An Overview Of Teaser Advertising Marketing Essay

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Zoon, V.I.B, ‘On ne peut l’arreter ‘ ; these ad cries for one ‘s attending but there is no trade name name. As you pass by, the billboards yell out to you – they look highly familiar but yet they reveal nil except the promise of more to come. Sometimes they work in a dither while sometimes they ask a response out of you. It is suspense with a intent to badger. These are Teaser advertisement.
In Mauritius, this manner of advertisement – which tend to publicize for a new merchandise while maintaining the mark audience involvement arouse each twenty-four hours and at the same clip making a kind of bombilation around the ad-the teaser, has become a fad recently. The Zoon Teaser advertisement proved to be successful in badgering people. Nevertheless some people consider Teaser advertisement to be ‘Much Ado about Nothing ‘ ( citing the word of Shakespeare ) .
But, why is at that place so much phantasy about pass oning and publicizing a merchandise? Today, advertisement is considered by many to be the most of import factor in the success of the company as most organisations -small and large- that rely on marketing to make client involvement, are engaged in consistent usage of advertisement to assist run into selling aims. An organisation can hold the best thought, merchandise or service, but without efficaciously presenting their messages to its mark market, these thoughts, merchandises and services can travel unnoticed. An effectual originative run in the signifier of a teaser can put a company apart from the competition and allows it to give to its possible clients an image of what makes the trade name different from the competition which has for end to be top of the head of these busy consumers. This means that the name of the concern or the trade name is the first thing that pops into their caput, when looking for a merchandise in the several class. Furthermore, given information dissymmetry that prevails in the market, advertisement is a communicating tool that can non be missed to signal possible clients and Teaser advertisement with its ability to make bombilation and word of oral cavity is for certain a successful method to distribute intelligence about a topic. But even if advertisement including Teaser plays a important function in positioning the merchandise in the head of clients, does this type of advertisement push people to purchase the advertised merchandise as such?
Therefore does this type of advertisement ever work? Does it make this kind of ‘buzz ‘ that it wants to do? Does it make this kind of ‘buzz ‘ that it wants to do? Does it has an impact on people and how do they respond to it? Does it move as a beginning of motive for clients to buy? To cognize more about this interesting facet of advertisement and to research this specific country of advertisement, a survey has been conducted towards this position by sing the recent teaser ads in Mauritius. This survey will let discovering and measuring this peculiar technique of advertisement and research the environing galaxy of such tool of advertisement.
1.1 Purposes and Aims
O Understanding the construct of Teaser advertisement
o Teaser Ad as an advertisement pattern
o Teaser Ad as a communicating tool
o Teaser Ad in relation with client attitudes
O Measuring the effectivity of Teaser advertisement in the Mauritanian context
O Analysing Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy
1.2 Hypothesiss
Hypothesis 1:
H0: There is no relationship between Teaser advertisement and frequence of purchase
H1: There is a relationship between Teaser advertisement and frequence of purchase
Hypothesis 2:
H0: There is no relationship between Teaser ad as a beginning of motive and buying determinations.
H1: There is a relationship between Teaser ad as a beginning of motive and buying determinations.
Hypothesis 3:
H0: There is no relationship between Teaser effectivity and degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad.
H1: There is a relationship between Teaser effectivity and degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad.
Hypothesis 4:
H0: There is no relationship between teaser ad as a communicating tool and buying determinations.
H1: There is a relationship between teaser ad as a communicating tool and buying determinations.
Hypothesis 5:
H0: There is no relationship between purchasers ‘ self-concept towards teaser advertisement and purchase purpose of that merchandise.
H1: There is a relationship between purchasers ‘ self-concept towards teaser advertisement and purchase purpose of that merchandise.
Hypothesis 6:
H0: There is no relationship between faith and buying purpose.
H1: There is a relationship between faith and buying purpose
Chapter 2
Literature Review
2.0 Introduction
Under this chapter, teaser advertisement will be treated as a manner of making advertisement among others and besides the construct of teaser advertisement with relation clients. Thus teaser advertisement will be defined under 3 chief header. Furthermore, this chapter covers literatures on the development of this peculiar type of advertisement in Mauritius. This subdivision will seek to analyze Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy with mention to different literatures from assorted writers. Concrete writers ‘ illustrations will be used.
2.1 What is publicizing?
Harmonizing to Smith et Al. ( 1998 ) , there exist twelve different communicating tools available to a seller. As per Leiss ( 1972 ) , advertisement has been recognized as a major vehicle of societal communicating in the field of selling in modern Western society. ”
Kotler and Armstrong ( 2007 ) provide an alternate definition:
Ad is any paid signifier of non-personal presentation and publicity of thoughts, goods and services through aggregate media such as newspapers, magazines, telecasting or wireless by an identified patron ” .
Ad is the publicity of merchandises and services carried out by companies chiefly to drive gross revenues of the merchandises and services and every bit to set up trade name individuality and to pass on alterations or new merchandises or services to the clients. Sellers have identified several grounds for advertisement, among which are as follows:
* Increasing the gross revenues of the product/service
* Creating and keeping a trade name individuality or trade name image.
* Communicating a alteration in the bing merchandise line.
* Introduction of a new merchandise or service.
* Increasing the buzz-value of the trade name or the company.
Therefore, merely like, there are several grounds for advertisement ; likewise there exist assorted media that efficaciously can be employed for advertisement. Based on these standards there can be several manners of advertisement which will be discussed below.
2.2 Manners of advertisement
The originative manner of executing refers to the mode in which a peculiar entreaty is transformed into a message of promotion which is presented to the consumer.
Harmonizing to the research done by Tony Yeshin ( 1997 ) , the following are the most common manners of advertisement:
2.3 Teaser advertisement
The Marketing Dictionary and Barron ‘s Educational Series, 2007 defines teaser publicizing as:
A brief advertizement designed to badger the populace by offering merely spots of information without uncovering either the patron of the ad or the merchandise being advertised ” .
2.3.1 Teaser advertisement: As an advertisement pattern
Harmonizing to this theory by Joannis ( 1995 ) , the really old rule of Teaser advertisement is to elicit the wonder of the chance by pass oning to it the first portion of the wholly cryptic message. It is supposed to keep 1s ‘ attending and brings him/her to seek the 2nd portion of the message. Joannis ( 1995 ) besides points out that this 2nd portion would non hold been read if the wonder excites by the first portion, is really far off from the topic.
Joe O’Donnell ( 2002 ) puts forward:
If they ‘ve got the right mark audience and the right media, the audience is traveling to pay attending to the teaser run as it develops. ”
Jean-Marc Lehu ( 2006 ) for his portion stresses that Teaser advertisement is characterised by a two stages publicizing run.
This technique can dwell of two or even three teasers. ( Lehu,2006 )
Beginning: Two Phases Advertising Campaign adapted by Jean-Marc Lehu, 2006
Bruce Miller ( 2002 ) classifies the ‘HERE ‘ Teaser run in Baltimore ( the largest metropolis and cultural centre of the U.S. province of Maryland ) as an effectual advertisement pattern.
The disclosure portion of the Teaser
Christopher Jacob ( 2006 ) puts frontward that the disclosure of certain Teaser ads are weak which finally have a negative impact on consumer ‘s buying determinations. For illustration in 2007, in France the Teaser advertisement for Transatlantis proved to be really effectual, nevertheless the disclosure which relates to the offer ( a journey ) was somehow weak which finally had a negative consequence on client ‘s buying determinations.
