Behavior Focused Health Problem Analysis Health And Social Care Essay

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Stroke is a serious status which consequences in rapid loss of encephalon map. It occurs due to disturbance in the blood supply to the encephalon due to miss of blood flow or escape of blood. It ‘s a medical exigency and if non treated early can do lasting neurological harm, complications, and even decease.
Though Heart disease is the taking cause of decease for all people in the United States and Stroke is the 3rd prima cause of decease but so besides it is the taking cause of grownup disablement in the United States. Ischemic shot are more common than haemorrhagic shot in minority populations including American Indian/Alaska Native groups.
About 4 million individuals have cerebrovascular disease, a major signifier of which is shot. About 600,000 shots occur each twelvemonth in the United States and about 137,000 Americans dice of shot every twelvemonth. Death rates for shot are highest in the southeasterly United States, compared with other parts of the state.
Though CDC had formed local, province, national, and international partnerships to assist command hazard factors in susceptible populations, cut down the incidence of shot, and to accomplish the state ‘s Healthy People 2010 wellness aims but still stroke is one of the aims retained from healthy people 2010 for healthy people 2020 ( Healthy people, 2020 ) .
Stroke is one of the 10 prima causes of decease and disablement in American Indians/Alaskan Natives between the age group of 45-74 old ages every bit good. Harmonizing to CDC, 2008, it is the 5th taking cause of decease in this population. There are 4.1 million people who identify themselves as American Indians /Alaska Natives in the United States ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2000. ) There are at least 558 different federally recognized tribes/nations and 126 tribes/nations using for acknowledgment. About 1.7 million nonelderly American Indians and Alaska Natives live in the U.S. , doing them one of the smallest racial and cultural population groups. While American Indians and Alaska Natives comprise merely 1 % of nonelderly U.S. population, they make up 5 % or more of the population in Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma and South Dakota.1 About one-third ( 34 % ) of all nonelderly American Indians and Alaska Natives live in one of those six provinces ( Kaiser Family Foundation, 2009 ) .
The primary beginning for American Indians wellness informations is the Indian Health Service. This information is collected merely from eligible, tribally enrolled and populating on-or-near reserve of federally recognized folks ‘ members, who really utilize Indian Health services. Therefore, IHS information may reflect handiness of services ” instead than incidence and prevalence of unwellness, and may non include most of the 62 % of American Indians/ Alaskan Indians who live off-reservation ( Hendrix, 1999 ) .
Earlier American Indians were thought to be a healthy population because of their really extended life style. They were largely husbandmans and huntsmans and so they were involved with moderate to severe physical activity. They had a really good diet with low Calorie content. This population largely had infective diseases such as TB and stomach flu really rampant amongst them in the first half of the twentieth century but during the last four decennaries, important alterations have occurred in the wellness of American Indian and Alaska Native people. With many infective diseases under control today, these people are populating longer. Like many other Americans, they are now sing chronic diseases such as bosom disease and shot as dominant hazards to their wellness and length of service.
Harmonizing to, The Office of Minority Health, American Indians/Alaska Native grownups now is 60 % more likely to hold a shot than their White grownup opposite numbers. American Indian/Alaska Native adult females have twice the rate of shot than White adult females. American Indians non merely hold a higher incidence of shot than inkinesss or Whites, but their first shots may be more lifelessly every bit good compared to other populations ( Zhang et. Al, 2008 ) . Blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics die from shot at younger ages than Whites.
Stroke ‘s load is expensive for all populations. It is a important subscriber to additions in wellness attention costs in the United States. The cost was estimated to be $ 140,000 per patient, for a entire cost estimation of $ 64.7 billion dollars in 2007 ( CDC, 2005 ) . There are a turning figure of shot subsisters that are unable to afford medicines seting them at hazard for perennial shot. Working shot subsisters are unable to afford employer-based wellness insurance, and disabled shot subsisters age & lt ; 65 may non be insured because they do non measure up for Medicare wellness insurance. ( Trimble & A ; Morgenstern, 2008 ) .
