This may prevent a message from being heard clearly. 2. Technical Noise This noise involves the failure of the medium of communication. It includes, crackle on the telephone line or illegible handwriting etc. This may prevent the exchange of communication. 3. Social Noise It is the interference caused by differences in personality and cultures of the members communicating. It includes difficulties faced by people who have different in ages, castes, social status etc. 4. Psychological Noise It includes excessive such as emotion, prejudice, nervousness etc.
How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of communication message will influence how he or she interprets it. The same message received when sender are angry is often interpreted differently when sender are happy. Extreme emotions such as jubilation or depression are most likely to hinder effective communication. 1. Types of barriers to communication At above the concept of noise was introduced. Noise is common but it varies with degree. On the low end of the scale, noise such as radio station static is a minor irritant that hampers but does not completely block the transfer of understanding.
But at the high end of the scale noise can become an impenetrable barrier to communication. There are four types of communication barriers that represent extreme forms of noise: 1: Process barriers 2: Physical barriers 3: Semantic barriers and 4: Psychosocial barriers 1: Process barriers Every process in communication process is necessary for effective communication. Blocked steps become barriers. Considered the following situations. * Sender barriers An untrained person with and unusual new idea fails to speak up at a meeting for fear of criticism. * Encoding barriers
A Spanish-speaking factory worker or we can say that a Spanish- speaking politician cannot get an English speaking supervisor or a politician cannot speak English with English speaking speaker to understand a grievance about working condition or affairs of the country. * Medium barriers After getting no answer three times and a busy signal twice a customer concludes that a store, s consumer hot line is a waste of time. * Decoding barrier An older manager not sure what a young supervisor means what he refers to an employee as spaced out”. * Receiver barriers
A manager who is preoccupied with the preparation of a budget asks a subordinate to repeat an earlier statement. * Feedback barrier During on the job training the failure of the trainee to ask any questions causes a manager to wonder if there is any real understanding. The complexity of the communication process itself is a potentially formidable barrier to communication. Malfunctions anywhere along the line can singly or collectively block the transfer of understanding. 2: Physical barriers Sometime a physical object blocks effective communication.
For example a riveter who wears ear protectors probably cannot hear someone yell fire. Distance is another physical barriers. The 2000 , 3000 or more distance from Lahore to Kuwait, Iraq, or New York and the time zone differences can complicate coast-to-coast communication in a nationwide organization. People often take physical barriers for grand but sometimes they can be removed. For example an inconveniently positioned wall in an office can be torn out. An appropriate choice of media is especially important in overcoming physical barriers. 3: Semantic Barriers
Formally defined semantic barriers, is the study of meaning in words. Words are an indispensable features of every day life through unfortunately. Words can sometimes cause a great deal of trouble. In a well worn army story a growling drill sergeant once ordered a frightened recruit to go out and paint his entire jeep. Later the sergeant was shocked to find that the private had painted his entire jeep, including the headlights, windshield, seats, and dashboard gauges. Obviously the words entire mean something different to the recruit than it did to the sergeant. 4: Psychosocial barriers
Psychosocial and social barriers are probably responsible for more blocked communication than any other type of barriers. This is true because of people, s different backgrounds, perceptions, values, biases, needs, and expectations. Childhood experience may result in negative feelings towards authority figures (such as supervisors) racial prejudice distrust of the opposite sex or lack of self confidence. Experience on present or past jobs may have created anger, distrust, and resentment that speak more loudly in the employee, s mind than any work related communication. Distortion
Distortion refers to the way in which the meaning of the communication is lost in handling. It occurs largely at the encoding and decoding stage. Filtering Filtering refers to a sender’s purposely changing information so it will be seen more by the receiver. For example when a manager tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear he is filtering information. Flattery is the best example of filtering. Selective Perception The receiver in the communication process sees and hears things in a selective way based on his needs motivation experience background and other personal characteristics.
The receiver also projects his interests and expectations into communication as he decodes them. For example the employment interview who expects a female job candidates t put family before career is likely to see that in female candidates, regardless of whether the candidates feel that way or not. Language Words mean different things to different peoples. Age, education, and cultural background are three of the most common variables that influence on the language a person uses and the definition he gives to words. The language used by the factory worker is different from that used by a chief executive.
In an organization employee usually come from diverse backgrounds. Further the grouping of employees into departments creates the use of a technical language familiar with those in that department. Gender style Men and women use oral communication for different reasons. In doing so gender becomes a barrier to effective communication between the sexes. Research evidence indicates that men use talk to emphasize status, where as women use it to create connection. That is women speak and hear the language of connection and intimacy; and men speak and hear a language of status and independence.
Non-Verbal cues Non-Verbal communication is almost always accompanied by oral communication. As long as the two are in agreement they act to reinforce each other. When non-verbal cues are inconsistent with the oral message, however the receiver becomes confused and the clarity of message suffers. Defects in the message itself The message being sent may be wrong. It may not be relevant or suitable to the purpose, recipient and context of the communication. The sender may omit some information from the message. Hence making the message difficult to understand.
The message may include information than the receiver can digest in the time available. The lack of credibility on part of the sender. The message may be prepared and presented poorly. Deficiency in communicating skill The sender or the receiver of the message may not be adept in communicating skills. Similarly he may not be able to understand non-verbal signals. He may fail to seek feedback or offer feedback. He may totally ignore feedback offered. Thus the message being sent or received is miss understood or not understood at all.