Driverless Metro Train With Obstacle Detector Engineering Essay

Published: 2020-06-08 00:46:03
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Introduction
This undertaking is designed to understand the engineering used in driver less metro train. This engineering is the hereafter of the tube train. This train will be equipped with the microcontroller as the CPU, Sensors, Displays, and Motors. These trains will be designed for following the specific way. This microcontroller will be programmed such that door clears and near automatically when the train reaches its station. This microcontroller will be programmed for a specific way so that it knows the distance between two Stationss. It besides opens the door when train reaches the station for a certain clip and so stopping points. Besides if the train is following its way and in forepart of train an obstruction is detected the detector will feel the obstruction from a safer distance so that the train can be stopped before accident.
In this undertaking we are utilizing the same form described above. Here we are utilizing AT89S52 microcontroller as a CPU. One hoofer motor is used for the train so that it can go between the Stationss. Second, motor is used for the door unfastened and close. For exposing the figure of station and exigency message we are utilizing 2 line LCD shows. Here the train is designed for 10 Stationss numbered 1 to 10. LCD is used to expose the message as station figure reached. Besides doorbell is used as a sound index of exigency dismay and door unfastened. Sensor is used to observe the obstruction in forepart of the train. When the obstruction is detected the doorbell will sound, all the motors stop, and message will be displayed on the LCD. When the obstruction is removed the train will once more get down traveling on its way.
The train equipped with microcontroller controls
Liquid crystal display
L293D motor driving IC
PIR detector
Doorbell
Lead
List OF COMPONENTS
1 IC 8051 MC ( AT89S52 ) – 1
2 IC L293D – 1
3 Transformer ( 120 V to 12V ) – 1
4 Voltage Regulator 7806 – 1
5 Voltage Regulator 7812 – 1
6 2 X16 LCD show – 1
7 Stepper Motor – 2
8 Crystal Oscillator ( 11.0592 MHz ) – 2
9 Switch – 1
10 LED – 1
11 Resistors ( 1k,10k,8.2k,1×8 SIP10kI ) – battalion of each
12 Capacitors ( 22pf,10uf,1mf,10nf ) – battalion of each
13 Diode IN4007 – 4
14 Buzzer – 1
15 Transistor ( 5474A ) – 1
16 PIR – 1
Working OF Undertaking:
Driver less metro train undertaking is typically based on microcontroller. Where microcontroller used as a CPU is commanding the full circuit. The micro IC is programmed to follow the sequence of direction or interrupts generated during the whole operation. The whole undertaking circuit is divided into different parts so that it is easy to understand and debug. The chief parts are
Main microcontroller circuit
L293D motor driving circuit
Power supply circuit
LCD circuit
PIR detector circuit
These four parts are connected together to do the whole undertaking functional.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
led
Power Supply
MICRO
8051
L293D
Intelligence community
Motor
Detector
PIR
LCD 2X16
Doorbell
CIRCUIT DESIGN
( MULTISIM DESIGN, ULTIBOARD DESIGN )
Power Supply
For explicating the working of the undertaking foremost we explain the architecture of the power supply. For this undertaking we need the power supply that can change over 120V to 12V and 6 V. the chief constituents used in the power supply are:
DC POWER SUPPLLY
Transformer ( 120V to 12V Step down, 0.5Amp )
IN4007 rectifying tubes connected I bridge form
Voltage regulator 7806 and 7812
Capacitor ( 1uf,10 nf )
Resistor ( 10 kohm )
The 120 Vs is step down by 12 Vs by transformer. Then this 12V is rectified by the span rectifier made up of rectifying tubes. This span rectifier is used to supply DC electromotive force. Then the 12V is regulated by 7806 to 6V and 7812 to 12V. 1 micro F capacitance is used to filtrate the pulsating DC electromotive force in order to acquire the pure DC. Here 6V is given to the microcontroller circuit. Other, 12V is given to the motor driving circuit. Here Voltage regulator is used so that no fluctuation occurs in order to acquire changeless electromotive force. The LED attaches to look into the rightness of power supply.
PIR SENSOR
PIR stands for Passive infrared detector which detects the gesture of the obstruction in forepart of the train. Its pin 1 is connected to the VCC, pin 3 connected to the land and pin 2 is connected to the base 0 of the transistor. The end product of the detector is active high which is given to the base of the transistor. This transistor act like a non gate and change over active high input to active low end product of the transistor end product. The aggregator of the transistor is connected to the microcontroller port 3.0. Resistance is connected to the base of the transistor to forestall flood of the current. The end product of the PIR detector is digital. When PIR detector senses the obstruction in forepart of the it sends active low input through transistor to the microcontroller as a interrupt. When microcontroller gets this interrupt the scheduling in the microcontroller stops all the motor conveying the train to halt. Besides the led will glow and buzzer will sound demoing the presence of obstruction.