2.3.2 Teaser advertisement: As a communicating tool
Harmonizing to Hung ( 2000 ) , teaser ads rely to a great extent on gestural executional cues to pass on.
As a copywriting attack to interrupt through confusion, teaser ads provide uncomplete information ( Kover 1995 ) and rely on exuberant ocular images, accompanied by music or other sound effects, to make an attractive image for the advertised trade name and its users.
Aaker et Al. ( 1992 ) considers:
It is through teaser advertisement that we can supply originative advertisement along with effectual communicating. This is because ; this manner of advertisement non merely attracts the mark consumers ‘ attending, but besides generates involvement and educates the consumer about the merchandise benefits and placement, therefore moving as an effectual tool of communicating. ”
Teaser ad is a powerful tool used to convey message to the mark audience but in its ain manner of making wonder on what the ad is about and therefore directs the attending of mark audience ( Journal of Advertising, 2001 )
Erik Schmuckler ( 1999 ) positions Lee Jeans ‘ Teaser ad as an effectual communicating tool in footings of presenting the right message to the mark audience. The chief thought behind this enigma ad was to demo that this peculiar trade name is cool to have on. Lee became really cool really fast.
Harmonizing to the bureau ‘s ( Fallon McElligott, 1999 ) tracking survey, perceptual experiences that the trade name was going more popular and was cool to have on ” jumped 10 per centum points from 25 to 35 per centum and their sell-in of the Dungarees line was four times higher than anticipated. Most significantly, Lee gained 3 per centum in market portion in a level twelvemonth while Levi ‘s dropped merely as many per centum points.
2.3.3 Teaser advertisement: With relation to client attitudes
Lutz ( 1985 ) defines clients ‘ attitudes towards Teaser advertisement as a learnt inclination to respond in a favorable or unfavorable mode to Teaser run in general. Harmonizing to Bauer and Greyser ( 1968 ) , Teaser ad had of import economic and societal effects and built up a set of belief points associated with positive and negative results of such ad in these specific countries. The attitudes of clients towards teaser publicizing vary from one another.
With peculiar mention to www.agencyfaqs.com, the followers are some ideas on teaser advertisement with regard to clients:
O Teaser runs are a spot like lemon. If one squeezing them excessively much they become acrimonious. One should rapidly take out the juice and do the lemonade ( as in the chief run ) , instead than squash it bead by bead boulder clay it becomes excessively rancid for anybody ‘s liking ”
O Teaser ads are non hard currency cattles in footings of immediate sale, but if one notices, they are ever at the top of the head… ”
O Teasers tease the consumers and do excite to purchase provided it is a launch merchandise or a new sensational material. Chewing gums are fun to masticate and acquire better on masticating more but loose the juice on masticating excessively long. ”
O What a waste of advertisement money! ”
2.4 Development of teaser advertisement
Harmonizing to Dan S. Kennedy ( 2006 ) , the chief job with transporting out large ad in the newspaper, in a trade diary, or in a national magazine is the figure of people one wage for merely make non see it. This means that on any one twenty-four hours, 1s best chances may be out of town, sick in bed, or excessively busy to read newspaper.
As a solution to this job, one scheme to concentrate attending on 1s large ad is to predate it with a series of bantam, low-priced teaser ads. For illustration, a new computing machine shop tidal bore of doing the concern community aware of its being for two months, in the hebdomadal metropolis concern diary, ran little show ads. ( Dan S. Kennedy, 2006 )
2.5 Teaser advertisement in Mauritius
Past research done by L’Express ( 2005 ) proves that many people are still incognizant of this great phenomenon in advertisement in Mauritius. This is because many people have trouble in tie ining the ‘Teaser ‘ with advertisement, or for the new coevals this construct is still new, except those holding cognition in the selling field. But if one asks person about the ‘Zoon ‘ teaser advertisement run, they will decidedly remember it. In fact, Zoon was launched in October 2005 to measure the effectivity of hoardings. But chiefly the hoarding was having a Canis familiaris ( who was lost and his maestro seemingly launch this ad run for it and even suggest a large amount of money as wages ) , but this was all a teaser. This was done merely to do zoon going the talk of the town as per Mr. Vincent Montocchio ; Creative Director of Circus ( L’express October 2005 ) .
However, this peculiar teaser advertisement is non the first one to look in Mauritius. In fact, by the terminal of the 1880ss, one among the first teaser advertisement which was celebrated to the populace, is the 1 developed for the national air hose company ; Air Mauritius by the Immedia advertisement bureau. They placed a kangaroo bear in 3D in forepart of Queen Victoria in forepart of the authorities house, without any indicant what it is. This created wonder among the general public and became the talk of non merely the town but of the whole state, and it was even on the first page of the newspaper. A few yearss subsequently, the teaser was revealed ; it in fact introduces Air Mauritius foremost flight to Australia.
Subsequently, this teaser advertisement run has brought the outgrowth of other teaser ads and 15 old ages after, this manner of advertisement is still present. ( Poonoosamy, 2006 )
2.6 The ‘When ‘ of teaser advertisement in Mauritius
This is normally used by new merchandises and new concerns to make an component of machination and wonder and construct exhilaration and expectancy. A good illustration is the launch run for the Nissan Micra ( Baker, 1994 ) and the initial run for Cable and Wireless. ( Tony Yeshin, 1997 )
By and large, non all advertisement bureaus in Mauritius get involved in Teaser advertisement, because it depends extremely on the client ‘s merchandise placement, budget of the client and most significantly, what does the client want ; what dose the trade name wants to state during the advertisement run. But so when does one engage in teaser advertisement?
Figure 2. 3: When to make teaser in Mauritius
New Product Launching
Harmonizing to Belch and Belch ( 2003 ) , the teaser advertisement has for cardinal nonsubjective to uncover the trade name after concealing it for some clip and after maintaining this minute of pure machination. Therefore it will be wise to state that teaser advertisement will outdo be adapted when the company is establishing a new merchandise or trade name. For illustration, in France, the amalgamation Neuf Telecom and Cegetel used on-line teaser ads to present its new subordinate Neuf Cegetel that was meant to specialise in nomadic communications ( www.journaldunet.com ) . A local illustration is the national lottery LOTO where a Teaser run was used to publicize this merchandise since it was new in the Mauritanian market.
New Business
Harmonizing to blimpcam.com, it is really of import for a new concern to bring forth client involvement before a concern opens its doors. To accomplish this, some concerns do teaser advertisement. For illustration a teaser ad may be, ‘the countdown has begun ; there are merely 60 yearss until a certain company opens ” . However in Mauritius, this peculiar manner of advertisement does non merely used for new concern but besides for bing one. A recent illustration of Teaser ad in Mauritius for an bing concern is Orange.
2.7 Evaluation of teaser advertisement
All advertisement efforts-regardless of its manners, are directed chiefly towards the attainment of assorted aims ( in footings of concern, selling and advertisement ) i.e. , to increase the gross revenues turnover and therefore to market the maximal net income. The advertizer spends 1000000s of rupees in this activity. In the background of all these difficult work, is an attempt to pull the client towards the merchandise through advertisement.
Pollay and Mittal ( 1993 ) put frontward that Teaser advertisement influences consumers on three degrees viz. :
O economic degree
O personal degree
O societal degree
However, in world, does publicizing particularly Teaser ad truly motivates 1s to transport out the purchase activity?
Hristo Ivanov Katranjiev ( 2000 ) points out that in most instances, the ultimate response is purchase. Normally, consumers pass through six phases ( see figure 2.4 ) in their manner to doing a purchase.
