Constantine II ( Athens, June 2, 1940 – ) was King of the Greeks from 1964 to 1967 ( officially until 1973 when a referendum was conducted in the absolutism ) and had forfeited his place for good in 1974 with the referendum on the signifier of authorities in Greece where the Grecian people have chosen to 69.2 % of the democracy as a signifier of authorities in Greece. Since 1967 he lived self-imposed expatriate in Italy and the United Kingdom.
Born in Psychiko on 2 June 1940 and his parents were Prince Pavlos of Greece, brother and inheritor of the so King of Greece George II, and Princess of Hanover, Great Britain and Ireland, Crown Princess Frederica. Baptized in Athens contractor Armed Forces. He has two sisters merely boy of Sophia and Peace. His sister Sophia is the current Queen of Spain. His household followed the royal household on the Eve of the Nazi March in Athens with the Government and the leading of the Armed Forces through Crete fled to Egypt where he formed the alleged Government of Egypt and has led the Grecian battalions who fought in Africa against the Axis. Later resided in South Africa. They returned to Greece in 1946 with the Restoration of the monarchy and the return of King George II and a twelvemonth subsequently, after the sudden decease of George, his male parent ascended the throne, and Constantine was appointed replacement. In 1955 he was awarded the rubric of Duke of Sparta and a twelvemonth subsequently began his preparation in the organic structures of the Armed Forces. In 1960 at age 20 participated in the Olympic Games in Rome, where he won gilded decoration in seafaring.
She married in September 1964 in Athens, the youngest girl of King Frederick II of Denmark, Princess Anne-Marie ( born August 30, 1946 Amalienmporgk Palace, Copenhagen ) and they had five kids:
• Princess Alexia of Greece ( born July 10, 1965 in Mon Repos, Corfu ) who married on July 9 in London, Carlos Morales Quintana and had three kids:o Arrieta Morales ( born February 24, 2002, Barcelona )o Anna Maria Morales ( born May 15, 2003, Barcelona )o Carlos Morales ( born July 30, 2005, Barcelona )• Prince Paul ( born May 20, 1967, Palace Tattoo, Athens ) who married on July 1, 1995 in London the Marie Chantal Miller and had four kids:o Maria Olympia ( born July 25, 1996, New York )o Constantine Alexios ( born October 29, 1998, New York )o the Achilles Andreas ( born August 12, 2000, New York )o Odysseus Kimon September 14, 2004, London )• Prince Nicholas ( born October 1, 1969, Rome ) with a Bachelor ‘s Degree in International Relations from Brown University, USA. Nikolaos served in the British Army, the battalion of the Royal Guard of Scottish dredges. She worked in media companies Metromedia and Fox News and the fiscal establishment NatWest Markets Foreign Exchange Options in London. Since 1998 responsible forces office of his male parent. He is a member of the Committee Round Square Conference of Schools, the Administrative Committee of the Greek College of London and the Foundation Board of Directors ‘ Anna-Maria.• Theodora ( born June 9, 1983, London ) , who in 2004 finished his surveies at the University of Northeastern, in Boston and presently analyzing at Brown University in Rhode Island, U.S. , theatre surveies.• Philip ( born April 26, 1986, London ) , who from 2004 studied at Georgetown University in Washington International dealingss
The reign of On March 6, 1964 King Paul died of malignant neoplastic disease and was succeeded to the throne as a 24 twelvemonth old King Constantine of Constantine II Greek ( with some numbered M as the alleged replacement of the Byzantine Empire ) . Although popular was immature, in experient and physically present under the strong influence of his female parent Queen Frederica. In September the same twelvemonth he married the Danish princess Anne-Marie, sister of the ulterior Queen of Denmark Margaret II.
The political state of affairs at that clip was really polarized between the Prime Minister and Head of the Center Union of George Papandreou and Head of E.R.E. Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, who basically take over the expatriate of the party laminitis Constantine Karamanlis.
