The word Fast nutrient ” originated from McDonald ‘s in the fiftiess. The outgrowth of American fast nutrient triggers a late-model civilization — so called fast nutrient civilization, which arouses a het argument around the universe. Its fast and convenient ingestion forms, run into the demands of the Americans and offer them multiple options and infinite convenience. Therefore, eating in fast nutrient shops has become a U.S. life style, which has been infiltrating every facet of American life and therefore the fast nutrient civilization came into being.
Culture, being an unseeable accretion of civilisation, presents itself via a touchable medium, such as nutrient. We ‘ve all heard the old proverb ‘you are what you eat ‘ , but does it do sense? Put merely, it at least illustrates the kernel between a individual ‘s personality and what he eats. Owing to the intimate connexion between the two facets, fast nutrient, an American manner eating ingestion, may perchance hold an inseparable relation with American values. Consequently, this thesis tries to discourse the American fast nutrient civilization from the position of American value orientation to pull a fresh new image of American fast nutrient civilization.
The writer enterprises to use Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck ‘s Value Orientation Theory to analyze American fast nutrient civilization, anticipating to accomplish profound apprehension of American values in relation to fast nutrient civilization. Besides, the writer purposes to verify the extended application of the Theory.
In add-on, this thesis will familiarise the readers with the baron of American fast nutrient industry — McDonald ‘s, the first fast nutrient eating house around the universe, from a wholly different set of eyes. As a derived function of McDonald ‘s, McDonaldization is a mirror reflecting the typical facets of American civilization. This thesis will supply specific information about the worldwide renowned trade name — McDonald ‘s and its impact on American fast nutrient civilization. In this manner, a general analysis goes into inside informations to measure the application of the Value Orientation Theory.
Last but non least, this thesis aims to fix persons who are traveling to remain at the United States with a fresh mentality of American fast nutrient civilization. Therefore, they can be well-prepared for the intercultural communicating and adjust themselves shortly while they are abroad. By appreciating American values and their fast nutrient civilization, pupils will perchance hold a better public presentation and behaviour to avoid cultural daze.
The construct of the Value Orientation Theory was created by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck in 1961. The Value Orientation Theory is composed of five classs associating to human activities and their relation to each other. Consequently, these five classs are man-nature orientation, activity orientation, clip orientation, human to nature orientation, and relational orientation.
Fast Food State: The Dark Side of the All-American MealA ( 2001 ) is a book byA fact-finding journalistA§A Eric SchlosserA§A that examines the local and planetary influence of theA United StatesA§A fast HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_food ” foodA§A industry. He describes assorted hi-tech capablenesss of the base and its extended defensive system, theorizing that if the worst were to go on to the fast nutrient industry. Schlosser suggests, it would give of import hints to the nature of American society.
This thesis tries to follow the two surveies analysis the American fast nutrient civilization from the position of American Value Orientation which has ne’er been done earlier.
This thesis is divided into three chapters as follows.
Introduction: It commits to briefly present the intent and significance of the survey, and thesis organisation.
Chapter One: It analyses grounds for the prevalence of fast nutrient in America by using the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck ‘s Value Orientation Theory. Basic constructs of the Theory every bit good as American values based on the Theory, and their dealingss with the prevalence of American fast nutrient will be elaborated.
Chapter Two: In this Chapter, the celebrated fast nutrient trade name McDonald ‘s and its derivative McDonaldization will be presented, a premier illustration of American fast nutrient eidos which have a great impact on American society even to the whole universe.
Chapter Three: It dissects the double-sided consequence of American fast nutrient, which, on the other manus, shows the interrelatednesss of American value orientation and American fast nutrient civilization.
Decision: This portion is a sum-up of the thesis and a view of the hereafter for American fast nutrient.
Chapter I Reasons for the Prevalence
1.1 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck ‘s Value Orientation Theory
The construct of the Value Orientation Theory was created by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck in 1961. The Value Orientation Theory is composed of five classs, such as man-nature, activity, clip, human to nature and relational orientations, all of which show their interrelatedness with human activities.