Phillip Kotler, Gary Armstrong ( 2001 ) suggest that prior to the first phase, consumers may be wholly incognizant of the merchandise, know merely its name or cognize a spot about it. So, there is a demand to construct consciousness foremost and so cognition. When Nissan introduced its Infinity car line, it started with with an extended teaser ” advertisement run to construct name acquaintance. Original ads for the Infiniti created wonder and consciousness by demoing the auto ‘s name merely and non the auto. Later ads created cognition by informing possible purchasers of the auto ‘s high quality and many advanced characteristics and continued like this till the last phase. In common instances, Teaser ads act as a beginning of motive for clients to buy activity.
2.7.1 Teaser advertisement as a beginning of motive for clients to buy
Harmonizing to David A.Aaker ( 1989 ) , normally publicizing in general is non good suited to straight precipitate action. Rather it is better at carry oning some communicating, association or persuasion undertaking that will hopefully ensue in the coveted action being precipitated. A communicating consequences in the audience members ‘ larning something new or deriving an improved apprehension or memory of some fact.
However, harmonizing to David A.Aaker ( 1989 ) , Teaser advertisement is one of the many forces that motivate clients to buy. That is this manner of advertisement is good suited to straight precipitate action of purchase ( see figure 2.5 ) .
Harmonizing to Henri Joannis ( 1995 ) , Teaser ad is really an altered version of a really old theoretical account of advertisement, the AIDA theoretical account, which points out that an announce must pull attending, arise involvement, instill the desire and provoke action. Joannis ( 1995 ) besides stresses on the fact that Teaser ad is altered in the manner that the factor attending is separated from the factor involvement and desire by the usage of suspense component that creates wonder.
In advertisement scenes, consumers are assumed to travel through a procedure to compare Teaser ad contents with self-concept when they are exposed to the advertisement messages. Harmonizing to Markus et Al. ( 1985 ) , self-concept does non merely hold the significance of mere cognition of facts, but instead, it is a cognitive construction which is related with strong feelings and motives.
While research refering to the consequence of self-concept on purchase purpose is rare, Landon ( 1974 ) and Belch ( 1978 ) found that both existent and ideal self-concept influence purchase purpose ( though their grade of comparative impact is different ) . That is, the more closely the teaser ad matches the purchasers ‘ self-concept, the higher the purchase purpose for that merchandise.
However, old research done by Hristo Ivanov Katrandjiev ( 2000 ) proves that Teaser advertisement is cheaper than gross revenues publicity and more expensive than public dealingss, but frequently evokes negative feelings ( such as irritation, choler, misgiving, etc. ) .
Paul Hague ( 2001 ) states that the AIDA hierarchal theoretical account follows the determination doing procedure from illuming the lamp ” for people through to the sale itself. At each degree in the procedure the figure of people drastically diminishes so that those who take action are a little fraction of those who are cognizant of or interested in the merchandise ( see figure 2.6 ) .
Kim Shyan Fam et Al. ( 2004 ) point out that spiritual beliefs play a major function in determining human behavior towards a peculiar ad no affair of its manners. Harmonizing to Deng et Al. ( 1994 ) , faith besides controls gender functions in a peculiar civilization.
As per Philippe Tesseron ( 2006 ) , the really effectual manner of advertising-Teaser ad was used in France for a hypermarket. The first hoarding was introduced anonymously, without trade name but with a promising disclosure. Relatively, that everybody, particularly the spiritual 1s, seems to retrieve the great advertisement run which became a existent scoop in 1981. There was a immature adult female in Bikini which promises to take out her top so the underside as they change postings, so to detect the reveal-a bare adult female from the dorsum with the slogan- ” Avenir Advertising-They hold their promises ” .
Philippe Tesseron ( 2006 ) points out that this teaser ad on the hypermarket in France did non truly move as a beginning of motive for clients to make the act of purchase, but instead this ad arise inquiries: Is the organic structure ware that we use to fulfill the desires of some advertizers? What is the relationship between the gap of a hypermarket and the dorsum of a adult female or adult male in underwear on postings and hoardings? So the Myriam advertisement run realized in France 1981 on the hypermarket has created tonss of contentions. Philippe Tesseron ( 2006 ) besides points out that these contentions were non merely due to spiritual beliefs but on ethical land which finally lead to the thought that faith entirely does non act upon buying determinations.
2.8 Drumhead
Teaser advertisement has for aim to make attending around a topic and to trip wonder its chance. This technique of advertisement is done in two stages. Despite the Zoon Teaser in Mauritius was a existent success as it has been playing a batch on emotions, there exist tonss of contentions of this manner of advertisement because of ethical facets of some of the visuals displayed. Finally it is mentioned that Teaser ad Acts of the Apostless as a beginning of motive but does it truly influence consumers in their buying determinations and coerce them to make the purchase activity. For this, assorted literatures from different writers have been used so as to obtain a deep apprehension of the topic.
Chapter 3
Research Methodology
3.0 Introduction
Harmonizing to Zikmund, research is the systematic and nonsubjective procedure of assemblage, entering and analysing of informations for assistance in doing determinations ( Zikmund, 2000 ) . Advertising related research provides information in several countries, for illustration the utilizations of research refering specifically to the originative executing ( Michelet, 2006 ) .
While transporting out research, it is of import for us to look at the stairss in the research procedure that will be handled farther in this chapter.
3.1 Measure 1: Formulation of the research job
The selling environment is invariably altering and therefore sellers or directors have to turn to new issues which may make chances or jobs for their organisations ( Wilson, 2003 ) . Equally far as Teaser advertisement is concerned, some ad bureaus and advertizers have forgotten what this manner of advertisement should make and how they should make it. As a effect, some of the advertisement produced in Mauritius has significant defects that limit its value as a communicating tool.
Therefore, the present survey investigates the perceptual experience of the Mauritanian consumers on Teaser advertisement. Basically, consumers ‘ illation to the nature and intent of enigma advertisement has been decided. The undermentioned inquiries besides have been addressed: how far does Teaser ad influence consumers in their purchase determinations, where there are similar types of advertisement every bit good as tonss of ad messages in today ‘s jumble. The consequence is uneffective advertisement that gives nil to possible consumer and the advertizer. With tonss of perennial ads, can publicize in footings of teaser advertisement present information people need and want to do them do intelligent purchase determination and actuate them to purchase?
Therefore, a study has been carried out and it has the undermentioned aims:
O Understand the construct of Teaser advertisement
o Teaser Ad as an advertisement pattern
o Teaser Ad as a communicating tool
o Teaser Ad in relation with client attitudes
O Evaluate the effectivity of Teaser advertisement in the Mauritanian context
O Analyse Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy.
3.2 Measure 2: Determine Research Design
Research Design is merely the model or program for a survey used as a usher in roll uping and analysing informations. There are some of import research design frameworks that are classified as:
O Exploratory
O Conclusive – ( a ) Descriptive
( B ) Causal Research
This survey is an property of both exploratory and descriptive research. It is to be noted that due to clip and other restraints, a true exploratory design affecting techniques like focal point groups were non adopted for the survey.
3.2.1 Exploratory Research
An explorative research chiefly for this survey has been conducted in order to happen out the point of position of Mauritanian consumers on Teaser advertisement and besides to place the factors that influence their perceptual experience of Teaser advertisement. This will assist in the appraisal of Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy. Therefore, the undermentioned hypotheses ( with mention to assorted writers ) were developed:





