This forced displacement transformed parts of Europe. Displacement through War: WWII created a huge refugee problem. An estimated 46 million people were displaced in Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union alone between 1938 and 1948. The Nazis had move hundred of thousands of foreign workers into Germany, million more were POWs, some returned to their homeland, other were forced, hundreds found refuge in W. Europe. Changes in borders after the war also uprooted many people. Eternal and Internal Migration: 1945-1960: Half a million Europeans left Europe each year.
Decolonization in the postwar period led to many European colonials to return to Europe from overseas. Decolonization also led non-European inhabitants of former colonies to migrate to Europe. ———————– This influx proved to be a long term source of social tension and conflict. In Britain, radical tensions were high during the 1980s. France faced a similar problem, which contributed to the emergence of the National Front, that sought to exploit the resentment many worker felt toward North African workers.
The growing Muslim presence in Europe had produced some of the most serious ethnic and political tensions. The New Muslim Population: The immigration of Muslims into Europe, and particularly Western Europe, arose from 2 chief sources: European economic growth Decolonization After WWII, a labor shortage developed, Western Europe imported laborers, many who were from Muslim nations. The aftermath of decolonization and the quest for a better life led Muslims from East Africa and the Indian subcontinent to settle in Great Britain. The Algerian War brought many Muslims to France. ————- These Muslim immigrant communities share certain social and religious characteristics. Neither the immigrants nor the host countries gave much thought to assimilation. Except from Great Britain, European governments made it difficult for Muslim, or any other, immigrants to take part in civic life. The Muslim communities therefore remained self-contained and assimilated. ———————– As European economic growth slowed, European Muslims have become the target of politicians, such as Le Pen in France, who seek to blame the immigrants for a host of problems from crime to unemployment. ————– The radicalization of parts of the Islamic world has also touched the Muslim communities in Europe. Ex: 2005 Immigration youth riots in France European Muslims are not a homogenous group. These Muslim communities have become a major concern for European social workers who disagree among themselves about how their governments should respond to them. European Population Trends: The population of European, measured in terms of birthrate, has stabilized in a manner that has disturbed many observers. Europeans are having so few children that they are no longer replacing themselves.
There is no consensus on why the European birthrate has decline. Possible reason: Women as postponing having children later in their childbearing years. Governments have been trying to limit immigration into Europe at a time when it may need new workers. ——————- The falling birthrate means Europe will face the prospect of an aging population. This means it is unlikely that it will give a rise to economic innovation. The internal European market will shrink. Europe will have fewer Europeans, it’s share of the world’ population will decline, and it will lose influence. Toward the Welfare State Society:
During the Cold war era, the nations of Western Europe achieved economic prosperity and maintained independent, liberal democratic governments. The end of WWII saw vast constitutional changes in much of Western Europe. The construction of stable, liberal, democratic political frameworks became a major goal of their postwar political leaders, as well as of the U. S. The Great Depression had shown that democracy requires a social and economic base, as well as a political structure. Most Europeans came to believe that governments ought to ensure economic prosperity and social security.
Christian Democratic Parties: Except for the British Labor Party, the vehicles of the new postwar policies were not, as might have been expected, the democratic socialist parties. Outside Scandinavia, those parties generally did not prosper after the onset of the Cold war, they were oppressed by communists and conservatives. Rather, various Christian democratic parties introduced the new policies. ——————- The postwar C. D Ps of Germany, France, Austria and Italy were progressive and welcomed non-Catholic members. Democracy, social reform, economic growth, and anticommunism were their hallmark.
The events of war years largely determined the political leadership of the postwar decade. After 1947, however, in a policy that U. S naturally favored, communists were systematically excluded from Western European governments. The Creation of Welfare States: The Great Depression, the rise of authoritarian states in the wake of economic dislocation, and WWII, which involved more people in a war effort then ever before, changed how many Europeans thought about social welfare. Governments began to spend more on social welfare than they did on the military. The relocation of funds was possible because of the NATO defense umbrella, which the U.
S primary handle and funded. ———– The 2 basic models for social legislation were the German and the British. In both the German and British systems, workers were insured only against the risks from disease, injury on the job, and old age. —————— After WWII, the concept emerged that social insurance against predictable risks was a social right and should be available to all citizens. In Britain, William B. Beveridge set forth this concept in 1942. The 1st major European nation to begin to create a welfare state was Britain under the labor ministry of Clement Attlee.