Table 1: Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck ‘s Value Orientation Theory
Man is born good
Becoming is best
Worlds dominate nature
Man is born neither good nor bad
Merely being is best
Worlds in harmoniousness with nature
Man is born bad
Bing active is best
Nature dominates worlds
Human to nature
Persons in the United States are nature dominates worlds. This belief has made it possible for the United States to alter the class of rivers, harvest woods for wood and paper, breed cowss for increased meat production and destruct disease-causing bacteriums. ” Literally, it seems that people in the United States tend to controll everything, including the environment, but this belief has contributed to the material wealth of the United States without a uncertainty.
The following two classs are activity and clip orientation interrelated in a sense and trade with the manner or the usage of clip in relation to human activity. In the United States, efficiency and practicality is of overruling importance in clip direction, which has become the 2nd nature to most American people. Therefore, they strive to make everything expeditiously as possible.
The human to nature portion explores human rights and duties every bit good as the significance of being a human. Post-modern American beliefs tended to see people as being born immorality with the possible to be good, while modern-day beliefs are more along the lines that worlds are born with a mixture of or the possible for being both good and evil.
The concluding class negotiations about the relational value, connoting that the relationship of an person is to others. As we all know, the United States is the most individualistic state in the universe. The value of individuality in the United States is reflected in the belief that persons should put their ain ends and prosecute them independently. ” This ability to put these ends and do determinations by themselves is the top-drawer in United States civilization.
Peoples in the United States, in relation to the Value Orientation Theory, about seems to hold a control composite. For case, they have domination over nature, which has helped their state go the master of the universe. They ever bear in head the demand to command their ain clip. On the other manus, the individuality of the United States demonstrates that citizens at that place prefer to be in charge of their ain lives and leave their fellow work forces entirely if there is no direct benefit to themselves.
1.2 Reasons for the Prevalence
All the American values contributed to the prevalence of fast nutrient in the United States. High efficiency and fast-paced work are non merely a graphic manifestation of the modern-day society, every bit good as infiltration of infinite in people ‘s lives. Therefore, eating in fast nutrient shops has become a U.S. life style. This lifestyle developed into a manner of life and attitudes, and got spread to other countries, and formed a certain civilization. This is known as fast nutrient civilization. Compared with three repasts a twenty-four hours, fast nutrient is a condiment, a tendency toward American manner of life. Warren burgers, pizza, fried material with cheese, Gallic french friess, doughnuts, and all such nutrient points that can be prepared and served rapidly are termed as fast-food and have plentifulness of consumers from all age groups. Fast nutrient is fundamentally on-the-go nutrient, rapidly made, and served within proceedingss for the people who lead fast-paced lives. For those metropolis inhabitants, eating seems to go a load, so fast nutrient is peculiarly favourable to those who work twenty-four hours and dark. American fast nutrient shows its most important characteristics of being efficient, convenient, and hygienic. It embodies the American values and the nonsubjective demands, but besides as a modern dining construct of ingestion received the universe ‘s most consecutive acknowledgment and credence, billowing to the universe. The American fast nutrient civilization, non merely has been a symbol of obvious significance in the model of the typical American manner of life, but besides has broken through the part, province, national cultural disagreement and the barrier of traditional eating wonts, as a life style, a cultural manner swept the universe, therefore winning popularity both at place and abroad.
The experience of fast nutrient connects with the high ingestion in the modern community. General economic position and criterion of their cultural features decide that modern-day society can merely be a cultural industry, and the civilization of fast nutrient is typical of the civilization industry. Whether people ‘s feelings on this sort of civilization are good or non, the fast nutrient civilization has virtually become a satisfier to people ‘s demand. Therefore, there is in-depth connexion between the fast nutrient civilization and the people ‘s emotions.