1. There is no relationship between Teaser advertisement and frequence of purchase.


Paul Hague ( 2001 ) states that at each degree in the procedure ( AIDA theoretical account ) the figure of people drastically diminishes so that those who take action are a little fraction




2. There is a relationship between Teaser ad as a beginning of motive and buying determinations.


As per Phillip Kotler, Gary Armstrong ( 2001 ) , Teaser ads act as a beginning of motive for clients to buy activity.




3. There is a relationship between Teaser effectivity and degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad.


Christopher Jacob ( 2006 ) puts frontward that weak disclosure of Teaser ads have a negative impact on consumer ‘s buying determinations.




4. There is a relationship between purchasers ‘ self-concept towards teaser advertisement and purchase purpose of that merchandise.


Landon ( 1974 ) and Belch ( 1978 ) found that the more closely the teaser ad matches the purchasers ‘ self-concept, the higher the purchase purpose for that merchandise.




5. There is a relationship between teaser ad as a communicating tool and buying determinations.


Erik Schmuckler ( 1999 ) found that Teaser ad as an effectual communicating tool positively influences buying determination.




6. There is no relationship between faith and buying purpose.


As per, Philippe Tesseron ( 2006 ) faith entirely does non act upon buying determinations.




3.2.2 Descriptive research
Since the aims of the survey necessitate information to be generated about Teaser advertisement as a beginning of motive for clients to buy, this survey is descriptive in nature every bit good.
3.3 Measure 3: Determining Data Collection Methods
3.3.1 Secondary Data
Secondary informations is information that has been antecedently gathered for some intent other than the current research. As such secondary informations which includes newspapers such as L’Express, the Internet and journal articles was collected externally.
3.3.2 Primary Data
It is collected by a plan of observation, qualitative or quantitative research either individually or in combination. For this survey, both quantitative and qualitative researches were chosen.
Quantitative Research: This attack was used so as to place the influence of Teaser ad on buying determinations. Hence, a study was conducted where questionnaires were designed and administered to the mark population so as to acquire the needed information.
Qualitative Research: This research was as of import in this survey so as to derive a deeper apprehension of Teaser ad as a beginning of motive to do purchase as a capable affair. So, the questionnaires were administered face-to-face. The chief advantage was the high response rate and uncertainties and misinterpretations were cleared on the topographic point. In add-on, since it is rather hard to quantify each respondent ‘s behavior and perceptual experiences, qualitative information was cherished to cognize how the respondents feel when they are involved in determination devising procedure.
Hence, the usage of different research methods allowed edifice on the strengths of each method every bit good as minimising their failings. The failings of the quantitative method have been compensated by qualitative method and frailty versa.
3.4 Measure 4: Design Data Collection Forms
Once the research has been designed, it is now clip to get down roll uping the information by sing the undermentioned types of research and appropriate methods of aggregation.
3.4.1 Research Instrument: The Questionnaire
For the study, the questionnaire was the chief research instrument. The questionnaire was chiefly structured doing it simple to administrate and easy to table and analyze. The latter contained some open-ended inquiries as good. Emphasis was laid on the dictions and sequence of the inquiries. This was of import in order to guarantee the cogency of any comparings to be made among different respondents.
Reasons for taking specific instruments:
By and large, questionnaires are ways to garner informations from a potentially big figure of respondents. It ensures the cogency of any comparing being made between different respondent ‘s replies, every bit good as supplying informations in a signifier that can be easy be analysed. Furthermore, the different inquiries related to the aim of the survey could be asked.
3.4.1.1 Questionnaire Design
O Structure of the questionnaire
The questionnaire was design by the usage of different types of inquiries which are as follows:
Open ended – Such inquiries provide the respondents complete freedom to make up one’s mind the signifier, length and item of the reply. This sort of inquiries is most preferable when 1 is interested in cognizing the upper most in the head of respondents.
Dichotomous – This type of inquiries consists of merely two types of response: yes or no.
Scale – Here, a graduated table is used for the intent of evaluation something.
Multiple Choice inquiries – For such inquiries, the respondents are provided with 2 or more picks.
O Questionnaire Content – Section A
O Questionnaire Content – Section B
This subdivision analyses the demographic profile of clients and consist of inquiries affecting, gender, age group, position, part, business and income group. All inquiries are of personal nature. This information is necessary in the study as it will assist in cross-tabulations and therefore do statistical illations.
3.4.1.2 Pilot Testing
Pilot proving involves administrating to a limited figure of possible respondents in order to place and rectify design defects. For this intent a pilot trial of 10 respondents were chosen to prove the dependability and cogency of the questionnaire. This exercising enables us to place mistakes in the format, nature of inquiries, and justice respondent reaction to the questionnaire and find the overall rightness of the questionnaire to the mark population. Following this exercising, minor alterations were made to the questionnaire to better it and to minimise any farther misinterpretation by other respondents.
The undermentioned alterations were made in the inquiries:
O In inquiry 4 ( a ) , the option ‘nothing ‘ was added so that people who do non cognize or retrieve the motto of Le Matinal and LOTO ad can take this option.
O Question 15 was included so as to derive an thought of the degree of outlook formed by the consumer after being exposed to Teaser ads.
O Question 21 was added to cognize the faith of the respondents.
3.5 Measure 5: Design sample and collect informations
The following measure in the research procedure is to choose those elements from which the information will be collected.
3.5.1 Specifying the Population
The population of involvement is the entire group of people that the research worker wants to analyze survey or obtain information from. Thus the population for this survey was the general Mauritian people itself. Therefore people from 18 to 65 old ages old were selected.
3.5.2 Sampling Method
For the survey, a non-probability sample was used. In fact, in a non-probability sample, there is no manner of gauging the chance that any population component will be included in the sample ( Churchill, 1996 ) . For administrating the questionnaire, quota sampling was used.



Age group


CSO Statistics ( 1st July 2008 )