The most important element of this early legislation was the creation of the National Health Service. France and Germany did not adopt similar health legislation until the 1970s. The spread of welfare legislation within Western Europe was related to both the Cold War and domestic political and economic policy. —————————– The communist states of Eastern Europe were promising their people social security as well as full employment. [Fake] The capitalist states came to believe they had to provide similar security for their people. Resistance to the Expansion of the Welfare States:
Western European attitudes toward the Welfare state reflected 3 periods that have marked economic life since the end of the war. The 1st period was one of reconstruction from 1945 though the early 1950s. It was followed by a 2nd period of 25 years of generally steady and expanding economic growth. The 3rd period brought first an era f inflation in the late 1970s and then one of relatively low growth and high unemployment from the 1990s to the present. From the 1970s, more people came to believe the market should be allowed to regulate itself and that government should be less involved in though not completely withdraw from, the economy. —————- Most influential political figure was Margaret Thatcher of the British conservative party who also served as Prime Minister. She and her party were determined to roll back many socialist polices that were nationalized. She also curbed the power of the trade unions. Her goal was to make the British economy more efficient and competitive. This was controversial, but managed to push through parliament. This was known as the Thatcher Revolution~. ————– Welfare spread, but the cost of those services had risen.
The decline in population growth mess-up the benefits of the welfare state. Unemployment increased Welfare payments. Low fertility rates mean the next working generation will have fewer people to support the retired elderly population. Middle class taxpayers have become reluctant to support the systems. ————– The general growth of confidence in the ability of market forces rather than the government intervention to sustain social tension has also spread in the past 25 years had has raised questions about the existing welfare structures. New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women:
In all social ranks, women have begun to assume larger economic and political roles. Despite enormous gains and the collapse of those authoritarian governments, gender inequality remained a major characteristic of the social life of Europe at the opening of the 21st century. More Married Women In The Work Force Many more women working. Women from middle and working classes, and married women. Shift changes and better healthcare and childcare made it easier for married women to work Children were no longer expected to contribute to family income More time in school
Often both parents worked New Work Patterns More consistent work pattern for women Entered the work force after schooling, stopped to care for young children, then entered again after their children began school Large factor: increased life expectancy Child rearing was now a smaller proportion of their lives Other things became more important Women (especially urban women) had fewer children, and had them later. Some decided not to have children at all Women In The New Eastern Europe Under communism, women had equal rights and gov. benefits Over 50% worked
No women’s movements, however New gov had gave funding for health and welfare for women and children Limited maternity benefits Women were paid less, and laid off before men. Transformation In Knowledge And Cultur Rapid advancements in 20th century Institutions of higher education enrolled a larger and more diverse student body Knowledge was more widely available Existentialism changed trad. Intellectual attitudes New concerns about the environment Communism and Western Europe Before the end of the 20th century, western Europe had large, organized communist parties After Bolsh. ictory in R revolution and civil war, western socialists divided into two parties: Independent democratic socialists and Soviet-dominated communists following dictate of the Third International Groups fought constantly, except for rare cooperation (French popular front 1936 The Intellectuals 1930s: depression. many people saw communism as a way to protect humane and liberal values students often affiliated w/ the communist party many praised Stalin’s achievements”, turning a blind eye to the terror communism began to substitute religion for some Europeans
The God That Failed written after WWII, described attraction toward, and later disillusionment w/ communism Four events crucial to this: the great Soviet public purge trials of late 1930s, The Spanish civil war, the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939 (destroyed image of anti-fascism), and Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 Arthur Coestler: Darkness at Noon (1940) a former communist’s view of the purges George Orwell (former sympathizer) Homage to Catalonia showed disappointment w/ Stalin’s policy in Spain Those disillusioned w/ USSR and Stalin did not always abandon Marxism or rad socialist criticism of euro society Some looked for establishment of communist govs. On non-soviet models Ex: Yugoslavia post WWII Late 1950s: Chinese Revolution Antonio Gramsci: contributed to non-soviet communism This thinking became important in western communism: Italy
Marxism was redefined, older essays now published, more humanist Philosophic Manuscripts and German Ideology now widely read Marxists could be more moderate Existentialism: Termed the philosophy of Europe in the 20th century” Badly devide Continuation of the revolt against reason(19th) Roots in Nietzsche and Kierkegaard Friedrich Nietzsche, SOren Kierkegaard = forerunners of existentialism K: rebel against Hegelism and Danish Lutheranis Fear and Trembling, (1843) Either/Or (1843) Concluding Unscientific Postscript (1846 Truth of Christianity could be grasped only in the lives of those who faced extreme situation Criticized academic philosophy for trying to contain life and experience within abstract categories Spurned faith in the power of reason.
