A World Lit Only by Fire Reading Guide Essay

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1. I know both the Middle Ages and Renaissance took topographic point in Europe. The Middle Ages were awful times marked by pestilences. crude agricultural machinery. war and deficiency of proper sanitation. The Renaissance occurred later in Europe. and that was marked by the metempsychosis of involvement in art and rational capableness. Art normally intertwined faith.
2. Manchester supported utilizing the term Dark Ages” to depict the historical period between 400 BCE and 1000 BCE due to the deficiency of rational life. incessant war” . where multiple groups. including the Goths and Huns took portion in the slaughter and plundering of small towns.
3. The many dangers that European people faced during the Dark Ages included:
dearthspestilencesclimatic alterationsdeficiency of imperial substructurehomicide
4. Augustine’s thoughts led to the Medieval Church deriving power by saying that Rome was paying for it’s yesteryear wickednesss and to pull a line Paganism ( which was represented as depraved ) . and Christianity. ( which was represented as wholesome ) .
5. An illustration of how mediaeval people combined pagan religion with Christianity was that they built Christian churches on what were one time heathen temples.
6. The Middle Ages was non a civilisation due to its deficiency of technological progresss and its deficiency of civilization. The major establishments consisted of the Roman Catholic Church and Lords.
7. The largest land in Europe circa 1190 was the Holy Roman Empire. 8. Rule by Godhead right was the manner king’s of the Roman Empire ruled. which was by the Torahs of the Church. European male monarchs and princes ever ruled by Godhead right. in fright of being kicked of the Church.
9. The Great Schism was caused by Pope Clement V. who moved the pontificate to France. where it stayed. Some people wanted an Italian to take over after Pope Gregory XI’s place after his decease. while a bulk wanted a Gallic pope. 10. Peoples could non see the Avignon pontificate as a crisis because the actions of the Catholic Pope straight correlated with the word of God” . doing the determination absolute. 11. Examples of the lack of ego”during the Middle Ages included: Peoples with creativeness has no sense of ego
Most people had monikers because they shared family names with many other people No one knew the individualities of the people who constructed their architecture 12. Unam Sanctum was a bull affirming apostolic domination. ” This proclaimed the book as the one and true leader.
13. The coming storm” Manchester hinted at that was quickly nearing medieval Europe was the terminal of the Middle Ages and beginning of the Renaissance. 14. Knighthood was deceasing became gallantry was disused. The methods the knights used in the battleground would besides now prove uneffective. The hereafter would belong to the Absolute Monarchs because they were the lone people able to afford the new-age preparation and supplies for the marchers.
15. Manchester described the Renaissance spirit as subtle. but powerful” . Artists arrived foremost. 16. Harmonizing to Manchester. medieval people couldn’t conceive of a different life because they didn’t have the position to see in the hereafter. Their day-to-day lives didn’t call for imaginativeness or artistic reading.
17. The dragons” that lurked beyond the boundary lines of medievalism were Johannes Gutenberg. Cesare Borgia. Johann Tetzel. Desiderius Erasmus. Martin Luther. Jakob Fugger. Francois Rabelais. Girolamo Savonarola. Nicolaus Copernicus. Giordano Bruno. Niccolo Machiavelli. William Tyndalem. John Calvin. Vasco Nunec de Balboa. Emperor Charles V. King Henry VII. Tamas de Torquemada. Lucrezia Borgia. William Caxton. Gerardus Mercator. Girolamo Aleandro. Ulrich von Hutton. Marton Walidseemuller. Thomas More. Catherine of Aragon. Christopher Columbus. Vasco de Gama and Ferdinand Magellan.
Part Two: The Shattering
18. This transition suggests that the manner history is perceived is based on the consequence it has on current events instead than the possibilities of it’s long term effects. 19. Magellan’s find of the Philippines was important because it proved the universe was unit of ammunition. He provided a linchpin” for the Renaissance by giving others the agencies of disputing mediaeval premises.
20. European life became really cheap” in the late 1400s and early 1500s because:
bubonic pestilencepoxpneumoniaSpanish Inquisition
21. The unchristian Acts of the Apostless of the five Catholic Popes during Magellan’s life-time included: Innocent VIII ( 1484-1492 ) -forged apostolic measures Julius II ( 1561-1564 ) – watched the slayings of Christians for amusement Sixtus IV ( 1471-1485 ) -anointed household members as cardinals ; conspired slaying Alexander VI ( 1492- 1503 ) – purchasing off taking campaigners
Leo X ( 1513-1521 ) -appointed members of household into church ; illicit kids 22. Girolamo Savonarola was a Dominican mendicant who spoke against the Church and wanted the current Catholic Pope at the clip. Alexander VI. to be removed. Even after reprimanded. continued to go on to travel against the Church. was charged with unorthodoxy. tortured and hanged. Savonarola’s significance was that his anguish and decease displayed that even though the Church was corrupted. it was impossible to alter it because the Church was supreme power.