Although ab initio given the image of loyal cooperation between the immature sovereign and Prime Minister of the senior, the scene was shortly overthrown by the intercession courtiers advisors, who urged Constantine to maintain full control of the ground forces when George Papandreou decided, and the full Cabinet approved the replacing of the Chief of General GES Gennimata. The ground forces was dominated by officers who had participated in the Civil War and maintained close contacts with the old province setup. When George Papandreou sought to inactivate some of them met strong opposition from the Palace. In May 1965 the Prime Minister decided the dismissal of the Minister of National Defense, a cardinal patron of and strongly filomonarchikou, Peter GAROUFALLO presuming the same Ministry. King claiming it breached the instance SHIELD ” , which was allegedly involved the boy of Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou, avoided a hearing to accept the President of the Government by declining, in misdemeanor of the Constitution, the determination to take over his ain Y.E.A. Then crisis erupted between the two work forces accompanied by exchange of letters acids. Finally George Papandreou went to the Palace on July 15, 1965 and after intense haggle has verbally resigned. Shortly after Constantine oath the first authorities of alleged deserters ” , chaired by academic and by so Speaker of the House George Athanasiadis – Nova, opening a long rhythm of political crisis and instability with changeless rotary motion authoritiess.The policy of the Royal Palace during Julian was to back up authorities composed of functionaries of the Union Center who had defected to forestall elections which will likely return him to power Papandreou. Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, the leader of E.R.E. , who had based the distance and the royal options mentioned on recreant members of Parliament belonging: The worst… is that the necessary Infusion by… was to purchase scrupless… thokon with departmental or other agencies akatanomasta… » .The political state of affairs at that clip was really polarized between the Prime Minister and Head of the Center Union of George Papandreou and Head of E.R.E. Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, who basically take over the expatriate of the party laminitis Constantine Karamanlis.
The negative ballot by the House Government Nova forced to organize a authorities under him, former Prime Minister of Mountains, Elias Tsirimokos, which besides was defeated.
Tuesday the series was that the authorities Stefanos Stephanopoulos, who managed to take ballot of assurance and remained until December 1966. But before the faultless the premier curate, The St. Stephanopoulos commented on the events of Apostasy stating ( 23.7.65 ) : That which was unneeded, a offense against the party in the Republic, against national involvements. ” And add, as a accelerator: The male monarchs divide is undeniable and information! ” ( 9.8.65 ) .
Meanwhile, the watercourse grew antimonarchical led by the Head of Union Center, his boy Andrew and several strains of middle of the roader and left the country. Rumors enforcing absolutism were increasing and widely discussed even in Parliament. There was a sense that the putsch will be motivated by the King and would include senior officers loyal to the Crown. This theory is supported by many modern research workers. In December 1966, by the two dominant political forces, was the authorization to the Governor of National Bank Ioannis Paraskevopoulos to the elections in May 1967. On April 4, following the surrender Paraskevopoulos, were ordered to organize a authorities to Panagiotis Kanellopoulos. This action marked the King putsch by Papandreou himself monarch kommatarchis of E.R.E.. Given the rejection of authorities Kanellopoulos by Parliament elections opened on May 28.
Flavius valerius constantinus and the Dictatorship of April 21
On the dark of 20 to 21 April 1967 military putsch occurred. The indecision of Constantine the dark of the putsch reflected in the telephone conversations of the summer castle of the Tattoo, where he resided. At 2.30, awakened by the call of Athanasios scarceness, retired admiral, who was in the naval port of Salamis. The Spanidis, holding informed the King about the events, recommended go forthing the fleet to Crete and the formation of a legitimate authorities at that place. Then telephoned Kontantino Minister of Public Order, George Rallis, the centre direct action of the Gendarmerie, in Maroussi. And that in bend recommended to be moved from the state loyal military air power in peculiar, where there were kinematic foundations, as there was still clip. In both instances it was flatly opposed, desiring to avoid bloodshed and to cognize the motivations of putsch.
Therefore, when at 5.30 this forenoon accepted the caput, Georgios Papadopoulos, Stylianos Pattakos Makarezos and Nicholas, the negotiations were negociating limited in nature and composing of the new dictatorial government known as the Junta of the Colonels.
At the insisting of Constantine, could and speak with Prime Minister P. Kanellopoulos, who was a captive at the Pentagon. Kanellopoulos was unable to suggest a serious and feasible solution. Therefore, Constantine followed the advice of 3rd middleman, Spyros Markezinis, leader of a little conservative party to seek conciliation with them. He tried to declare its resistance to them, when in snaping the radical ” authorities, with their morose fotografithike alternatively of smiling as usual. Subsequently, Constantine, although he explained the motivation of the exposure, admitted that it achieved its intent.
