Decision making Essay

Published: 2020-07-30 15:05:04
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SLIDE 1 – INTRODUCTORY SLIDE Ethical theories provide portion of the decision-making foundation for Decision Making When Ethical motives Are In Play because these theories represent the point of views from which persons seek counsel as they make determinations. Each theory emphasizes different points – a different decision-making manner or a determination rule—such as foretelling the result and following one’s responsibilities to others in order to make what the single considers an ethically right determination.
In order to understand ethical determination devising. it is of import for pupils to recognize that non everyone makes determinations in the same manner. utilizing the same information. using the same determination regulations. In order to farther understand ethical theory. there must be some apprehension of a common set of ends that determination shapers seek to accomplish in order to be successful. Four of these ends include beneficence. least injury. regard for liberty. and justness. SLIDE 2 – ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Beneficence The rule of beneficence ushers the determination shaper to make what is right and good.
This precedence to do good” makes an ethical position and possible solution to an ethical quandary acceptable. This rule is besides related to the rule of public-service corporation. which states that we should try to bring forth the largest ratio of good over evil possible in the universe. This rule stipulates that ethical theories should endeavor to accomplish the greatest sum of good because people benefit from the most good. This rule is chiefly associated with the useful ethical theory discussed subsequently in this set of notes. Least Harm Similar to beneficence. least harm trades with state of affairss in which no pick appears good.
In such instances. determination shapers seek to take to make the least harm possible and to make injury to the fewest people. Students might reason that people have a greater duty to do no harm” than to take stairss to profit others. For illustration. a pupil has a larger duty to merely walk past a instructor in the hallway instead than to do derogatory comments about that instructor as he/she walks past even though the pupil had failed that teacher’s category. Respect for Autonomy This rule states that determination devising should concentrate on leting people to be autonomous—to be able to do determinations that apply to their lives.
Therefore. people should hold control over their lives every bit much as possible because they are the lone people who wholly understand their chosen type of life style. Ask pupils if they agree. Are at that place bounds to autonomy? Each person deserves regard because merely he/she has had those exact life experiences and understands his emotions. motives. and physical capablenesss in such an intimate mode. In kernel. this ethical rule is an extension of the ethical rule of beneficence because a individual who is independent normally prefers to hold control over his life experiences in order to obtain the life style that he/she enjoys.
Justice The justness ethical rule provinces that determination shapers should concentrate on actions that are just to those involved. This means that ethical determinations should be consistent with the ethical theory unless palliating fortunes that can be justified exist in the instance. This besides means that instances with palliating fortunes must incorporate a important and critical difference from similar instances that justify the inconsistent determination. Ask pupils if they describe what palliating fortunes might be. Ethical Theories By Larry Chonko. Ph. D. The University of Texas at Arlington.
Notes: ___________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 1 nowadayss
SLIDE 3 – FORMS OF ETHICAL THEORIES For persons. the ethical theory they employ for determination devising counsel emphasizes facets of an ethical quandary of import to them and leads them to the most ethically right declaration harmonizing to the guidelines within the ethical theory itself. Four wide classs of ethical theory include deontology. utilitarianism. rights. and virtuousnesss. Deontology The deontological category of ethical theories states that people should adhere to their duties and responsibilities when engaged in determination devising when moralss are in drama. This means that a individual will follow his or her duties to another person or society because continuing one’s responsibility is what is considered ethically right.
For case. a deontologist will ever maintain his promises to a friend and will follow the jurisprudence. A individual who adheres to deontological theory will bring forth really consistent determinations since they will be based on the individual’s set responsibilities. Deontology contains many positive properties. but it besides contains defects. One defect is that there is no principle or logical footing for make up one’s minding an individual’s responsibilities. For case. a bourgeois may make up one’s mind that it is his/her responsibility to ever be on clip to meetings. Although this appears to be something good. we do non cognize why the individual chose to do this his responsibility. Ask pupils what grounds they might supply for this behaviour.
Sometimes. a person’s responsibilities are in struggle. For case. if the concern individual who must be on clip to meetings is running tardily. how is he/she supposed to drive? Is rushing interrupting his/her responsibility to society to continue the jurisprudence. or is the bourgeois supposed to get at the meeting tardily. non carry throughing the responsibility to be on clip? Ask pupils how they would rectify the conflicting duties to get at an a clear ethically-correct declaration. Besides ask pupils to convey into play the consideration of the public assistance of others as a consequence of the concern person’s determination. Utilitarianism Utilitarian ethical theories are based on one’s ability to foretell the effects of an action.