23. The societal conditions of Europe circa 1500s was arduous for the lower categories. Knights. although now useless. lived comfortably. While many lower categories worked to hardly last. in-between and upper categories live a life of degeneracy. Pre-marital sex wasn’t seen as tabu due to the myths environing mysterious” gestations. Dearths were common and many lower category households ate merely two repasts a twenty-four hours. The Church continued to hold influence over the day-to-day lives of the people. their epicurean life styles going a normalcy for this age. 24. The Hapsburg lands in 1519 included Spain. France England. Ireland. Holy Roman Empire. Poland. Ottoman Empire and Western and Central Europe. 25. The Fuggers were German bankers who had influence and political power over Europe. They controlled a bulk of Europe’s economic system.
26. The grounds for prevailing criminal conversation during the Renaissance was because of artists’ romanticized thought of it. which made it popular amongst many people. Most matrimonies were arranged and adulterous dealingss were even seen as obligatory. 27. Many of the grounds why mediaeval ways were abandoned was due to low morale. which separated the older coevalss from the newer 1. Everyone besides lacked the restraint to keep the order of the old ways.
28. The Borgia’s household narrative shows that the Church could make anything it pleased without much much effect. The Church had the power to lie and misdirect the general populace and turn them against each other in hopes of avoiding personal dirts. 29. The humanistic disciplines flourished during the Renaissance due to the pandemonium and deficiency of moral restraint which ran rampant. Artists thrived in the upset and enjoyed life perilously. Luca Signorelli painted the Sistine Chapel.
30. Kopernik’s surveies and findings included the thought that Earth was revolving on its ain axis around the Sun each twelvemonth. and that it wasn’t the centre of the existence. 31. Da Vinci entirely fell from apostolic grace because he saw how depraved the Church had become and threatened to expose it.
32. Da Vinci’s finds included:transmittal cogwheelsprison guard togsshydraulic knuckleboness
33. Politicians and clerics controlled larning before the typographical revolution and post- books were the chief beginning of acquisition and because of more involvement. people wanted to more literate.
34. The first readers were business communities and in-between and upper category adult females. The work forces read books for trade and industry while adult females read love affair novels. 35. Before the constitution of universities. illiteracy ran rampant because the thought of larning a trade wasn’t a high precedence and lacked the impact it did subsequently on. Pro-university. many people became adept in non merely their position linguistic communications. but besides Latin. 36. Humanists were new professors who embraced new thoughts sing Grecian and Roman literature. Due to their new found positions. they were able to construe classical literature in a manner that wasn’t censored by the Church.
37. European sentiments sing faith circa 1502 were broadening due to humanism. More thoughts sing faith were being intertwined with more intellectually ambitious and unfastened positions.
38. Two grounds why humanitarianism would go the greatest menace the Church had of all time faced” because:It went against the Godhead word” of the GospelIt disregarded the after life for a more carpe diem attack
39. The significance of Plato’s Man is the step of all things” for humanists was that their heads were the bound. Now that they were non as intellectually stunted as they thought they were. they were no longer shackled by ignorance.
40. Harmonizing to humanists. mankind’s highest ethical objective” is to non concentrate on themselves and their souls’ redemption. but to concentrate on ways to assist humanity better.
41. St. Peter’s Basilica enraged Michaelangelo and Luther because big amounts of money were being spent for a dead pope’s ashes while it could hold been used to help those brooding in poorness.
42. The thought of alteration was greatly upseting to Catholics because their religion denied them the ability to talk out for what was merely without being labeled a misbeliever.
43. In my sentiment. the statement Manchester made. faith did keep Europe together. Without the oppressive reigns faith held on the European people. the demand for corruption and pandemonium would be unneeded. and many creative persons and philosophers of the Renaissance were inspired by it since it besides affected them personally.
44. Erasmus was a humanist. who. while Christian. attacked the Church’s antediluvian methods via satirical pieces.
45. Harmonizing to Manchester. the coming spiritual movement” was led by the upper and in-between categories.
46. Two chief statements of Erasmus’s In Praise of Folly were: The human race owed it’s being to folly. since without the original foolishness. or wickedness ( mentioning to Adam and Eve ) . things wouldn’t be the manner they were The ignorance and credulousness of the Church affecting their religion ; the Church had lost it’s significance. 47. Erasmsus criticized Pope Julius II by satirising him in a work that subsequently became a skit for a Parisian audience. He did this to expose the adult male who could conceal behind the powerful rubric of Catholic Pope. even if they were involved in awful and unchristian things. 48. The forces that Manchester argued fractured the integrity of Christendom” included: humanitarianism the disclosure that art and acquisition had flourished before the birth of Jesus the discreditation of European Christian leaders. who though their belief in God was cosmopolitan Marguerite of Angouleme’s incredulity and onslaughts on the Catholic Popes
49. Evidence to back up the public perceptual experience of the priesthood includes an Archbishop impeaching an archimandrite of fornication. peculation and life publically. 50. The merchandising of indulgences sparked the ruin of the Church. 51. The sixteenth century people across Europe despised Church revenue enhancement because the revenue enhancement they were paying was traveling towards the Church’s luxuries. including cocottes. They saw the Church greedy. because while it was garnering money to pay for all right things. many people were hungering.