LCD MODULE
In our undertaking we are utilizing 2 line and 16 figures LCD show. This liquid crystal display has 16 pins. It is connected as a parallel port to the microcontroller. Here we are utilizing 14 pins two pins are non being used. Out of these 14 pins, 8 pins are used for informations lines to pass on with the microcontroller. These 8 pins are connected to the port 2.0 to port 2.7 of the microcontroller. When the message is to be displayed by the microcontroller it is transferred through these informations pins. Here data spot D7 is used for demoing the busy message. When D7=1 the LCD is busy and when it is D7=0 than it is non. RW, EN, and RD are connected to the port 3 pins P3.5 to P3.7. EN pin is used to observe the high to low pulsation. RS=1 is used for registry select that is data registry to expose informations coming from microcontroller and RS=0 command registry to acquire bid from microcontroller like clrscr. For informations registry RS =1 and for bid registry RS=0. For RW we have R=1 and W=0. VCC pin is connected to 5V power supply, GND pin is connected to land. CV pin is connected to potentiometer which is used to set the contrast of the LCD.
MOTOR DRIVING CIRCUIT
The motor driving circuit depends upon the end product of the microcontroller. 2 motors are connected to L293D IC. This IC is used individually to drive motor because the microcontroller electromotive force is low to drive the motors. L293D act as a amplifier for driving the motor. Here the end product of the IC is same as the input the difference is merely that the input electromotive force is amplified. Two motors are connected to the end product of the IC. This L293D IC can revolve motor in either way. L293D is connected to the port0 of the microcontroller through pull up resistance. In the gazing both the motor are in off province. Each motor has two pins that are connected to the IC. Here alternatively of utilizing both motor we are utilizing CD tray motor that will move like a gate which will open when it acquire unfastened bid from microcontroller and stopping point with the close bid. we are utilizing stepper motor that is a electro-mechanical rotary actuator that converts electrical pulsations into alone shaft rotary motions. This rotary motion is straight related to the figure of pulsations. This motor can be operated in forward/reverse with governable velocity from a microcontroller through a transistor driver circuit. This stepper motor is a ( 4 stage ) 12 VDC, 150 ma motor that takes 3.6 grades per measure. Phase opposition ( Ohms ) : 75 A· Current ( ma ) : 150 A· Phase Inductance ( mH ) : 39 A· Detent torsion ( g-cm ) : 80 A· Keeping Torque ( g-cm ) : 600 A· Mounting hole infinite diagonal ( in. ) : 1.73 A· Mounting hole ( in. ) 0.11 A· Shaft diameter ( in. ) : 0.197 A· Shaft length ( in. ) : 0.43 A· Motor Diameter ( in. ) : 1.66 A·Motor tallness ( in. ) : 1.35 A· Weight: 0.55 pound.
Doorbell
Degree centigrades: UsersAdminDesktopimages ( 1 ) .jpg
In this undertaking doorbell is used as a dismay index. Buzzer has 2 pins its positive is connected to the supply electromotive force and negative pin is connected to microcontroller at port 1 pin p1.0. Buzzer will sound when it receive 0 from the microcontroller and halt when it receive 1 from P1.0. This doorbell will sound when the train reaches the station and besides in instance of exigency when obstruction is detected.
AT89S52
Degree centigrades: UsersAdminDesktopAT89S52-MICROCONTROLLER-configuration.jpg
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured utilizing Atmel ‘s high-density nonvolatilizable memory engineering and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 direction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the plan memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatilizable memory coder. By uniting a various 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a massive bit, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-efficient solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89S52 provides the following standard characteristics: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two information arrows, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full semidetached house consecutive port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In add-on, the AT89S52 is designed with inactive logic for operation down to zero frequence and supports two package selectable power salvaging manners. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while leting the RAM, timer/counters, consecutive port, and interrupt system to go on working. In this microcontroller 11.0592 crystal oscillator is used to bring forth clock pulsations for the microcontroller operation. These clock pulsations are used for R/W rhythm. 2 ceramic capacitance of 22pf are used to supply pure pulsation to the microcontroller. A combination of opposition 10 kg ohm and capacitance of 10uf are used to supply reset circuitry. When we provide power to microcontroller it should be reset for some clip. The reset clip is given by t= 1.1*R*C. This reset circuitry is connected to port 1 reset pin ; this circuit can be manually reset utilizing switch which is besides connected to the reset pin. Interrupt pin INTO is connected to the end product of the transistor which gives active low input as a interrupt. Port 0 is connected to 1×8 ( 10 kohm ) SIP resistances to supply the external pull up. Port is used for the end product to the motor driver circuit. Port 2 is connected to the LCD faculty.
TROUBLESHOOT
1-Care should be taken while taking the constituents with proper evaluation.
2- Power supply should keep forestalling short circuit.
3- Project should be handled with attention since IC is delicate.
4- Project circuit should be simple so that it is to debug.
5-Etching and drilling holes should be done carefully.
6-Soldering should be done with proper safeguard
Advantages
1-Lower outgo for staff.However, service and security forces is common in machine-controlled systems.