Believed in truth in passion Intellectual and ethical crisis in WWI brought critique of reason to the foreground 2 Questioning of Rationalism: Existentialism got more support in WWII Major writers: Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Albert Camus All questioned primacy of reason and science in understanding the human situation Romantic writers of early 19th had the same questions Emphasized imagination and intuition Existentialism: extremes of human experience: death, fear, and anxiety. Writings: Heidegger:Being and Time,(1927); Sartre: Nausea, 1938 Being and Nothingness, 1943; Camus:The Stranger, 1942, and The Plague 1947 All very morbid and foreboding
Humans cannot depend on trad. Religion, rational philosophy, intuition, or social customs for ethical guidance. Protested reason, technology, and politics for causing was and genocide Intellectuals were attracter to communism and existentialism around WWII Changed in the 60s as now ideas appeared iii Expansion Of The University Population And Student Rebellion More Europeans were getting university education 100s of 1000s by year 2000 available to people from different social backgrounds, and women unexpected result: student rebellion of 1960s students protesting the war in Vietnam. started in US and spread to Europe also questioned middle-class values, trad.
Sexual morals, and family life peaked in 1968, US students violently protested involvement in Vietnam Sorbonne students in Paris almost brought down gov. of Charles de Gaull Czechoslovakia, students led liberal socialist movement All three failed and had not great effect on their government By 1970s, the era had passed but students remained active in movements. The Americanization Of Europe US had huge influence on Europe through the Marshall Plan, NATO, military bases, student exchanges, pop culture, and touris Americanization: economic and military influence, and also cultural loss American corporations, music, and entertainment taking over Europ English became the common language (American English, aluminum, not aluminium) A Consumer Society
Western Consumer economy = biggest difference between eastern and western Europe Created political difference East: capital investment and military production Produced inadequate food and consumer good for the people Long food and clothing lines were common Inadequate housing Few automobiles West: excellent food supply Expansion of consumer goods and service Automobile ownership and electronic appliances were taken for granted Prepared and disposable product Foreign vacations. Resort Consumerism was a defining characteristic of Western Europe in the late 20th Created discontent in the East which brought communism and the USSR Environmentalism: Natural resources are limited Hostile countries have critical resource
In the post-war era: Americanization in Europe had entailed both the economic and military influence of the United States. European culture feared it would be buried by American popular entertainment, consumer goods, and even language. (lol XD America is very smothering. ) Western Europe’s consumer-goods orientation differentiated it from the East, but also formed a centerpiece of the environmentalist critique. The German green movement had gained political clout with an anti-capitalist, antinuclear message. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster brought environmental issues into mainstream European politics and policies Neo-Orthodoxy: Christian churches had continued to exercise social and political influence, even in the increasingly secular Europe of the 20th century.
Karl Barth’s neo-Orthodoxy held that God was wholly other than humanity and that humans profoundly needed the divine. – Liberal theologians have treated religion as a human phenomenon. The Roman Catholic Church initiated significant change in the postwar era, particularly under Pope John Paul XXIII. – Vatican II liberalized many aspects of Catholicism, while subsequent papacies have been more traditionalist – Pope John Paul II contributed to the revolts against Soviet communism in Poland and elsewhere, and has furthered the spread of Christianity as a world religion. Art since WWII: Cold War/WWII influencedCultural divisions and the cold war: Tatijiana Yablonshakya’s Bread
American Jackson Pollock’s One NYC emerged as the international center of artMemory of the Holocaust: Rachel WhiterbreadMinimalism Late – Twentieth Century Technology: The Arrival of the Computer The Demand for Calculating Machines: Scientific Revolution people, especially Blaise Pascal, began to theorize about a machine that would do mathematical calculations for humans This type of creation was possible because of the new types of advances Early Computer Technology: War made change The first modern computer was the ENIAC – or Electric Numerical Integrator and Computer Primary sites for computer production was Britain and USA The Development of Desktop Computers:
Two innovations transformed computer technology – control of the computer was transferred to a bitmap covering the screen of a computer monitor, and the engineers at the Intel Corporation invented the microchip Mouse made anybody an instant expert at using the computer