Hazard factors
There are many hazard factors for incident shot. Some are that can be changed, treated or controlled but there are some which can non be changed. The factors which can non be changed are age, sex, household history, socioeconomic position, anterior history of shot etc. whereas those factors which can be changed or controlled are diet intake alteration, healthy diet, exercising behaviour, intoxicant usage, smoke, conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney disease etc. Although age, sex, socioeconomic position and household history of shot besides play a really major function but in this research paper merely the behavioural hazard factors would be discussed. Native American patients have the highest proportion of diabetes mellitus and the 2nd highest proportion of high blood pressure. High blood force per unit area is known as the soundless slayer ” and remains a major hazard factor for CHD, shot, and bosom failure. About 50 million grownups in the United States have high blood force per unit area. High blood force per unit area besides is more common in older individuals
There are many behavioural hazard factors responsible for shot in this population. There are many behaviours in eating which are non healthy for the organic structure. For illustration holding diet with high Calorie content is a really major factor. As mentioned earlier the eating behaviour of this population has changed really dramatically over few decennaries. This population besides eats more sum of nutrient than required for their organic structure. American Indian/Alaska Native grownups are more likely to be corpulent than White grownups and they are more likely to hold high blood force per unit area, as compared to White grownups ( Halpern, 2007 ) . The national prevalence for all American Indian people was 28 % . Prevalence was similar for adult females ( 28 % ) and work forces ( 27 % ) . American Indians were ranked 2nd among U.S. racial/ethnic groups, with merely inkinesss holding a higher prevalence. So this puts the population at hazard for coronary artery disease and finally increased blood force per unit area and eventually stroke.
Finally eating a diet with less fresh fruits and veggies and more of canned nutrient rich in Na content puts them at a really high hazard of enduring from high blood pressure. Cigarette smoke is besides another cause of bosom disease and shot, accounting for 30 % of all U.S. deceases from coronary bosom disease. This population besides has a really high prevalence of smoke. The national prevalence for all American Indians was 38 % , with work forces ( 42 % ) smoke more than adult females ( 34 % ) . This gender difference is similar to that observed for the general U.S. population Cigarette smoke is deleterious to wellness but in this population this behaviour starts at a really immature age so they besides have high incidence of lung malignant neoplastic diseases every bit good. This behaviour besides is a hazard factor for high blood pressure, bosom disease and eventually stroke. It is really common in this population to smoke and its portion of their civilization. Historically, baccy is used in spiritual and other ceremonials, in healing, and in storytelling. Tobacco is considered a sacred gift of the Earth to many American Indians. Since the incidence of lung malignant neoplastic diseases and shot are increasing in this population, steps are being taken to command it.
Another factor is binge imbibing. Heavy intoxicant usage is a documented hazard factor for shot and therefore may be a subscriber in our Native American patients. American Indian striplings are besides majorly affected by the job of orgy imbibing. They start rather early as compared to other adolescent populations. The immature grownups and striplings of this population besides suffer from drug maltreatment. Intravenous drug maltreatment carries a high hazard of shot from a intellectual intercalation ( blood coagulum in the encephalon ) . Cocaine usage has been closely related to shots, bosom onslaughts and a assortment of other cardiovascular. Here we are sing American Indians between the age group of 45 to 74 old ages so this job is non really majoring impacting them. These yearss major factor for all sick wellness particularly high blood pressure is sedentary life style or deficiency of exercising behaviour.
Physical inaction and unhealthy diets are taking causes of preventable decease in the United States ( Mokdad, 2004 ) . Earlier American Indians toiled a batch while farming and runing but nowadays the life style has become more sedentary and there is no exercising behavior involved. There are few other factors like taking tonss of tenseness and non traveling to the physician for regular look into up and so non adhering with the proper intervention one time diagnosed with the job or after old bosom onslaught or diabetes.
Conducting a Behavior-Focused Health Problem Analysis
I ) Choice of Health Problem for a Priority Population
Health job: Stroke
Population: American Indians/Alaskan Natives both males and females between 45-74 old ages of age from the six provinces of United States ( Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma and South Dakota ) .
II ) Designation of at least 3 Behavioral-Risk Factors ( a.k.a. , Behavior )
a. Cigarette smoke
b. Consuming diet with high Calorie and fat content.
Eating more than required for the age and organic structure demand.
