The Channel Tunnel
Harmonizing to Leroi ( 1970 ) , during the last 70 old ages the Channel Tunnel had appeared in the parliament in approximately 40 occasions and it was one of the alone undertakings at that clip. It seemed to be impossible to accomplish because, it would link France and the UK together, The Channel Tunnel was an old thought raised In 1802 when a Gallic excavation applied scientist, Albert Mathieu, arranged the first impractical program for associating France and Britain.
Another Frenchman, Thome de Gamond ( 1807-1876 ) was the first to research the viability of the Channel Tunnel by taking ballots to hold on the deepness of the H2O and by roll uping samples from the sea. Then In 1870 ‘s both states decided to work together to use the undertaking. With authorities blessing both states agreed to make the first serious proficient scrutiny of the geology to look into what rocks set under the sea bed between Dover and Calais. In 1881 the two companies began delving earnestly from the drops between Dover and Folkestone, and west of Calais. Within the first twelvemonth both sides had finished delving about 2km of the tunnel.
In 1882 the English Tunnel company faced political resistance, so the British authorities was attempted by the VIP visitant to acquire consent to complete the work, nevertheless the British ground forces opposed. In 1973 the two authoritiess decided to take another measure to finish the Tunnel but in 1975 the building was deserted once more due to economic system and a fiscal catastrophe because there was wholly increasing in universe oil monetary values.
In 1980s the British and Gallic authoritiess commissioned more surveies and agreed that the rail tunnel would be more important least parlous. Furthermore they gave the contract to private companies utilizing private money to raise a rail tunnel. They started working once more on both sides in 1987, and opened the new nexus in 1994 by utilizing new-fangled engineering for deep-sea find to guarantee accurately what was under the sea.
The Eurotunnel finished on clip, and the Tunnel was opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French President Francois Mitterrand in Calais on 6 May 1994. In malice of the resistance and job the high velocity rail nexus in 1993 was opened from the French-side. On the English side, the first phase of a purpose-made line from the Tunnel to London was opened in 2003.
This paper will discourse the building of the tunnel ; concentrate on several restraints such as the clime and economic system, and several jobs such as geological facets and fiscal factors. Finally this undertaking will show some benefits of constructing the tunnel that include the economic system and touristry.
2.0 Literature reappraisal
The Channel Tunnel is the longest tunnel of all time established undersea. , The subdivision that undersea built in 24 stat mis long and the fixed cross-channel ; the nexus was made up of three 31 stat mis long tunnels, the tunnel links two terminuss one at Folkestone and the other one at Coquilles clause to Calais and lies at an mean deepness of 40m under the ocean floor.
Between 1987 and 1991, 93 stat mis of tunnel were made, there are two ways, one manner tunnels dedicated to inveigh traffic and the other 1 for cardinal services tunnel connected every 375m with cross transitions to the rail tunnel. ( Penny, 1996 ) .
The airing system was created for high safety of the undertaking, and there were two system from the get downing a normal airing and the auxiliary airing system which were created to supply airiness in the tunnel during the journey ( Penny, 1996 ) .
22.214.171.124 The normal airing system
The intent of the normal system is to supply air to 20.000 riders within the tunnels and its working criterion in to blow fresh air into the service tunnel which so filters into the running tunnels by controlled air distribution units, by this it means if anyone opened the door while in the tunnel in order to get away from an event, the rider whatever he/she would travel to an country of fresh air and safe topographic point ( Penny, 1996 ) .
126.96.36.199 The auxiliary airing system
The intent of the auxiliary airing is to provide proactive control of the fume that would come from fire, so the system was built at both terminals of the submarine subdivision of the tunnels which allows the fume to be driven in both waies.
Reasons to construct the Channel Tunnel
Harmonizing to Leroi ( 1970 ) , there are many grounds that led to constructing the Tunnel. The First ground that led to constructing the tunnel is the conditions. Because of the deficiency of the comfy conditions for going cross the sea by boats, they besides had to avoid stormy sea crossings, Furthermore air services can be stuck by bad conditions. Addition tonss of people are capable to air illness. ( 1970:15 )
The Second ground is the economic system. Although the tunnel would be an advantage in, many economic experts consider that some signifier of tunnel would be even more important if Britain were likely to stay outside the common market. In effect of bing duty barriers, Britain ‘s exports would hold to go more competitory.