The fast nutrient civilization as a sort of trade good, ingestion is its motor and intent of production. ” The fast nutrient civilization attracts people ‘s involvement by its colourful signifier of attractive lines and attention-getting ornaments. Consumption of fast nutrient civilization is the nature of relationships through market placement. Because of the public sentiment, there is such a demand and it constitutes a fast-food civilization version of this ingestion. In the commercialism society, the public desires for fast nutrient expand well, which contributes to the outgrowth of fast nutrient civilization. Therefore, invariably necessitating advancing the fast-food civilization makes it hold great verve to stand in the commercialism society. It can be seen that the fast nutrient civilization and the public demand will interact with each other and accordingly acquire farther widespread.
Chapter II McDonald ‘s and McDonaldization
The McDonald ‘s was the first fast nutrient eating house of all time. By this clip, the other celebrated fast-food trade names merely like KFC, Pizza Hut which are the universe ‘s three top fast nutrient trade names from America had been known by all the people, all of which constituted a powerful fast nutrient imperium and developed quickly. Peoples could non get away these fast-food ironss easy wherever they are off to, including China. McDonald ‘s originated in the United States and its branching — McDonaldization implies efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. It is one of the most influential merchandises of the United State in the twentieth century. And the profound significance of McDonaldization has expanded as clip goes by and becomes the characteristic of our times.
Mc or Mac is in the alone Scottish household name marks, which means boy of ” . Name it and the other English category construction. Like, such as in Edison — boy of Edith ; Wilson — boy of William. Obviously, McDonald is boy of Donald.
Harmonizing to word formation, it is easy to analyze the construction of McDonaldization, which is based on the first verb McDonald into McDonaldize, and added the suffix tion. The suffix ‘tion ‘ involves two significances as follows:
( 1 ) — – the procedure or province of
( 2 ) — – the merchandise of or the establishment produced by
Obviously, McDonaldization could be defined as the procedure by which the rules of the fast nutrient eating house are coming to rule more and more sectors of American society every bit good as of the remainder of the universe.
As a derived function of McDonald ‘s, McDonaldization is a mirror, which reflects the typical facets of American civilization as follows.
Efficiency — The alleged McDonald ‘s efficiency is to indicate out McDonald ‘s most effectual manner of doing people achieve physical repletion, which is the incarnation of the flow line operation, merchandises simplification and choice restriction. The employees are all trained high efficiency in telling and fixing nutrient. Meanwhile, McDonald ‘s is non merely time-saving, money-saving, but besides provides attractive dining environment for the clients, particularly the scene of the kids ‘s resort area, which enables parents and kids, each in his proper topographic point, to bask amusement and dining in a needed clip.
Calculability — It emphasizes the computation and quantification of merchandises, reflecting in two facets: the production procedure such as velocity, and the concluding consequences. Once the production of the nutrient and the gross revenues clip become mensurable, the bring forthing and sale procedure will be predictable. Harmonizing to the record, McDonald ‘s tried to complete a beefburger + milkshakes + french friess the merchandising services in 50 seconds. Peoples attach great importance to its incorporate monetary value and service, specially underscoring on fast ” , because one of the American values is clip is money ” . McDonald ‘s working procedures guarantee its calculability, for case, when crispy french friess is deep-fried, the french friess machine will automatically increase the funnel ; when the cup is full, the drink machine will automatically close down and this automatic planning system is to forestall operator ‘s mistake or extended computing clip. Finally, this procedure can be calculated, quantified, to guarantee unvarying quality and measure.
Predictability — It lays so much accent on rules, systematic direction and regulations that McDonald ‘s merchandises and services remain unchanged all over the universe. It performs in assorted ways, such as the about unvarying ornament manner, the staff ‘s words and workss and the types of nutrient. In this manner, people go anyplace in the universe, every bit long as they step into the McDonald ‘s, in which people can expect what they have to order, what to eat, how long to eat, will be left an feeling that McDonald ‘s is no surprise concluding that McDonald ‘s staff processs, and even the salutations, are ritualized and extremely scripted. Everything in McDonald ‘s is able to be foreseen.