52. included the claim that work forces would forgiven. no affair their wickedness. Tetzel extorted those who were weak minded and feared ageless damnation. 53. Luther’s youth involved an opprobrious childhood amongst his violent and sacredly avid parents. Desiring to arise against. he went against his parents ideals for him and became a monastic. Luther’s visions of the Satan led him to be non intimidated by Tetzel’s method for selling indulgences.
54. Luther chose October 31st 1517 to post his 95 Thesiss because that approaching twenty-four hours would be All Saints Day. and many people would hold been able to see them. 55. Luther was seen as both Godhead and demonic due to the fact that he taught people to self sufficient sing the Church. but besides spoke against the very footing of what he taught. He besides opposed raising more money to construct churches. since that could hold been used to help the hapless. 56. It took 20 yearss to go from Nuremberg to Rome. 57. Many of the lower socioeconomic categories. such as the provincials. saw him as a great magician” due to the influence he had from being in the Church. The upper socioeconomic categories were wary of the Catholic Pope due to past injudiciousnesss of the old Catholic Popes. including inordinate revenue enhancement.
58. Peoples suffered double from Renaissance popes” because non merely were they extorted by Tetzel. they began to believe their religion was being abused due to the greedy system. 59. Pope Leo reacted to Luther’s calls against selling indulgences by printing plants to guarantee the Church that he was sincere about his place. He besides declined to abandon indulgences. 60. Jan Hus was the foremost great Czech patriot” and was the chief ground behind the humiliation of Luther. Hus. who alienated work forces in the Church and offended the male monarch was expected to be condemned by Luther. but was non.
61. The Exsurge Domine was a bull reprobating Luther’s declarations. The Exsurge Domine besides stated the belief that Luther’s books should be burned and wanted him to accommodate with the Church. Pope Leo X issued this against Luther because he continued to protest against the merchandising of indulgences.
62. Luther’s determination to compose the venaculm was based on his eloquence in German. Knowing that it it would sound more persuasive in his native lingua. he wanted to make an motion. 63. The significance of Luther stoping with his test at Worms with the German words. Here I stand. I can make no more. ” . was his stating that he would non take his words against the Church back. because making so would travel against his pride. The significance of Luther stoping with this statement was a accelerator for the rebelliousness against the Church. 64. The European people who converted to Protestantism included the educational in-between category. aristocracy. and anticlericals. The ground behind this was because some of these European people believed Catholicism was rooted in superstition” . while others believed the Church mistreating it’s power to derive more money via high revenue enhancements.
65. Early Protestantism was non tolerant of other faiths. This was displayed through their Acts of the Apostless of force against people from other faiths. which included combustion and put to deathing them. Early Protestants even went every bit far as to differ with other sectors of Protestantism. 66. The realisation of the Reformation was in the custodies of the citizens. who. armored combat vehicles to Luther. started a rebellion that spread throughout Europe. When Muntzer published a work against Luther and tried t take his ain rebellion. he was executed.
67. Reasons affecting the disaffection of humanists from Luther involved his sense of judgement. which most of the up-risers seemed to free one time the rebellion started. Luther’s articulateness sing whom he stood with included Johannes Cochlaeus. Conradus Mutinanus. Willibald Pirkheimer. Johannes Reuchlin and even Erasmus. Their barbarous methods contrasted with Luther’s sense of logical thinking.
68. The Reformation victimized humanists intellectuals due to their deficiency of safe oasis. unlike the Catholics. Humanistic intellectuals were frequently martyred. 69. Early Calvinism was an oppressive clip period marked by fright and ferociousness. The oppressive swayer. John Calvin. banned every type of amusement and believed natural catastrophes were caused by the Devil. Those who opposed Calvin were tortured and executed. 70. The Roman Inquisition’s ends included rough patterns to guarantee that the Catholic religion would everlastingly be branded into those who practiced it. Possessing Protestant literature was a felony and executing was the lone manner to extinguish Protestantism. 71. Luther and King Henry VII viewed each other with disdain and contempt. Being Catholic. King Henry VII disagreed with Luther’s patterns and Luther believed King Henry VII to be unfit for the throne.
