In 1970 the Trudeau authorities issued a major statement specifying its foreign policy. Three primary policy purposes were presented: saving of Canada as an independent political entity, care of spread outing prosperity, and constructive part to human demands.
In 1970-72 Canada scaled back its part to NATO, cut downing the figure of its military and civilian forces and military bases in Europe. Canada established diplomatic dealingss with the People & # 8217 ; s Republic of in October 1970 ; embassadors were exchanged the undermentioned twelvemonth, and an exchange of consuls and most-favoured-nation trading agreements were agreed upon in 1973. Trudeau & # 8217 ; s attitude toward the Cold War and the Soviet Union was unquestionably equivocal for a premier curate of a state that had been a charter member of NATO and was closely tied to the United States in Norad. He improved dealingss with the Soviets at first, believing that closer ties with the Soviet Union would reconstruct balance to Canada & # 8217 ; s international place and deemphasize Canada & # 8217 ; s function as a zealot of the West. But at the same clip, Trudeau did non contend cardinal U.S. policy sing the Soviet Union, the Middle East, and even the war in Southeast Asia. Despite Trudeau & # 8217 ; s cautious and disbelieving position of the United States, he was finally respectful of the worlds of American power. Canada besides sought closer dealingss with the European Economic Community and played a more active function in the United Nations. During the 1970s Canada extended its fishing rights and reaffirmed Canadian sovereignty in its Arctic islands and their icebound Waterss.
The end of protecting Canada & # 8217 ; s economic system led to accommodations in dealingss with the United States. In 1970 Canada increased the monetary value of crude oil and natural gas sold to the United States, and in 1974 a program to bit by bit cut down those gross revenues and stop them by 1982 was announced. This action was taken to protect domestic supplies of fossil fuels in the face of increasing monetary values of imported oil used in the eastern states. In 1978 Canada initiated purchases of new aeroplanes and other military equipment to better support its boundary lines and carry through its international committednesss.
In conformity with the 3rd purpose of its foreign policy & # 8211 ; to lend to human demands & # 8211 ; Trudeau & # 8217 ; s authorities expanded Canada & # 8217 ; s foreign assistance attempts and pursued a policy advancing the international control of atomic arms. Canada undertook attempts to command pollution in its coastal Waterss, and in 1972 Canada and the United States signed the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement to command pollution of the lakes.
In foreign policy, Trudeau & # 8217 ; s attack to the Americans and the Cold War changed little after the Clark interregnum. In July 1983, despite his professed contempt for the U.S. preoccupation with the Cold War, Trudeau & # 8217 ; s authorities gave the United States permission to prove sail missile counsel systems in the Canadian North, over the strenuous expostulations of peace groups and conservationists. In late 1983, nevertheless, perchance to equilibrate his determination on the sail missiles, Trudeau mounted a well-publicized planetary peace mission to the capitals of states possessing atomic arms to press for greater international cooperation on atomic weaponries control and decrease. He had small success ; U.S. President Ronald Reagan and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher were clearly annoyed by his enterprise
THE ECONOMIST magazine has an remarkably cagey screen this hebdomad, titled & # 8220 ; America & # 8217 ; s World. & # 8221 ; It shows a deformed universe map, with an overly big, Continental United States make fulling up all of the Centre infinite, and the other six continents shrunk down to microscopic size and pushed to the borders of the Earth.
The one state besides the U.S. that benefits from this notional exercising is Canada. As portion of the North American continent, our size expands automatically with
that of the U.S.
In the column attach toing this screen, The Economist remarks that the U.S. & # 8220 ; bestrides the universe like a giant, & # 8221 ; in every dimension from the economic and fiscal and political to the cultural and technological.
All true. What the magazine didn & # 8217 ; t add & # 8211 ; unsurprisingly, since it & # 8217 ; s barely of earthshaking importance & # 8211 ; is that the really fact that the U.S. is now the universe & # 8217 ; s merely super-power, the & # 8220 ; indispensable & # 8221 ; state that overshadows all the remainder, means that Canada & # 8211 ; although we surely don & # 8217 ; t loom over anyone else & # 8211 ; can now project a longer and deeper shadow around the universe.
That Canada & # 8217 ; s economic public presentation is contingent upon that of the U.S. is obvious. Almost 85 per cent of our exports travel at that place. When the U.S. roars, as it is making now, so do we. That the same things happen to us diplomatically, has been less frequently remarked on.
That the U.S. is now a & # 8220 ; giant & # 8221 ; and that we are at one and the same clip similar to Americans in so many respects and yet besides different from them, does, potentially, widen our diplomatic range. The really fact that the remainder of the universe is focused upon the U.S. and is obsessed by it draws attending to us. Other states are more eager than usual for us to assist them acquire a read on American policies and political relations.
All of this augments our diplomatic influence circumstantially and indirectly. How we use this chance depends upon us. Most peculiarly, it depends upon whether we know what we want to make in foreign policy.
At this propitious occasion, we seem to cognize what we want to make. Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy has developed a consistent foreign policy built upon the constructs of soft power, of sustainable human security and of advancing civic society, or the society of citizens and of voluntary organisations, instead than merely that of conventional province power.
Whether this policy is the right 1 for us and whether we are put to deathing it good or severely is a topic for another clip. The point is that it is a distinctively Canadian foreign policy. We have to trust on soft power because we have small difficult, military power ( merely about none ) . Furthermore, human rights issues are cardinal to the modern-day Canadian consciousness, in portion as a effect of our Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and in portion because we are so diverse and polyglot a society that we have to work out ways to populate together and, by making this, derive experience and apprehension in how to advance cultural and other harmoniousnesss around the universe.
So long as the Cold War lasted, the U.S. was concerned that Canadians at least be seen to be doing a military part to the Western Alliance. Besides, it didn & # 8217 ; Ts like Canada trying East-West rapprochement, as Pierre Trudeau did by his peace enterprise.
Now that the Cold War is history, we are free to develop any foreign policy we wish. The U.S. International Relations and Security Network & # 8217 ; t even that upset & # 8211 ; in portion because it & # 8217 ; s go so isolationist ; largely because it & # 8217 ; s so powerful & # 8211 ; when we take issue with its military policy, as Axworthy did last hebdomad when he called on the U.S. to be & # 8220 ; forepart and Centre & # 8221 ; in seeking to accomplish planetary atomic disarming, instead than withdrawing from it, as the U.S. Senate did by rejecting the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
Here & # 8217 ; s the last portion of the chance that fortunes have presented to us. On a whole scope of issues, from free trade to an international condemnable tribunal, the U.S. is in an inward-turned, defensive stage. Canadians, though, are amazingly self-asserting about international issues. A survey by Ekos Research last twelvemonth found a & # 8220 ; run of moralism & # 8221 ; that & # 8220 ; pervaded & # 8221 ; Canadians & # 8217 ; believing about foreign personal businesss.
It would be traveling excessively far to state, in a drama upon The Economist & # 8217 ; s cover, that it is & # 8220 ; Canada & # 8217 ; s world. & # 8221 ; It is, though, a universe where Canada can experience more at place, about everyplace, than we & # 8217 ; ve felt in decennaries.