Control — McDonald ‘s type of Control is via proficient agencies to replace human labour, and finally in control of people as people are unsure, unpredictable, inefficient while engineering and machines can easy be manipulated. Through the use of the machine, flow control operations and installations for employees and clients, McDonald ‘s has achieved the bipartisan control: a high grade of mechanisation, limited points on the bill of fare, non a comfy place, all of those in control of the clients to eat and go forth. In a traditional eating house, the chef is the drivingforce and engine. The chef ‘s emotion can even impact the quality of the nutrient he has made. In add-on, it is hard to feed every client ‘s appetency since their outlooks are by and large different. But McDonald ‘s do non hold to trouble oneself. Its employees can manage cooking mechanization after having a short period of preparation, so straight go to initiation, machine operation to bring forth the consistent gustatory sensation. The U.S. advocator invention, However, the invention McDonald ‘s nowadayss is that whichever McDonald ‘s you walk in, you experience the same and you feel the same. Due to the programmed service, non any discrepancy is tolerable. True, this one-size-fit-all consequence is besides a sort of invention.
Chapter III Double-sided Effectss
Over the last three decennaries, fast nutrient has infiltrated every nook and crevice of the American society. An industry that began with a smattering of modest hot Canis familiaris and beefburger bases in southern California has spread to every corner of the state, selling a wide scope of nutrient wherever clients may be found. Fast nutrient is now served at eating houses and drive-throughs, at bowls, airdromes, menagerie, high schools, simple schools, and universities, on sail lines, trains, and aeroplanes, at K-Marts, Wal-Marts, gas Stationss, and even at infirmary cafeterias. In 1970, Americans spent about $ 6 billion on fast nutrient ; in 2000, they spent more than $ 110 billion. Americans now spend more money on fast nutrient than on higher instruction, personal computing machines, computing machine package, or new autos. They spend more on fast nutrient than on films, books, magazines, newspapers, pictures, and recorded music.
Pull open the glass door, experience the haste of cool air, walk in, acquire on line, analyze the backlit colour exposure above the counter, put your order, manus over a few dollars, ticker adolescents in uniforms forcing assorted buttons, and minutes subsequently take clasp of a plastic tray full of nutrient wrapped in coloured paper and composition board. The whole experience of purchasing fast nutrient has become so everyday, so thoroughly run-of-the-mill and mundane that it is now taken for granted, like brushing your dentitions or halting for a ruddy visible radiation. It has become a societal usage in America as the apple pie is ever a little, rectangular, handheld, frozen, and reheated apple pie.
Fast nutrient has proven to be a radical force in American life. What people eat or do n’t eat has ever been determined by a complex interplay of societal, economic, and technological forces. The early Roman Republic was fed by its citizen-farmers ; the Roman Empire, by its slaves. A state ‘s diet can be more telling than its art or literature. On any given twenty-four hours in the United States about one-fourth of the grownup population visits a fast nutrient eating house. During a comparatively brief period of clip, the fast nutrient industry has helped to transform non merely the American diet, but besides their landscape, economic system, work force, and popular civilization. Fast nutrient and its effects have become ineluctable, irrespective of whether you eat it twice a twenty-four hours, seek to avoid it, or have ne’er taken a individual bite.
3.1 Positive Effectss
Fast nutrient brought a rich cultural diverseness of values. Fast-food civilization, abundant in the construct of being fast, convenient, efficient, variable, manner characteristics, enhanced persons ‘ perceptual experience of clip and sense of competition. Furthermore, it encourages persons to work in the subconscious of efficiency, value of clip, avoid procrastinate, and maintain fast-paced work and life.
Fast nutrient has such a immense impact on people ‘s society and economic system. The fast-food civilization has a really assorted audience. Because the range of fast nutrient industry ingestion extend, the impact on the economic system will so increase. The directors of fast-food industry promote their merchandises through media and advertisement, so that there is people ‘s love-hate relationship with fast nutrient. In order to win better public presentation, many of the taking fast nutrient trade names engaged in a ferocious monetary value war, which besides stimulated the populace ‘s ingestion, ensuing in another moving ridge of cost-effectiveness.
