Thailands capital city …

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” Thailand’s capital city Bangkok is listed in the top 10 of the world’s most attractive cities to visit” (Netherlands Embassy in Bangkok, 2017: online). In 2013, Bangkok has overtaken London to become the world’s largest overnight visitor city with 15.98 million people (McCarthy, 2014). Over the past two years, Bangkok has become the most popular city in the world with 19.41 million visitors and 20.19 million in 2016 and 2017 (Marnie Hunter, 2017). To achieve that success, Bangkok has invested heavily in infrastructure. This city owns two international airports, including Suvarnabhumi Airport and Don Mueang Airport. Don Mueang is the old airport and is for low cost airlines in Thailand. Suvarnabhumi Airport is the airport that is built later and annually welcomes from 45 to 60 million visitors. Besides, to navigate among the attractions, visitors can use the BTS, MRT or boat on the Chao Praya River at extremely low cost. In addition, these facilities have English direction and operate until midnight except for the boat. Moreover, the Thai government provides a six-month visa policy with multiple entries and 19 countries are exempt from visa by Thailand. Travelers of 52 countries entering the airport will be exempted from visas within 30 days (Netherlands Embassy in Bangkok, 2017). These things and the low cost of living have spurred Bangkok’s tourism industry to grow through the years.Key AttractionsGrand Palace Grand Palace was built in 1782 by King Rama I as a complex of historical monuments in which the most famous are the Grand Palce and Wat Phra Kaew- the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. This palace is what remains of Ratanakosin Island, is located like the others in Ayutthaya, the former capital of Thailand where the Burmese invaded (bangkok.com by hotels.com, 2018). This area is divided into two areas. The outside area is reserved for government agencies and military, in which the king is directly involved and the temple of the Emerald Buddha is located in the area. Also, the inner area is home to kings, queens and royalties. On the other hand, this is like a city where people are women and pre-mature sons. Although no one is living here, the government only opens the outside area for visitors.The temple of the Emerald Buddha is the most sacred temple in Thailand. Every year, thousands of visitors come here to pray. The temple owns a large area with many tall towers. Especially the temple does not have any monks living. The temple is famous for the buddha statue is made of delicate carved jade, appeared in the 15th century AD (bangkok.com by hotels.com, 2018).Visitors to this attraction will be impressed by the unique architecture. This is a delicated combination between the Thai architecture of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha and Western architecture. Most of the buildings in the Grand Palace are gold-plated so visitors can understand why Thailand is known as the Land of Golden Pagoda”.Opening hours: 8:30 am to 4:00 pm Location: Na Phra Lan Road, Old City (Rattanakosin) Price Range: Tickets sold from 8:30 – 15:30 and cost 500 bahtNote: Because this is a solemn and sacred area, visitors are required to wear appropriate clothing, not to wear tank tops, shorts or short skirts on knees and flip flops.Wat Arun( Temple of the Dawn) Wat ArunImage source: thaiwebsites.comWat Arun which is one of the most famous temples in Thailand is stayed on the river Chao Praya.Wat Arun was built in Khmer style and was inspired by the whereabouts of the gods in the Khmer, Hindu , Buddhism. Throughout its existence, the temple has undergone many changes.Wat Arun was built in 1768 by King Thaskin during the transfer of the capital from Attuthaya to Bangkok. Later, Wat Arun continuously changed until King Rama II and Rama III, the current appearance of the temple came out and develped, the highest building called Phra prang” (Cavanagh, 2018).Opening hours: 8:00 am to 6:00 pmEntrance fee: 50 Bath for international visitors (free for Thai people)Location: 158 Thanon Wang Doem, Khwaeng Wat Arun, Khet Bangkok Yai, ThailandNote:Visitors to Wat Arun need to be careful, wary with scam objects approaching.Chatuchak market A stall in chatuchak marketImage source: While TravellingIf your trip to Bangkok does not have Chatuchak Market, you definitely missed a great experience in Bangkok. This is a gathering place for many wholesalers and traders. In Chatuchak, visitors can find all kinds of goods from clothing, wallets, shoes, sandals, socks to cosmetics, souvenirs, paintings and Thai specialties. Before comming here, visitors should prepared good health because the market is extremely large. The area of Chatuchak is 35 acres including inner and outer areas and has over 8,000 business stalls. The market is divided into 11 main zones, including: Art and Gallery, Pets and Pet Accessories, Antiques and Collectibles, Miscellaneous, Second-hand Clothing, Clothing and Accessories Handicrafts, Ceramics, Furniture and Home Decoration, Food and Beverage, Plants and Gardening tools and Books (bangkok.com by hotels.com, 2018). Inside and outside the market there are security forces.Visitors can easily move to Chatuchak with BTS and MRT systems. With BTS, the destination is Mo Chit Station and visitors will leave at Chatuchak Park Station if traveling by MRT.Opening hours:Wednesday and Thursday, from 07:00 am – 6:00 pm (Plant sections).Fridays, from 6:00 pm to 12:00 pm (Weekend market).Saturdays and Sundays, from 9:00 am to 6:00 pm (Weekend market).Notes:Wearing conveniently to move, encourage to wear sports shoes.Being careful of your possessions and money.Tourism Products• Thai SilkThai silk is one of the most popular products when tourists come to Thailand. Thai silk is soft, smooth and gives the wearer a very cool feel. The most famous Thai silk is Jim Thompson, born in 1950 and now owns the largest silk production in Thailand. Jim Thompson also opened a chain of stores around the world from Asia to South America (Jimthompsonfabrics.com, n.d.). Visitors can buy Thai silk at most markets such as Chatuchak, Pratunam, …• Thai AmuletEvery year, millions of visitors to Thailand, a country with hundreds of temples to pray for children, happiness, health or money.Therefore, Thai amulet is always a favorite product by the tourists. . A typical example of this sacredness is that in 2016, the Leister city team arrived in Thailand and went to pray. One year later, they won the Premier League, the most attractive football tournament in the world, beating out a lot of famous rivals such as Manchester United, Manchester City or Liverpool. Visitors can ask for the amulet from the monks or buy in the shop on the temple grounds. After that, Amulet will be blessed following the wishes of the visitors.Tourism ImpactsBy staying in the top tourist destinations in the world, tourism plays a very important role in the development of Bangkok. Tourism, therefore, also affects many aspects of the city such as economy, society and the environment.Thanks to the strong development of the tourism industry, the economy has benefited the most. The amount of money that Thailand’s tourism industry contributes to the economy is certainly a huge number. By 2016, with 32.59 million international arrivals, the figure was 2.52 trillion baht ($ 71.4 billion) (James Gabriel Martin, 2017). That same year, Bangkok welcomed 19.41 visitors, accounting for more than 50% of total visitors in the year. It clearly shows that the Bangkok tourism industry is extremely developed and profitable.In addition, the tourism sector also affects social. Tourism contributes to facilities of Bangkok increasingly complete with BTS system, MRT system, markets, … Thanks to that, the citizens are the most beneficiaries. In 2013, the tourism industry created 6.2 million jobs across Thailand (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2016). On the other hand, human trafficking is a problem that not only Bangkok but also the Thai government is facing. These people were taken to Thailand to serve the sex and fisheries industry.Turning to environment, building facilities quickly to serve the tourism industry has been causing negative impacts on the environment. The green space per person in Bangkok is between 4.5 square meters and 2.3 square meters, compared to South East Asia, which is only higher than Jakarta capital of Indonesia (Chanon Kamjorn, 2013). This shows that the area of green space in a country with millions of people living is extremely limited. In addition, pollution is always alarming. In 2016, the registration of about 2.5 million vehicles increased the total number of vehicles to over 37 million (Thai PBS, 2016). Certainly, this number has been constantly increasing over the years. It leads to the reason why air and noise pollution have been worse.RecommendationsBangkok has been doing very well in promoting its strengths. The construction works for tourism that the Thai construction shows the optimal efficiency after putting into operation. What the Thai government needs to address in Bangkok is pollution and green space. The major cause of air pollution and noise is the number of vehicles registered over the years. constantly increasing. To reduce that number, not only Bangkok but Thailand should have policies that encourage people to use public transport and reduce the number of people who can afford a car. At the moment, to move between the main areas in Bangkok, there are BTS system, MRT system and Chao Praya boat. To attract Thai people using these system, goverment should introduce the discount progarme or the combo price including three kind of these transports. Besides, moving between out of main areas, there is only bus. Bus tickets is cheap but the quality needs to be improved. Most of buses in Bangkok is non-air conditioner bus and the bus timetable and the realistic arrvival time is different. Government should invest more heavily in the bus system not only to serve tourists but also to satisfy their people. The organization of bus operation should also be focused to ensure the synchronization between the bus timetable and the realistic arrvival time. On the other hand, goverment need to limit the number of people registering vehicle by minimizing the number of registered vehicle in one family and only allowing Bangkok citizens purchase the new vehicle.Generating green space is a must to do for not just the government but the people as well. Infrastructure development should be accompanied by environmental protection policy. The Thai government should introduce policies that encourage investors, builders and people to see the importance of green space. Thailand could encourage buildings to be covered by green by reducing taxes on them to equal the percentage of green space created. The parks in front of the commercial centers or the conection road between them, instead of the usual sidewalks, centers can plant trees to create a mat, but they can also prune them following a theme to create a unique for their own centers.

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