72. King Henry VII left the Catholic church because he wanted to disassociate his married woman. who was impotent. but that was against the Torahs of the Church. 73. The ruin of Thomas Moore included his talk against the male monarch. because he thought the king’s absence was the ground for the division in the Church. He was so executed by the male monarch. This action displayed the power the male monarch had.
74. While Mary I and Elizabeth I were both girls of King Henry VII. their at odds positions on faith conflicted. Mary I’s upbringing in Catholicism led her to be a harsher swayer compared to Elizabeth’s I Protestant upbringing.
Part Three: One Man Entirely
75. The factors that destroyed the Renaissance included:The Religious RevolutionFall of Constantinople to Muhammad IIHumanists happening wisdom in classical civilisation
76. The geographical thoughts of Topographia Christiana. Aristotle. Ptolemy and the mean European individual differed greatly. Topographia Christiana assumed the Sun rolled around the mountains while the Earth was level. Aristotle believed the Earth revolved around the Sun. while Ptolemy believed that the Sun was non merely unit of ammunition. but besides revolved around the Sun. The mean European individual though the Earth was level. 77. Discoveries of the early European colonists included:
NewfoundlandUnited statesSan SalvadorPhilippinesCortezsStrait of MagellanMadeiraCalicut
78. Magellan’s background included being a Lusitanian adventurer who wanted to research the New World’s oceans. His expedition was besides funded by Spanish Royalty. 79. The early phases of Magellan’s expedition included happening the Rio de la Plata on accident and exceling a little rebellion and rumours from his shipmates.
80. Magellan’s routes included:
traveling to south of Africa after go forthing Spaintraveling across the Indian Ocean and traveling through the Philippines Traveling from the tip of South America to it’s east seashore
81. Magellan’s ocean trip proved that the Earth was spherical.
82. The events that led to Magellan ; s ruin included: simmering tensenesss between crewcrew kiping with the married womans. sisters ad girls of the Filipino work forces compulsion with change overing the Filipinos to ChristianityBattle with LapulapuRefusal to go forth Philippines
83. Magellan’s true narrative was preserved by Franciso Albo.
84. Harmonizing to Manchester. Magellan was a hero of the Renaissance due to his rebelliousness of the regulations and his doggedness.
85. In Manchester’s position. the most appropriate testimonial to Magellan was the Magellanic clouds. 86. The tripartite was used to depict the belief in Eden. snake pit and Earth ( purgatory ) . Other superstitious notions believed it was God’s penalties when harvests failed. 87. Kipler’s significance included being the first individual to turn out mathematically that the Earth was spherical and revolved around the Sun. 88. Heliocentrism- Earth moves in orbit around the Sun. 89. Ptolemy’s thought of geocentrism was that the Earth was in a fixed topographic point. unmoving. and was besides the centre of the existence while other planets revolved around it.
90. The Copernican Revolution was a revolution based on the geocentric inquiries of Copernicus. It lead to the inquiry of faith. sine as the revolution traveled. European people began to recognize what they believed were facts. were really wrong. 91. The Europeans originally view Magellan’s find as undistinguished compared to it’s significance in history now. His find led to an onslaught of others. including different civilizations and faiths. Archaic. superstitious beliefs began to be disproven. 92. Some of the inquiries that Magellan’s ocean trip led Europeans to inquire: Where was Heaven? Did the other people who believed in different cultures/religions besides have a Heaven? Where was Hell?
93. Galileo was a European uranologist who disproved geocentrism. 94. Harmonizing to the Manchester. the find of the Sun as a star. was one of the greatest paradigm alterations in all of science” and the coronating victory of the Renaissance” . 95. The Catholic Pope reacted to the heliocentric system with scorn. and even denied it’s claim as truth because it deified the Torahs of the Bible.
96. The five factors that challenged and get the better of the medieval mentality included: The Renaissancepatriotismhumanitarianismlifting literacynew skylines of trade
97. Voltaire’s quotation mark is saying that people need something to believe in. Without a belief in something higher than themselves. there would be no hope or intent. 98. Harmonizing to Manchester. the bequests of the terminal of the medieval head and the Renaissance are ageless incredulity. the loss of artlessness correlated with the cognition of a supposed absolute faith. the loss of certificates that faith one time had in their eyes. 99. An illustration of how secular humanitarianism and spiritual fundamentalism remain in struggle is the separation of church and province.
100. I learned that both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance were disruptive times. but for different grounds after reading A World Lit Merely by Fire. The Middle Ages was an about crude clip that was marked by ignorance and fright. The Renaissance was both a clip of fright and enlightenment. marked by a divergency between intellectualism and faith. Many scientific finds came to be in the Renaissance age. While the old ways of the Middle Ages were discarded. such as gallantry. knighthood. and pagan religion. a faith with destructive swayers took their topographic point. But. without this destructiveness. the creative persons good known today wouldn’t be who they are. The cause and consequence of these two conflicted clip periods still hold significance today.

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