Sample taken for the study




18-29


196,432


25




30-54


459,575


58




55-69


138,562


17




Entire


794,569


100



3.5.2.1 Sample size
The sample size determines the figure of member of the population to be surveyed. For this research, the sample size chosen was 100.
3.5.3 Data Collection
The questionnaire was administered to clients aged 18-65 old ages as a face to face during the month of February 2010. Most of the respondents contacted and recruited were from the working population and few of them were pupil and retired 1s. All were indiscriminately chosen.
3.6 Measure 6: Processing and analysing the information
When all informations have been collected, they were inputted on the SPSS package ( Version 16.0 ) every bit good as Microsoft Excel 2000. A preliminary analysis was made utilizing basic statistics such as frequences, cross tabular matters and graphical representations. Further thorough analysis was carried out looking at the associations between variables, doing usage of the Chi square trial and Pearson ‘s correlativity coefficient amongst others. The information was interpreted and presented in tabular arraies, pie charts and saloon charts to do the analysis much easier to understand. The analysis and findings are presented in Chapter 4.
In the instance that less than five inquiries were unanswered in a individual questionnaire, losing values were assigned in SPSS and a average value of all other responses shall be employed when analysing the questionnaire. Guarantee a preciseness of more than +-2 % , questionnaires were discarded if more than five responses were losing.
3.7 Measure 7: Fixing the Research Report
The last measure is the readying of the concluding study utilizing the information collected and consequences from the study as grounds to back up and exemplify the chief findings of the research undertaking.
3.8 Restrictions of the survey
Due to clip and resources restraints, sample size was restricted to 100 which was really less harmonizing to the entire population. The responses given by respondents were non ever accurate because they gave the response harmonizing to their apprehension. Sometimes the respondents were non willing to make full the questionnaire and therefore the end point may non be accurate.
3.9 Ethical Considerations
Respondents were informed about the confidentiality/anonymity ” policy and that they were free to take part or to retreat from the survey.
Chapter 4
Findings & A ; Analysis
4.0 Introduction
This chapter will demo the consequences of the informations collected from the questionnaire which were gathered from the Mauritanian clients. In this subdivision, information obtained from assorted respondents will be discussed. The analysis of these inquiries will be done taking into consideration both the aim of this research and the hypothesis besides.
About all the inquiries ( except a few ) will be categorized under a peculiar research aim where the analysis will be conducted.
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of the quantitative study
4.1.1 General inquiries
Under this peculiar subdivision of this chapter, two inquiries were asked so as to derive an thought of whether the mark population is exposed to different advertizement.
O Questions 1 and 2 effort to derive general information on whether the respondent is familiar or exposed to different ads.
Most of them were exposed to ads on Bankss, technological merchandises, newspaper, LOTO ( national lottery ) , Orange/Mauritius and among others. Therefore, it can be noted that advertisement regardless of its manner, reached the bulk efficaciously except those 7 % who are non truly exposed and interested besides to Mauritian advertizement.
4.1.2 Measuring the effectivity of Teaser advertisement in the Mauritanian context
An indispensable research aim is the appraisal of the effectivity of Teaser ads in the Mauritanian context with regard to clients ‘ attitudes. Thus to be able to achieve this peculiar aim, the undermentioned inquiries were asked to the mark population.
O Question 3 focal points on the degree of respondents ‘ consciousness on Teaser ad.
In simpler footings, it has been found that most of the respondents, around 69 % , have knowledge on Teaser ads while 25 % do non hold any apprehension of such an ad. Furthermore, there exist besides another class of respondents, around 6 % , who do non even have an thought of whether they possess any cognition on Teaser advertisement. Therefore, it is of import to place how to make consciousness of such an ad so as everyone in Mauritius possess certain degree of understanding on Teaser advertisement.
Even though, 69 % of the respondents are exposed to Teaser advertisement, figure 4.3 illustrates that 68 % of them retrieve of any illustration of Teaser ad and merely 1 % of the mark population did non retrieve any teaser ads. The 68 % respondents recall the recent suspense ads which are as follow:
O ‘Le Matinal ‘ advertizement – This is a newspaper ad which was created to elicit wonder among clients for the merchandise ( Le Matinal ) with a slogan On ne peut l’arreter ” .
O Ads on ‘LOTO ‘ – this ad is on the national lottery viz. LOTO with the motto of Toute est maintenant possible ” .
O ‘Orange ‘ advertizement – this ad was done when Mauritius Telecom was altering its name from Mauritius Telecom to ‘Orange ‘
A elaborate analysis of figure 4.3 will be 29 % of mark population recalls the latest suspense ad on the national lottery-LOTO. This points out that the ad on LOTO was more effectual in footings of consciousness of the merchandise compared to that of Le Matinal ( merely 19 % ) and Orange ( merely 20 % ) . Out of these three ads, Orange was the lone 1 that had non been able to catch the attending of the respondents.
O Question 4 is on the Teaser ads of Le Matinal and LOTO ( National Lottery )
It can be noticed that a major proportion of the respondents ( & lt ; 80 % ) are cognizant of both Le Matinal and LOTO ( national lottery ) . This indicates that the usage of Teaser ads for both Le Matinal and LOTO has been really effectual in making consciousness of the merchandise. In fact this is more sensible for LOTO which was a new merchandise for the Mauritanian clients in the twelvemonth 2009. The ad has been effectual to such an extent that nowadays, everyone in Mauritius, irrespective of their age, know about the merchandise.
Even though, above 90 % of the respondents know both Le Matinal and LOTO ads, it can be noted that the motto used did non capture the same sum of attending. In other words, when the respondents were asked about the motto of the merchandise On ne peut l’arreter ” , around 25 % of the respondents was confused while for LOTO, 32 % were puzzled. Despite the fact that a proportion of the mark population was perplexed, it is to be noticed that out of a sample of 100, 75 recognized the motto of Le Matinal newspaper and 68 for the national lottery LOTO.