To a useful. the pick that yields the greatest benefit to the most people is the 1 that is ethically right. There are two types of utilitarianism. act utilitarianism and regulation utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism subscribes exactly to the definition of utilitarianism—a individual performs the Acts of the Apostless that benefit the most people. regardless of personal feelings or the social restraints such as Torahs. Rule utilitarianism takes into history the jurisprudence and is concerned with equity. A regulation useful seeks to profit the most people but through the fairest and most merely means available. Therefore. added benefits of regulation utilitarianism are that it values justness and includes beneficence at the same clip. Both act and regulation utilitarianism have disadvantages.
Although people can utilize their life experiences to try to foretell results. no 1 can be certain that his/her anticipations will be accurate. Uncertainty can take to unexpected consequences doing the useful determination shaper look unethical as clip base on ballss. as the pick made did non profit the most people as predicted.
Another premise that a useful determination shaper must do concerns his/her ability to compare the assorted types of effects against each other on a similar graduated table. But. comparing stuff additions. such as money. against intangible additions. such as felicity. is really hard since their qualities differ to such a big extent. An act useful determination shaper is concerned with accomplishing the maximal good.
Therefore. one individual’s rights may be infringed upon in order to profit a greater figure of people. In other words. act utilitarianism is non ever concerned with justness. beneficence or liberty for an single if suppressing the single leads to the solution that benefits a bulk of people. Ethical Theories By Larry Chonko. Ph. D. The University of Texas at Arlington NOTES: ___________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________
___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 2 nowadayss Ethical Theories By Larry Chonko. Ph. D. The University of Texas at Arlington Still another beginning of challenge with act useful determination shapers occurs when an single faces one set of variable conditions and so all of a sudden experiences alterations in those conditions.
The alteration in conditions may take to a alteration in the original decision—being be nice to person one minute and so dislike them the following minute because the state of affairs has changed. and wishing the individual is no longer good to the most people. In regulation utilitarianism. there is the possibility of conflicting regulations. Remember the illustration of the concern individual running tardily for a meeting.
Suppose the concern individual happens to be the CEO. who may believe that it is ethically right to get at of import meetings on clip as the members of the company will profit from this determination. The Chief executive officer may meet conflicting thoughts about what is ethically right if he/she is running tardily. Yet. the CEO believes that he/she should follow the jurisprudence because this benefits society. Simultaneously. he/she believes that it is ethically right to be on clip for his meeting because it is a meeting that besides benefits the society.
There appears to be no ethically correct answer for this scenario. Rights In ethical theories based on rights. the rights established by a society are protected and given the highest precedence. Rights are considered to be ethically right and valid since a big population endorses them. Persons may besides confer rights upon others if they have the ability and resources to make so. For illustration. a individual may state that her friend may borrow her laptop for the afternoon. The friend who was given the ability to borrow the laptop now has a right to the laptop in the afternoon.
A major complication of this theory on a larger graduated table is that one must decode what the features of a right are in a society. The society has to find what rights it wants to continue and give to its citizens. In order for a society to find what rights it wants to ordain. it must make up one’s mind what the society’s ends and ethical precedences are. Therefore. in order for the rights theory to be utile. it must be used in concurrence with another ethical theory that will systematically explicate the ends of the society. For illustration in America people have the right to take their faith because this right is upheld in the Constitution. One of the ends of the Founding Fathers’ of America was to continue this right to freedom of faith.
Virtue The virtue ethical theory Judgess a individual by his/her character instead than by an action that may divert from his/her normal behaviour. It takes the person’s ethical motives. repute. and motive into history when evaluation an unusual and irregular behaviour that is considered unethical. For case. if a individual plagiarized a transition that was subsequently detected by a equal. the equal who knows the individual good will understand the person’s character and will judge the friend consequently.
If the plagiarist usually follows the regulations and has good standing amongst his co-workers. the equal who encounters the plagiaristic transition may be able to judge his friend more laxly. Possibly the research worker had a late dark and merely forgot to recognition his or her beginning suitably.