In his reference of April 26, 1967, the new government of the Colonels said: I am confident that with God swimmingly, the attempt for you and particularly to the people voitheian will make rapid organosis regulation of jurisprudence, a true and healthy democracy.
However, a cautious stance towards them, and a little absolutism officers had ideological features against the middle class, to which the establishment of King represented. In his journey to America to run into President Johnson, a few months subsequently, a inquiry from journalists about the authorities, Constantine replied non my authorities ” , doing discontent of the difficult ” of the junta.
The antikinima of December 13
On December 13 the King, accompanied by household members and Prime Minister Kollias, attempted Antikinima. At first went to Thessaloniki, where the path was informed that Chountikes forces arrested the officers of his motion. She landed in Kavala and tried to reorganize his forces in order to subvert the absolutism. But while the Navy and Air Force drafted and remained with him, the ground forces remained loyal to the junta. Constantine, wishing to avoid aimotochysia and interrupt the Armed Forces in clip of crisis with Turkey abandoned the effort and left, along with those who accompanied him in Rome. Immediately after the Prime Minister has Papadopoulos, naming the General George Zoitakis Regent.
After go forthing Greece, Constantine originally wanted to distance itself from the Colonels. Repeatedly stated that the sign language of counterfeit that the blackmailing and endangering the life of his household members. It besides said it had from the beginning the resistance to the putsch in exposure presenting synofryomenos cursing chountikis authorities, unlike the usual pattern of sitting, smiling, and that through this exposure served as a signal of dissatisfaction with the Grecian people.
Many argue that the initial uncomfortableness of Constantine to the putsch was due to the fact that prevented the accomplishment of another putsch, designed to be run by generals and that Constantine would hold more control. The general Solon Gikas, laminitis of IDEA and the Public Order Minister Karamanlis authorities in 1974 stated: The generals were fixing their ain putsch… that would be for the male monarch and conservatives” . Besides, he Constantine in October 1966 said: I am prepared to suspend some articles of the Constitution, if necessary ¬ that is, if necessary, in my sentiment, it would make to salvage Greece”
On the other manus, continued to have the royal grant to 1973 and besides sent a congratulatory wire G. Papadopoulos to deliver ” after the failed effort against him by Alekos Panagoulis. During the following twelvemonth, the junta has negotiated with Constantine through mediators conditions to return to Greece. But Constantine insisted on the full Restoration of constitutional rights as a status, event, which saw no consistent Papadopoulos. Alternatively, the government has produced a new fundamental law in November 1968, which retained the establishment of the monarchy, but stripped of power and provided a lasting regency until chose Constantine to accept the new state of affairs. This continued until 1972, when Papadopoulos take the Zoitakis and he became Regent.
On July 3, 2006, the newspaper Eleftherotypia published of import new informations [ 1 ] turn outing that the image of the male monarch in expatriate who fights for the Restoration of democracy at place and keep a hostile attitude towards the putsch is a myth. This fable, together with the claim that he implored the junta to return but he refused, so far consistently cultivates himself a former male monarch in his interviews. The new information from the declassified studies from German and American functionaries to head ministries of their states and unambiguous, unlike a show Constantine willing to return under any conditions. The paperss were investigated consistently by Professor of History at the University of Copenhagen Moens clients to analyze the anchoring of Greece in the West ( Tiing Greece to the West ) [ 2 ] and in this survey based on the article and free imperativeness. From the declassified paperss show that Constantine attempted to pass on with the junta, peculiarly with Papadopoulos through the German and the American embassador to Greece to do clear that:
• He was willing to unconditionally return to Greece and cohabitation with the putsch. Accepted even when they return, be placed under surveillance around the clock mundane people trusted by the junta.• He was opposed to any international force per unit area on the junta to reconstruct democratic establishments. The force per unit areas included the dismissal of Greece from the Council of Europe and the surcease of U.S. military aid. Constantine besides offer to work for the suspension of all international unfavorable judgment against the recommencement of U.S. military assistance. Described as an disloyal act ” any such unfavorable judgment from the Greeks.• accept the junta ‘s fundamental law of 1968 and considered as a good model for the exercising of civil autonomies.• Not intended to counterbalance officers who had supported him in alleged counter-December 1967.• The purpose was run intoing with Papadopoulos outside Greece to settle his return.