O Question 5 gives an thought on how clients view teaser ads from other types of ads.
Therefore this inquiry allows 1s to cognize whether the respondent can distinguish teaser ads among others. The figure below gives 1s an thought of how many respondent agreed that such an ad is different from other 1s and whether they understand the construct of such an ad or non.
Harmonizing to the study conducted, those who can distinguish Teaser ad with other ads, understand the construct of such an ad. This can be farther illustrated by the fact that 82 % of the respondents are able to distinguish Teaser ad with other common ad and 79 % understand the construct of this manner of advertisement. However, there exist around 20 % of respondents who either do non understand or make non hold any thought about the construct of such an ad and these respondents found such an ad merely like other ads.
O Question 6 – Aim of Teaser ads
Most of the respondents believe that the chief aim of Teaser ad is to make wonder. This explains that this proportion of the respondents understand to the full the existent significance and construct of such an ad. On the other manus, 27 % of the respondent has the belief that teaser ad is meant to badger clients. This reflects the thought that these respondents view Teaser ad as a merriment or merely for amusement.
Furthermore, some do hold the perceptual experience that this manner of ad is meant for doing one purchase the merchandise while others think that Teaser ad will do that peculiar merchandise go the talk of the state for illustration.
O Question 7 & A ; 10 effort to derive information on clients ‘ perceptual experience on Teaser ads.
The perceptual experience of clients towards Teaser advertisement. It can be noticed that 34 % of the answering position such manner of advertisement as an interesting one and 24 % as an educating ad. In add-on, around 14 % of them do happen Teaser ad to be persuasive.
However, there exist besides some respondents who have the perceptual experience that Teaser ad is deadening, bothersome and among others. This gives the indicant that non everyone has been able to accept Teaser ad. To derive, more information on this facet, advertizement on Le Matinal and LOTO was taken as illustration.
The undermentioned figure 4.9, demonstrates that the bulk of respondents, 73 % ( Le Matinal ) and 70 % ( LOTO ) , bask these ads and besides these ads were among their favorite 1s. This statistics support the analysis of figure 4.8 which proves that these 70 % who like Teaser publicizing position it as an interesting, educating and persuasive ad.
Furthermore, it can besides be noted that a really little proportion of the respondents do non wish such an ad and their perceptual experience towards Teaser ad are: deadening annoyance and confusing. While the remainder do non possess a clear sentiment of whether they like such ads or non.
O Question 9 efforts to measure the chief strength of such Teaser ad from the client ‘s point of position.
26 % of respondents confirm Teaser ad as being high in footings of strength, 24 % of them feel that such an ad is original and 22 % believe that creativeness is its chief strength. These figures show clearly that people in general appreciate the construct of enigma ads. Besides apart from the strength, originality and originative facet, people like the entreaty of Teaser ad. However, suspense ad achieves low in footings of amusing facet and enlightening facet with 9 % merely, demoing that such manner of advertisement fails in informing people clearly about the benefits of the merchandise.
4.1.3 Analyzing Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy
Analyzing Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy is another research aim and with the aid of the undermentioned inquiries, this peculiar aim has been achieved.
O Question 11, 12 and 13 buttocks the influence of Teaser ad on buying determination
merely 49 % of the respondents are influenced by Teaser advertisement while doing the buying determination, but this influence might be both in a negative or positive manner. That is clients may be positively influenced and do the buying activity because of this ad while others may non. But there exist besides 42 % who explain that such advertisement do non truly hold any impact on their buying activity.
As per the undermentioned figure, about all the respondents are influenced by Teaser advertisement while doing buying determination except the 33 % who are non influenced by any Teaser ad.
The 67 % of the respondents were influenced in a positive mode that is these respondents have purchased that peculiar merchandise because of its Teaser ad. In Mauritius, there are many Teaser ads and the most common one are: LOTO ( most recent ) , Le Matinal and Orange.
it can be said that among the 67 % of respondents whose buying determination are influenced ; merely 60 % knows precisely what merchandise they have been purchased because of its Teaser ads. The 7 % left do non cognize about the merchandise and they merely have the cognition that they have one time bought a merchandise due its suspense ads. Out of the 60 % , 23 % was for LOTO, 19 % for Le Matinal and 18 % for Orange. 40 %
out of the 23 respondents who play LOTO, 53 % of them were encouraged to play LOTO because of its manner of advertisement. This gives the thought that Teaser ad does influenced buying activity to a really big extent. 36 % have the perceptual experience that this manner of advertisement influenced their buying determination to a really small extent. However, the staying 11 % do non hold any thought of whether enigma ads promote them or non to make the buying activity.
For farther analysis, statistical trial like Chi Square and Analysis trial ( ANOVA ) will be used. By utilizing Chi Square and ANOVA, for the hypothesis to be true, we assume that the P-value should be greater than 0.05. This means that if P-value is greater than 0.05, so we should accept H0, whereby the consequence is non important. On the other manus if P-value is less than 0.05, so we reject H0, whereby there is a strong relationship.
Hypothesis 1- Assessing the relationship between inquiry 11 & A ; 12
H0: There is no relationship between Teaser advertisement and frequence of purchase
H1: There is a relationship between Teaser advertisement and frequence of purchase
The Analysis trial ( ANOVA ) with a p-value of.724, greater than.05 which means that the void hypothesis, H0, is accepted but H1 is rejected. A decision is made that Teaser advertisement is non associated with frequence of purchase. This can be translated to the fact that this manner of advertisement has been able to act upon the buying determination of consumers but has non been able to do them purchase. Hence, there is no statistically relationship between Teaser ad and frequence of purchase.