Conversely. a individual who has a repute for academic misconduct is more likely to be judged harshly for plagiarising because of his/her consistent yesteryear of unethical behaviour. One failing of virtue ethical theory is that it does non take into consideration a person’s alteration in moral character. For illustration. a scientist who may hold made errors in the yesteryear may candidly hold the same late dark narrative as the scientist in good standing. Neither of these scientists deliberately plagiarized. but the act was still committed. On the other manus. a research worker may hold a sudden alteration from moral to immoral character may travel unnoticed until a important sum of grounds saddle horses up against him/her.
Notes: ___________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 3 nowadayss
SLIDES 4-6 – SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF ETHICAL CONDUCT When persons find themselves in a decision-making state of affairs when moralss are in drama. there are a assortment of ethical theories ( determination regulations ) which provide decision-making counsel as persons strive to do ethically right replies. Each ethical theory efforts to adhere to the ethical rules that lead to success when seeking to make the best determination.
Most persons adopt a preferable decision-making manner ( e. g. do unto others … ) . but might set it depending on determination fortunes. As determination shapers. they shortly discover that others have adopted different determination regulations. Therefore. a squad of determination shapers must foremost understand the decision-making manners and determination regulations of all members of the squad.
SLIDES 7 – 9 – A TAXONOMY OF ETHICAL TYPES There are three different attacks to analyzing how ethical theories ( differing decisionmaking manners and determination regulations ) impact determination devising. The first group. entitled. Selected Principles of Ethical Conduct. ” present different ethical theories or determination devising manners. The 2nd group. entitled A Taxonomy of Ethical Types” besides provides a expression at different decision-making manners. showing some of the positives and negatives associated with each. The 3rd group. entitled Models of Personal and Organizational Development. ” besides deals with decision-making manners but nowadayss them in a hierarchy from simple to more sophisticated.
SLIDES 10-12 – MODELS OF PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT From Cognitive Moral Development ( as espoused by Lawrence Kohlberg in The Philosophy of Moral Development: Moral Phases and the Idea of Justice. 1981. HarperCollins Publishers ) Cognitive Moral Development asserts that moralss instruction is possible. Merely as people develop mentally. physically. and emotionally. they develop a moral awareness. Using critical thought and decision-making tactics such as the Socratic method. people can work out their ethical quandary.
Kohlberg taught that there were six phases of ethical thought. each phase being of greater adulthood than the old 1. By defining these degrees. we are allowed to cognize and prove our ain thought and determination devising. This helps persons know themselves better and challenges them to travel on to a higher degree of thought.
To analyze how different ethical theories ( decision-making manners and determination regulations enter into squad determination devising. the undermentioned inquiries are presented. 1. Ask pupils to play the function of a hospital decision maker who has been asked to put up an Ethical motives Task Force in the infirmary. The undertaking force will cover with ethical quandaries that may face hospital staff and advise in set uping ethical guidelines for the intervention of patients. ( a ) What sort of individuals would you look for to make full this place? What values would you desire them to keep? What types of ethical sensitiveness would you be looking for? ( B ) What basic ethical rules would you rede the undertaking force to follow? 2.
Now tell pupils they are charged with the same undertaking described in Question # 1. but this clip for a market research house alternatively of a infirmary. What would the differences be? If there are any differences. what decisions would you pull about the manner we define the moral ballpark? 3. An undergraduate pupil published A Students’ Guide to Good Grades 10. This book was written to assist pupils larn how to rip off. You can inquire pupils many inquiries about this: What ethical issues do you see associated with publication such a book? Should the campus bookshop carry it? Why or why non? Should the campus Ethical Theories By Larry Chonko. Ph. D. The University of Texas at Arlington.
Notes: ___________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 4 nowadayss Ethical Theories By Larry Chonko. Ph. D. The University of Texas at Arlington newspaper carry advertizements for the book? Similarly. should the campus newspaper carry advertizements for companies that will compose students’ research documents for them? Again. what are the relevant ethical considerations here? Are these issues in the ethical ballpark? Why or why non? What is the ethical issue that you are most open about? Describe the pros and cons associating to this issue. How make you travel about geting at a determination when it is ineluctable?
Notes: ___________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 5

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