HPE Strategies Can Improve the Organization ‘s Interactions with External Stakeholders?
How Should HPE Strategies Be Implemented?
The Competencies of the HPE Implementer
Implementing Human Performance Enhancement Strategies to Address Work Environment Problems or Opportunities
Explicating, Clarifying, and Communicating Organizational Policies and Procedures
Enhancing Organizational Design
Implementing Human Performance Enhancement Strategies to Address Work Problems or Opportunities
Redesigning Jobs or Job Tasks
Bettering Information Flow about Work-Related Issues
Bettering Job Feedback Methods
Bettering On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Training
Bettering Structured Practice
Bettering Equipment and Tools
Using Job or Performance Aids
Bettering Reward Systems
Implementing Human Performance Enhancement Strategies to Address Worker Problems or Opportunities
Identifying and Building Worker Competencies
Bettering Employee Selection Methods
Using Progressive Discipline
What Is Evaluation?
How Do HPE Strategy Evaluation Methods Resemble Training Evaluation Methods?
How Do HPE Strategy Evaluation Methods Differ from Training Evaluation Methods?
What Bit-by-bit Models Can Steer HPE Evaluation Strategy?
What Research Has Been Done on Evaluating HPE, and What Has It Shown?
The Competencies of the HPE Evaluator