The above analysis clearly corresponds to the statement of Paul Hague ( 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Paul, Teaser ad does make wonder among tonss of people but when it comes to do the buying activity, this peculiar manner of advertisement fails to make so. Hence both the study and research conducted by Paul Hague ( 2001 ) prove that there is no relationship between Teaser advertisement and frequence of purchase.
O Question 14 examines Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy.
A major proportion of the mark population ( 70 % ) have the idea that this specific manner of advertisement does move as a beginning of motive for clients to buy. It may be that these 70 % possess this idea, but in world merely 67 % do the act of purchase as mentioned earlier. However, it is to observe that merely 18 % were unmotivated to do purchase following the teaser run. Furthermore, 12 % of them have no thought if whether Teaser advertisement run has motivated them or non to do the buying activity. This shows some sort of indifference of people towards advertisement.
For farther analysis, we will cross-tabulate the figure of people who have purchase a merchandise because of its Teaser advertisement and those who consider such an ad as a beginning of motive to purchase.
Hypothesis 2- Assessing the relationship between inquiry 12 & A ; 14
H0: There is no relationship between Teaser ad as a beginning of motive and buying determinations.
H1: There is a relationship between Teaser ad as a beginning of motive and buying determinations.
The p-value is printed as.000, but this should be interpreted as P & lt ; 0.001 and non be taken as precisely 0. Since an premise of 17.5 % have expected count less than 5, this proves that the Chi Square trial is effectual. That is, for this peculiar hypothesis, Chi Square trial can be used.
As per the Chi Square trial, p-value is less than 0.05, with P & lt ; 0.001, this means that H1 should be accepted. The Spearman value being.522 shows that there is a positive relationship although a moderate one, those who make the purchase action because of the enigma ad and those who view this manner of ad as a beginning of motive. As such people who buy a merchandise due to its Teaser ad are those who feel motivated to buy more because of this ad. The chief purpose of advertisement is to do people purchase the merchandise, but the fact remains that people will purchase a peculiar merchandise merely when they are motivated to make so. Thus, seller can do usage of Teaser advertisement to accomplish this end since the Chi Square trial show that there is a relationship between Teaser ad as a beginning of motive for clients to buy and buy purpose and harmonizing to the Spearman correlativity this relationship is a positive 1.
This undoubtedly corresponds to the statement of Phillip Kotler, Gary Armstrong ( 2001 ) . Harmonizing to this peculiar writer, Teaser ads act as a beginning of motive for clients to buy activity. Hence our study corresponds to that of Phillip Kotler which illustrates the same consequences.
O Question 15 and 16 buttocks the degree of outlook that consumers form in their head after being exposed to Teaser ad.
Figure 4.16 reveals that the bulk of respondents with 67 % signifier a high degree of outlook after being exposed to any Teaser ad. This indicates that, by and large, this peculiar manner of advertisement increases the degree of outlook in footings of merchandise characteristics, use, etc. However, there exist a little proportion of 20 % who do non truly construct any sort of outlook and the staying 7 % do non truly have an thought of whether they possess any degree of outlook from such an ad.
most of the respondents feel non extraordinary, such an ad is a waste of money and useless when in world their outlook is non matched after utilizing the merchandise for illustration. For the Mauritanian consumers these are their when really Teaser ads are non able to fit their outlook. Normally, sellers create the annoyer in such a manner that it builds up certain degree of outlook in the head of Mauritanian clients and by and large it is the instance that these outlooks are non fulfilled which evokes negative feelings towards Teaser advertisement.
For farther analysis, we try to happen the relationship between Teaser ad and degree of outlook.
Hypothesis 3- Assessing the relationship between inquiry 12 & A ; 15
H0: There is no relationship between degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad and purchase purpose.
H1: There is a relationship between degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad and purchase purpose.
Since an premise of 19.3 % have expected count less than 5, this proves that the Chi Square trial is effectual. That is, for this peculiar hypothesis, Chi Square trial can be used.
From the Chi Square trials, p-value is less than 0.05, with P & lt ; 0.001 which means that H1 should be accepted and reject H0. Therefore, it can be said that there is an association degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad and purchase purpose.
Furthermore, the Spearman value being.655 shows that there is about a strong positive relationship, between those who make the purchase action because of the enigma ad and those who forms a high degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad.
This undoubtedly corresponds to the statement of Christopher Jacob ( 2006 ) which is: weak disclosure of Teaser ads has a negative impact on consumer ‘s buying determinations. Therefore our study matches the research done by Christopher Jacob and the consequence of relationship between degree of outlook of disclosure of the ad and purchase purpose remains.
4.1.4 Understanding the construct of Teaser ad as an advertisement pattern & A ; communicating tool.
The nonsubjective set for the research is: understand the construct of Teaser ad as an advertisement pattern and as a communicating tool. The undermentioned inquiries have helped in recognizing this research aim.
O Question 17 assesses the effectivity of Teaser ads in footings of communicating tool and advertisement pattern.
From figure 4.18, it can be noticed that there is no major difference in footings of statistical figures when analysing the effectivity of Teaser ads as a communicating tool and every bit good as advertisement pattern. 87 % and 85 % of respondents consider Teaser ad to be really effectual every bit good as effectual both as a communicating tool and as an advertisement pattern while the staying non effectual at all.
For farther analysis, we try to happen the relationship between Teaser ad as a communicating tool and buying determination.
Hypothesis 4 – Measuring the relationship between inquiry 12 & A ; 17
H0: There is no relationship between teaser ad as a communicating tool and buying determinations.
H1: There is a relationship between teaser ad as a communicating tool and buying determinations.