Not exerting or physical inaction
Heavy intoxicant ingestion
Addicted to drugs
Eating fruits and veggies per twenty-four hours
Devouring more transcribed merchandises rich in Na
Taking tonss of tenseness and non loosen uping
Not traveling to sophisticate for regular medical check-ups
Not adhering to proper intervention after the diagnosing of high blood pressure, diabetes or old bosom onslaught.
III ) Selection of Priority Behavioral-Risk Factor
a. Not exerting or physical inaction
Choice Standards
1
More
Important
2
Less
Important
3
More
Mutable
Eating high cal/fat diet
Gorging
Eating less fruits/vegetables
Physical inaction
Devouring canned merchandises
4
Less
Mutable
Smoking
Not traveling to Doctor for medical examinations
Not adhering to intervention
Drug maltreatment
Not loosen uping
Priority behavioral-risk factor: Physical inactivity/Not exerting
IV ) Development of Behavioral-Risk Factor Objective for Behavioral-Risk Factor Identified
Behavioral-risk factor aim:
American Indian work forces aged 45-74 old ages of age from the six provinces of United States ( Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma and South Dakota ) , will demo 70 % decrease in the figure of new instances of shot each twelvemonth within 3 old ages of the successful execution of the Fitness and Nutrition Program by the Centre for Disease Control ( CDC ) .
.
V ) Identification of Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing Factors of the Behavioral-Risk Factor Identified
Predisposing Factors
Incredulity that they can ne’er fall ailment.
Negative attitude towards exercising
Think that they do n’t hold clip to exert
Lack of cognition about the sick effects caused from non exerting and positive effects of exercising
Incredulity that they are already healthy and eating really healthy diet
Enabling Factors
Extreme conditions conditions outside for most portion of the twelvemonth
Lack of adequate financess to fall in a secondary school
Family demands attending so no clip for themselves
No secondary school in the locality of place
Reinforcing Factors
Tiresome feeling after exercising
Not able to digest musculus achings and strivings for first few yearss after exercising
Feeling emphasis out when non able to workout every bit much as others in secondary school
Friends disinterest in exercising
Incredulity of friends that taking out clip on a regular basis for exercising reduces friends
circle
VI ) Selection of Priority P, E, and R Factors for Priority Behavioral-Risk Factor Identified
Predisposing Factors
Choice Standards
More
Important
Less
Important
More
Mutable
Negative attitude
Lack of cognition about sick effects of non exerting and positive effects of exercising
Less
Mutable
Incredulity that they can ne’er fall ailment
Incredulity that they are already healthy and eating healthy
No clip to exert
Enabling Factors
Choice Standards
More
Important
Less
Important
More
Mutable
Lack of financess to fall in a secondary school
Family needs personal clip so no clip for oneself
Less
Mutable
Extreme conditions conditions
No secondary school in the locality
3. Reinforcing Factors
Choice Standards
More
Important
Less
Important
More
Mutable
Tiresome feeling after exercising
Feeling stressed out looking at others in gym
Not able to digest achings after exercising
Less
Mutable
Friends disinterest in exercising
Incredulity that exercising reduces friends circle
a. Select precedence P, E, and R factors:
1 ) Precedence Predisposing Factor:
Lack of cognition about the sick effects caused from non exerting and non
cognizing the positive effects of exercising
2 ) Precedence Enabling Factor:
Lack of adequate financess to fall in a secondary school
3 ) Precedence Reinforcing Factor:
Feeling emphasis out when non able to workout every bit much as others in the
secondary school
VII ) Development of P, E, and R Aims
Predisposing Aim
20 % or more of American Indians aged between 45-74 old ages of age from the six provinces of United States ( Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma and South Dakota ) , will increase their cognition about the sick effects caused by non exerting and positive effects of on a regular basis by at least 2 points on a 5 point self report Likert graduated table of cognition about the ailment effects ensuing from non exerting, within 2 old ages of the execution of the Fitness and Nutrition Program by the Centre for Disease Control ( CDC ) .