The terminal of the dynasty
Until 1973 the military government had become unbearable. In an interview with the newspaper Evening ” , o Kostas Karamanlis stated that lone solution is the return of Constantine to Greece and the award of organizing a authorities in political and election announcement. At the same clip, tardily May, senior officers, mostly filovasilikou, Grecian Navy, organized the Movement for the Navy, which had no involvement Constantine. The Avenging Papadopoulos made the announcement of Greece in Presidential Democracy ” on June 1, 1973, a determination confirmed by a referendum in July. Before the referendum run occurred long absolutism in favour of YES ( Internet Explorer against the monarchy ) and no political party has recognized.
On June 1, 1973 ceased, and typically, Constantine is King of the Hellenes. Politicians did non acknowledge the alteration of authorities and said, with the acquiescence of Constantine, a referendum on the signifier of authorities when democracy is restored in Greece.
Papadopoulos took over as president while naming a authorities politicians headed by former leader of the Progressive Party Spiridon Markezinis as intended to liberalise the government. In November of 1973 but after the events of the Legal and Technical University, Papadopoulos was overthrown by Brigadier Demetrios Ioannidis, the alleged unseeable dictator, and was assigned to the place of General Phaidon Gizikis.
The autumn of the junta
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus in July 1974 and subsequent events led to the autumn of the absolutism. Agreement, be read by Leonidas Papagos [ 3 ] ( in his book Notes 1967 -1977 ) , because of the crisis, Constantine got an apartment hotel Klaritzes to be easy accessible to anyone inquiring to see and be more flexibleness for telephone contacts. There he learned on July 23, 1974 the autumn of the junta. Immediately phoned Constantine Karamanlis in Paris, to the broadcast that the junta fell and that the Phaidon Gizikis called civil-military council.
In the afternoon telefonise Karamanlis, and gave information that was to organize authorities in Kanellopoulos and black. Apparently, ” he added, Merely you and I sit outside ” .
At dark, the new call to Constantine Karamanlis. The telephone operator announced The President of Greece is on the phone” . What will I make, Your Majesty! Hired on the phone and the Gizikis Averoff and asked me to travel instantly, said Karamanlis and continues nervus, instead, a state of affairs I do non cognize what to make, but I have no agencies to travel straight to Greece. ” ( After they solved this job, because the Gallic President Giscard de Estaing spent his plane ) . We will return to Greece, ” said Karamanlis ‘ and I will syntagmatikin lysine and bend. Until now I did non inquire the establishment in inquiry by the junta non to put up reactions. Upon reaching, we will inquire and delight be in by phone to advise you to return and curse the Government before the legitimate caput of province.
Constantine told him that he is ready to offer his services and so told Karamanlis ‘ .. the work you are set abouting is really hard and I think I can assist you. God be with you. Karamanlis moved ended the conversation by stating I deeply appreciate what you say, Majesty, and will acquire you in the eventide on the phone.No phone call came from Athens and of all time since so NOT, avoided any personal contact with Constantine. In a telephone conversation that he was present and who finds himself in Paris, manager of the eventide, Athanasiadis, who said a few yearss before his blackwash.
The referendum to decide the constitutional
With the Restoration of democracy was put into consequence the fundamental law of 1952, excepting commissariats for the signifier of authorities. After his triumph in the November elections, Karamanlis announced a referendum on the constitutional option. Himself as the leader of the conservative cabal, which traditionally supported the monarchy, made no move to Constantine. But the fact is that he refused to return to Greece before the referendum, and given the chance to turn to the Grecian people through a televised reference.
The Grecian people voted strongly in favour of the democracy, penalizing Constantine for his cooperation with chountikous colonels, his involuntariness to cut its ties with the junta during his stay abroad and the ejection of George Papandreou, taking the absolutism and the national calamity of Cyprus. In the referendum of December 8, 1974, the democracy obtained a big bulk 69.2 % to 30.8 % of the monarchy. With the proclamation of the consequences Konstantinos Karamanlis reportedly said: A malignant neoplastic disease cut off today from the organic structure of the state.