The McDonald ‘s Corporation has become a powerful symbol of America ‘s service economic system, which is now responsible for 90 per centum of the state ‘s new occupations. In 1968, McDonald ‘s operated about one 1000 eating houses. Today it has about 28 1000 eating houses worldwide and opens about two thousand new 1s each twelvemonth. An estimated one out of every eight workers in the United States has at some point been employed by McDonald ‘s. The company yearly hires about one million people, more than any other American organisation, public or private. McDonald ‘s is the state ‘s largest buyer of beef, porc, and murphies, and the 2nd largest buyer of poulet. The McDonald ‘s Corporation is the largest proprietor of retail belongings in the universe. Indeed, the company earns the bulk of its net incomes non from selling nutrient but from roll uping rent. McDonald ‘s spends more money on advertisement and selling than any other trade name. As a consequence it has replaced Coca-Cola as the universe ‘s most celebrated trade name. McDonald ‘s operates more resort areas than any other private entity in the United States. It is one of the state ‘s largest distributers of playthings. A study of American schoolchildren found that 96 per centum could place Ronald McDonald. The lone fictional character with a higher grade of acknowledgment was Santa Claus. The impact of McDonald ‘s on the manner we live today is difficult to exaggerate. The Golden Archs are now more widely recognized than the Christian cross. ”
3.2 Negative Effectss
Fast-food civilization is more than a agency of cultural ingestion, but instead a manner of life and values every bit good. Its commercial nature, features and the marketization reflected the chase of the cultural environment flooded with stuff desires and animal enjoyment.
One of the sarcasms of America ‘s fast nutrient industry is that a concern so dedicated to conformance was founded by image breakers and self-made work forces, by enterprisers willing to withstand conventional sentiment. Few of the people who built fast nutrient imperiums of all time attended college, allow entirely concern school. They worked difficult, took hazards, and followed their ain waies. In many respects, the fast nutrient industry embodies the best and the worst of American capitalist economy at the start of the 21st century — its changeless watercourse of new merchandises and inventions, its widening gulf between rich and hapless. The industrialisation of the eating house kitchen has enabled the fast nutrient ironss to trust upon a low-paid and unskilled work force. While a smattering of workers manage to lift up the corporate ladder, the huge bulk lack full-time employment, receive no benefits, learn few accomplishments, exercise small control over their workplace, quit after a few months, and float from occupation to occupation. The eating house industry is now America ‘s largest private employer, and it pays some of the lowest rewards. During the economic roar of the ninetiess, when many American workers enjoyed their first wage raises in a coevals, the existent value of rewards in the eating house industry continued to fall. The approximately 3.5 million fast nutrient workers are by far the largest group of lower limit pay earners in the United States. The lone Americans who systematically earn a lower hourly pay are migratory farm workers.
Furthermore, eating fast nutrient and taking a sedentary life style trigger fleshiness, which leads to other complications like the addition in the cholesterin degree, barricading of the arterias, the increased hazard of coronary diseases, in add-on to the general physical uncomfortableness posed by the excess weight. Fast nutrient is besides habit-forming and hence it is really hard to give up on their greasy and fatty nutrients and carbonated drinks and exchange to healthier options. Thus changeless and regular ingestion of fast nutrient can take to an overall unhealthy status. Malnutrition, fleshiness, increased hazards of bosom onslaught, high blood pressure and an overall unhealthy organic structure are some of the things that follow a fast nutrient dependence. So if people want to take a healthy and fulfilling life it is the best to cut down the fast nutrient consumption, exchange to healthier options and supplement it with regular fittingness exercisings. Health is one of the most of import facets that need to be taken attention of for being genuinely happy in life. So, it is a must to work out this fleshiness job.
I do non intend to propose that fast nutrient is entirely responsible for every societal job now stalking the United States. In some instances ( such as the malling and sprawling of the West ) the fast nutrient industry has been a accelerator and a symptom of larger economic tendencies. In other instances ( such as the rise of franchising and the spread of fleshiness ) fast nutrient has played a more cardinal function. By following the diverse influences of fast nutrient. I hope to cast visible radiation non merely on the workings of an of import industry, but besides on a distinctively American manner of sing the universe.