Enabling Aim
12 % or more of American Indians aged between 45-74 old ages of age from the six provinces of United States ( Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma and South Dakota ) , will better able to apportion financess specially to afford to exert by at least 1 points on a 5 point self report Likert graduated table of outcome outlook, within 2 old ages of the execution of the Fitness and Nutrition Program by the Centre for Disease Control ( CDC ) .
Reinforcing Factor
18 % or more of American Indians aged between 45-74 old ages of age from the six provinces of United States ( Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma and South Dakota ) , will cut down their emphasis degrees while at secondary school by at least 1 points on a 5 point self report Likert graduated table of anxiousness, within 2 old ages of the execution of the Fitness and Nutrition Program by the Centre for Disease Control ( CDC ) .
Theories that may be used:
These theories are used to foretell a behaviour and besides used to happen a manner to be able to modify them. My survey is about shot in American Indian population and how assorted predisposing factors eventually result in the happening of the disease. Main behavioural hazard factor focused is the deficiency of exercising or presence of physical inaction that consequences in high blood pressure and eventually stroke.
There are many theories that many explain the behaviour of the population or an person and which may be used to be after effectual plans to aim the shot job.
First get downing with the single degree, Theory of planned behaviour may be used. The purpose to execute a behaviour is cardinal to the theory. Intention is determined by the person ‘s attitude towards the behaviour and societal norms
An person will keep his behaviour to exert if his purpose is steadfast and he feels in control. Intention is in bend a map of his attitude towards exercising and perceived societal support. An single purpose can be targeted to do a behavior alteration.
Second theory which may be used is Social cognitive theory. This theory explains that persons who are non really happy with their exercising behaviour who exhibit high degrees of exercising self-efficacy, and who set exercising ends, are by and large able to accomplish their ends. Exercise self-efficacy is a powerful forecaster of exercising behaviour. Persons who believe in themselves and believe that they can be keeping a behaviour of exerting on a regular basis by and large are successful. This theory besides would assist to concentrate on environmental factors and besides on influence on each other. So this theory can be used to be after an intercession for the behaviour. So wholly in all, an single behaviour should be modified first and so all the other factors that influence his behaviour should be taken attention of like equal factors and environmental factors
Mentions
Centre for Disease Control. ( 2005 ) . Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost and Economic Costs in United States, 1997-2001. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report 2005, 54 ( 25 ) , 625-628.
Centre for Disease Control. ( 2005 ) . Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. Retrieved on November 5, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/library/fs_aian.h.
Centre for Disease Control. ( 2005 ) . Prevalence of Stroke in United States. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report 2005, 56 ( 19 ) , 469-474.
Halpern, P. ( 2007 ) . Fleshiness and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Retrieved on November 5, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/AI-AN-obesity/index.htm.
Hendrix, L.R. ( 1999 ) . Health and Health Care of American Indians and Alaska native Elders. Retrieved on November 8, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/americanindian.html.
Kaiser Family Foundation. ( 2009 ) . Race, Ethnicity Health Care: A Profile of American Indians and Alaska Natives and Their Health Coverage. Retrieved on November 2, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kff.org/minorityhealth/upload/7977.pdf.
Mokdad, A. ( 2004 ) . Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000 [ Abstract ] . Journal of American Medical Association, 291, 1238-1245.
Trimble, B. , & A ; Morgenstern, L. ( 2008 ) . Stroke in Minorities. Journal of Neurologic Clinics, 26, 1177-1190. Department of the Interior: 10.1016/j.ncl.2008.05.010.
United States section of Health and human services. ( 2009 ) . The Office of Minority Health: African American Profile. Retrieved on November 3, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx? lvl=2 & A ; lvlID=51.
United States section of Health and human services. ( 2009 ) . Healthy People 2020. Retrieved on November 5, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthypeople.gov/hp2020/Objectives/TopicArea.aspx? id=28 & A ; TopicArea=Heart+Disease+and+Stroke.
United States Census agency. ( 2000 ) . American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes for the United States, Regions, Divisions, and States. Retrieved on November 7, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t18/tables/tab001.pdf.
Zhang, Y, & A ; et Al. ( 2008 ) . Incidence and Risk Factors for Stroke in American Indians. The Strong Heart Study. Journal of American Heart Association, 118, 1577-1584. Department of the Interior: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.772285.

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