Constantine sent the following record the undermentioned message: Grecian work forces and adult females. Faithful to my pronunciamento, I reiterate the importance of national integrity for the interest of normality, advancement and prosperity of the state and I unfeignedly hope that developments vindicate the consequence obtained by yesterday ‘s ballot
Former royal estate and judicial proceeding
Flavius valerius constantinus did non officially deported or stripped of his belongings or citizenship after the referendum, but strongly discouraged to return to Greece, and did non return until February 1981, and merely for the funeral of his female parent, former Queen Frederica. There were besides legal differences with the Grecian province, since Constantine was unable or unwilling to pay belongings revenue enhancements in Greece. In the early 90s began to look often in the Grecian media. In 1992 signed an understanding with the authorities of Constantine Mitsotakis, whereby rid of most of the existent estate in Greece in a non-profit foundation in exchange for the return of the old summer castle of Tatoi in Athens and the right to pull a big figure of nomadic assets from the state.
It should be noted that the business of Corfu people held in the castle of Mon Repos diadilonontas against the understanding and declaring that the castle is portion of the Corfu people instead than the sovereign. Besides in 1992 was exported from the state portion of the movable belongings, located in the old castle Tatoi, which harmonizing to studies included classical and Byzantine antiquities.
In 1993 an attempted foremost major visit to Greece, but the authorities was annoyed by this circuit and faced with progressively powerful protests of the resistance asked him to go forth. In 1994, the 2nd authorities of Andreas Papandreou, a new jurisprudence annulled the 1992 understanding and withdrew from Constantine to the belongings in Greece and the Grecian citizenship. As a status for the recovery of the Greek citizenship jurisprudence call for the acceptance by Constantine and members of his household name and entry in the register offices of the state.
The former male monarch so brought an action against Greece before the European Court of Human Rights, claiming that the jurisprudence on royal belongings commissariats violate the European Convention on Human Rights and demanding as compensation for the assets of 160 million. Fully vindicated in footings of ownership but awarded amendss of merely 4 million for the belongings. The Grecian authorities has paid this sum from the budget catastrophe ” , desiring to do a political allusion, and issued the recognition statement from WHO Acharnon ( Menidi ) as territorial legal power on the evidences that the last topographic point of abode of Constantine in Greece was the castle in Tatoi. Constantine, so, after reception of proxy canvasser sum, announced the creative activity of the Foundation Anna Maria ” as a vehicle for the disposal of compensation to the charity.
Idiotefon former sovereign
After the abolishment of constitutional monarchy in 1974, has repeatedly stated that recognizes democracy, Torahs and fundamental law of Greece, but continues to utilize the rubric King Constantine, ” but no longer uses the Constantine, King of the Greeks ” ( merely in Greece ) .
Constantine frequently mocked by the Grecian imperativeness to utilize the rubric of male monarch and is mentioned several times as proprietor Konstantinos Glucksburg the name of the dynasty as a family name. This pattern draws attending to the fact that Constantine should hold a name, and one no longer possesses the royal office. The official Greek passport identifies him as Constantine Constantine, former King of the Greeks. But under the 1994 jurisprudence ‘s passport was withdrawn along with citizenship. The jurisprudence gives him the chance to retrieve if adopted family name, along the lines of other fallen royal dynasties of Europe. Constantine refuses to day of the month to follow on rule: I have no name – my household has no last name. The jurisprudence that Mr. Papandreou spent fundamentally says it believes that I am Grecian and my household was Greek merely while executing the royalist our undertakings was to describe and acquire a name. The job is that my household comes from Denmark and the Danish royal household has no name. The Glucksburg, said it was non name but the name of a city” .
Flavius valerius constantinus was going in and out of Greece without any jobs, a Danish diplomatic passport as Constantine de Grecia ” ( the Spanish Constantine of Greece ) . Reside for good with his household in London and is involved in assorted secular events. Harmonizing to a canvass conducted by Kapa Research SA for the newspaper To Vima ” , published on April 22, 2007, where the information was collected through telephone interviews and through the cyberspace, 11.6 % said for the monarchy Republic ( 4 ) .