Chi-Square Trials





Value


df


Asymp. Sig. ( 2-sided )




Pearson Chi-Square


7.422a


2


.024




Likelihood Ratio


7.791


2


.020




Linear-by-Linear Association


4.677


1


.031






N of Valid Cases


100






a. 1 cells ( 16.7 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is 4.29.










Symmetrical Measures






Value


Asymp. Std. Errora


Approx. Terbium


Approx. Sig.




Nominal by Nominal


Phi


.272




.024




Cramer ‘s V


.272




.024




Time interval by Interval


Pearson ‘s Roentgen


.217


.094


2.204


.030c




Ordinal by Ordinal


Spearman Correlation


.235


.093


2.397


.018c




N of Valid Cases


100







a. Not presuming the void hypothesis.










B. Using the asymptotic criterion mistake presuming the void hypothesis.






c. Based on normal estimate.












Since an premise of 16.7 % have expected count less than 5, this proves that the Chi Square trial is effectual. That is, for this peculiar hypothesis, Chi Square trial can be used.
After analysing the Chi Square trials, we can detect that the p-value is less than 0.05, with 0.024 ; this means that accepts H1 and rejects H0. Accepting H1 means that there exist any sort of association ( either positive or negative ) between Teaser ad as a communicating tool and buying determinations.
The Spearman value being.235 indicates that there is a positive but weak relationship between Teaser advertisement as a communicating tool and buying determinations. It can be deduced that people who believe that Teaser ad is effectual as a communicating tool are more inclined to do a purchase.
The above analysis doubtless corresponds to the statement of Erik Schmuckler ( 1999 ) which is: Teaser ad as an effectual communicating tool positively influences buying determination. Thus our study matches with the research conducted by Erik Schmuckler and the consequence of relationship between ad as a communicating tool and buying determinations remains.
O Question 18 analyses the clients ‘ views/perceptions on Teaser ads.
Figure 4.19 demonstrates that clients ‘ positions on Teaser ads vary from one another. 20 % of the respondents view Teaser ads as a originative ad which aims at promoting people to cognize more about the merchandise and 17 % of them have the idea that this manner of ad is an entertaining one. 12 % believe that this manner of advertisement make one do the buying activity while another proportion of 12 % position it as a waste of money. However, the staying 19 % do non possess any clear positions on Teaser ads.
For farther analysis, we try to happen the relationship between purchasers ‘ self-concept towards teaser advertisement and purchase in

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