The sociologist George Ritzer has attacked the fast nutrient industry for observing a narrow step of efficiency over every other human value, naming the victory of McDonald ‘s the unreason of reason. Others consider the fast nutrient industry cogent evidence of the state ‘s great economic verve, a darling American establishment that entreaties overseas to 1000000s who admire American manner of life. Indeed, the values, the civilization, and the industrial agreements of the fast nutrient state are now being exported to the remainder of the universe. Fast nutrient has joined Hollywood films, bluish denims, and pop music as one of America ‘s most outstanding cultural exports. Unlike other trade goods, nevertheless, fast nutrient is n’t viewed, read, played, or worn. It enters the organic structure and becomes portion of the consumer. No other industry offers, both literally and figuratively, so much penetration into the nature of mass ingestion.
Hundreds of 1000000s of people buy fast nutrient every twenty-four hours without giving it much idea, unaware of the subtle and non so elusive branchings of their purchases. They seldom consider where this nutrient came from, how it was made, what it is making to the community around them. They merely grab their tray off the counter, happen a tabular array, take a place, unwrap the paper, and excavation in. The whole experience is ephemeral and shortly forgotten. However, they should cognize what truly lurks between those sesame-seed buttockss. As the old expression goes: You are what you eat.
Harmonizing to Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck ‘s Value Orientation Theory, clip is of extreme importance to most Americans. Their lives seem controlled by the small machines they wear on their carpuss, cutting their treatments off suddenly to do their following assignment on clip. This doctrine has enabled Americans to be highly productive, and productiveness is extremely valued in their state. They have repute for being realistic, practical, and efficient. Here are the inquiries they are likely to inquire, Will it do money? ” Is it aesthetically delighting? ” Will it be gratifying? ” In this instance, fast nutrient emerged merely in clip to feed Americans ‘ appetency. Soon, it receives worldwide consecutive popularity.
It is an highly attractive manner of life in America that everyone in the fast-paced society is running in a haste, fast make full his tummy, and attack efficient manner to run into other demands. Therefore, fast nutrient theoretical account or state McDonaldization, showing a overpoweringly effectual manner and doctrine, are widely used in instruction, athleticss, finance, or even faith, sketchs and other countries.
As the cradle of fast nutrient, the United States is questioned by its people with a rejecting attitude of fast nutrient: What is the feeling of the United States? Old ages ago, people would state cowboy ” . But presently, many people would state, McDonald ‘s ” . The former response established the American Dream ” and opened the kingdom of gold ; while the latter one destroyed the American Dream ” by making a fast nutrient imperium with one-fifth of population being corpulent kids and many unhealthy persons.
However, the benevolent see benevolence and the wise see wisdom. ” Some hold a positive point of view toward American fast nutrient civilization. It is the accelerated gait of life, the progressively busy work and the inevitable cultural phenomenon that should non be regarded as refuse. American fast nutrient brought a rich cultural diverseness of values ; it can besides assist people be efficient in assorted countries of day-to-day imperativeness releases and in the copiousness of utile information every bit good as appreciation chances for personal development.
Anyhow, every bit long as the United States is a state to prosecute the seasonableness, fast nutrient will and ever will busy a high topographic point in the catering industry and its civilization.
To sum up, this thesis felicitously applies Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck ‘s Value Orientation Theory to analyze American fast nutrient civilization. This has ne’er been done in concurrence with the Theory and American fast nutrient civilization. It will assist readers better understand American fast nutrient civilization from the position of American values. Furthermore, if you are traveling to see the United States, it will assist you understand the Americans with whom you will be associating — from their ain value system instead than ours. So, get downing from American fast nutrient civilization, many more American civilizations can be understood and analyzed by using Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck ‘s Value Orientation Theory. To hold on the nucleus doctrine of this model, more follow-up researches should be inspired. In other words, farther surveies about this subject demand to be conducted in the hereafter.