2-Trains can be shorter and alternatively run more often without increasing outgo for staff.
3-Service frequence can easy be adjusted to run into sudden unexpected demands..
4-Intruder sensing systems can be more effectual than worlds in halting trains if person is on the paths.
5-Financial nest eggs in both energy and wear-and-tear costs because trains are driven to an optimal specification.
FUTURE SCOPE
This undertaking will be utile for the tube trains. This is really low cost undertaking that can be help full in runing the train without driver. One can run the train from distant distance. It will besides be good for the development states diminishing the cost of labours. Besides the station information and exigency will besides be displayed to the riders. It will traveling to increase the engineering trends. This is merely a abrasion to get down this undertaking there is a batch of betterment can be done in this undertaking
Appendix
Cryptography FOR PROJECT
# include & lt ; reg51.h & gt ;
null hold ( unsigned int ) ;
nothingness lcdcmd ( unsigned char ) ;
nothingness lcddata ( unsigned char ) ;
nothingness lcdready ( ) ;
null welcome ( ) ;
null obstruction ( ) ;
null station ( ) ;
null gate ( ) ;
sfr ldata = 0xA0 ;
sbit R = P3^7 ;
sbit rw = P3^6 ;
sbit en = P3^5 ;
sbit busy = P2^7 ;
sbit m11 = P0^0 ;
sbit m12 = P0^1 ;
sbit m21 = P0^2 ;
sbit m22 = P0^3 ;
sbit dismay = P1^0 ;
sbit led = P1^1 ;
nothingness ad ( nothingness ) interrupt 0
{
P0 = 0x00 ;
dismay = 0 ;
obstruction ( ) ;
}
nothingness chief ( nothingness )
{
IT0 = 0 ; // Configure interrupt 0 for falling border on /INT0 ( P3.2 )
EX0 = 1 ; // Enable EX0 Interrupt
EA = 1 ; // Enable Global Interrupt Flag
P0 = 0x00 ;
dismay = 1 ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = m12 = m21 = m22 = 0 ;
lcdcmd ( 0x38 ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0x0E ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0x01 ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0x06 ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0x81 ) ;
while ( 1 )
{
welcome ( ) ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘1 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘2 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘3 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘4 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘5 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘6 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘7 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘8 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘9 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
m11 = 1 ;
hold ( 1000 ) ;
m11 = 0 ;
station ( ) ;
lcddata ( ‘1 ‘ ) ;
lcddata ( ‘0 ‘ ) ;
led = 0 ;
gate ( ) ;
led = 1 ;
}
}
null gate ( )
{
m21 = 1 ;
m22 = 0 ;
hold ( 200 ) ;
m21 = m22 = 0 ;
hold ( 300 ) ;
m21 = 0 ;
m22 = 1 ;
hold ( 200 ) ;
m21 = m22 = 0 ;
}
null welcome ( )
{
unsigned char proj1 [ ] = Metro Rail ” ;
unsigned char omega ;
lcdcmd ( 0x01 ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0x83 ) ;
for ( z = 0 ; omega & lt ; = 9 ; z++ )
{
lcddata ( proj1 [ z ] ) ;
}
hold ( 200 ) ;
}
null obstruction ( )
{
unsigned char obs1 [ ] = Obstacle ” ;
unsigned char obs2 [ ] = Detected ” ;
unsigned char omega ;
lcdcmd ( 0x01 ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0x84 ) ;
for ( z = 0 ; omega & lt ; = 7 ; z++ )
{
lcddata ( obs1 [ z ] ) ;
}
hold ( 100 ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0xC4 ) ;
for ( z = 0 ; omega & lt ; = 7 ; z++ )
{
lcddata ( obs2 [ z ] ) ;
}
}
null station ( )
{
unsigned char st [ ] = Station ;
unsigned char omega ;
lcdcmd ( 0x01 ) ;
lcdcmd ( 0x83 ) ;
for ( z = 0 ; omega & lt ; = 7 ; z++ )
{
lcddata ( st [ z ] ) ;
}
}
null hold ( unsigned int itime )
{
unsigned int I, J ;
for ( i=0 ; i & lt ; itime ; i++ )
for ( j=0 ; j & lt ; 10000 ; j++ ) ;
}
nothingness lcdcmd ( unsigned char value )
{
lcdready ( ) ;
ldata = value ;
R = 0 ;
rw = 0 ;
en = 1 ;
hold ( 1 ) ;
en = 0 ;
return ;
}
nothingness lcddata ( unsigned char value )
{
lcdready ( ) ;
ldata = value ;
R = 1 ;
rw = 0 ;
en = 1 ;
hold ( 1 ) ;
en = 0 ;
return ;
}
nothingness lcdready ( )
{
busy = 1 ;
R = 0 ;
rw = 1 ;
while ( busy == 1 )
{
en = 0 ;
hold ( 1 ) ;
en = 1 ;
}
return ;
}

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