This would offer advantages to British makers if they improved their gross revenues in the competitory markets of Europe. Furthermore, to some figures that the cost of taking autos throughout the tunnel would be less than taking them by ships or aeroplanes, so holiday shapers could salvage about 2,000,000 lbs in the first twelvemonth of process, accordingly in 15 old ages they could salvage sixty million lbs.
2.3 Problems during constructing the Channel
Geological jobs were considered to be one of the chief troubles. In 1870, after the Prussian-war, both the UKandFrance decided to work together. Geology applied scientists used a new engineering developed for deep-sea oil geographic expedition to look into specifically what was under the sea bed and if it is possible to stretch it or non.
Furthermore they have found the chalk in France mulct and easy to delve in Sangatte but on the English side the shaft was flooded through clefts in the chalk so they had to alter from E of Dover to the western country. On the Gallic side there were several jobs such as, change sea degree, ice sheets and alteration in coastline. These were jobs the applied scientists had to cover with earlier get downing the existent building.
The 2nd job, which was considered as one of the of import facet to make the tunnel was fiscal. The Tunnel is an impossible undertaking to use presents with recent economic criterions. When the undertaking was under consideration, after the First World War, the patrons thought it would be about 20 million. By 1929 it ‘s rose to 27 million and ten old ages subsequently the cost increased by 5 million.
2.4 Benefits of the Channel Tunnel
2.4.1The first benefit is the economic system facet
The LCR, which is responsible for the high velocity of the Channel Tunnel, considers that the accomplishment of the high velocity would change over the states economic system. The tunnel has had an impact on increasing the economic system of Kent because of its next place to the continent. Approximately 20 million metric tons of cargo are transported through the tunnel per twelvemonth ( Gavin, 2006 ) .
It was likely that the completion of the Tunnel would alter the watercourse of riders going about without autos between London and Paris, as it would vie with sea ferries, and besides air travel. British Rail assumed that after two old ages of the opening the Tunnel, about 13 million riders per twelvemonth would be going by trains between Britain and Continental Europe.
2.4.2 The 2nd benefit is the touristry facet
Harmonizing to the KIS ( 2004 ) evaluated that: a sum of 3.391 bearers would be created without the Channel Tunnel and there would be 5.521 occupations with the tunnel moreover, the studied estimated that in 1987 that the tourer would increase occupations from 2.000 to 3.000 touristry due to the impact of the Channel Tunnel as a tourer attractive force.
The intent of this research is to find if the Channel Tunnel has increased touristry and boosted the economic system for both states the UK & A ; France.
The study was conducted by agencies of a questionnaire given to riders at St.Pancras station, to finish the 11 inquiries and it was divided on two parts, the first 4 inquiries was about personal information ( gender, age, business and nationality ) the following seven inquiries was all concerned with facets of the Channel Tunnel one inquiries which the Likert graduated table ( strongly hold, do n’t cognize, differ, strongly disagree and open ) founded on whether the Channel Tunnel had increased touristry of both the UK & A ; France.
From the findings, it have seen a really clear that bulk of this research is there are a strong relationship between touristry provinces and the Channel Tunnel as consequence of that the tunnel increased the rate of touristry in the UK. Harmonizing to KIS, 2004. Passengers believed that the Channel Tunnel had increased touristry for both the UK & A ; France, because the consequences of survey showed that 60 % of respondents agreed with it and it seemed that be more than 60 % and it ‘s surprisingly that 10 % agreed strongly.
Second, it was clearly that most of the respondents believed that the Channel Tunnel benefited the economic system of both states, 55 % of respondents believed that the channel Tunnel helped the economic system as 40 % did non cognize about it. It was surprising that 5 % of British respondents have said no, while they supposed to
Acknowledge the increased of the economic system after the Channel Tunnel.
This undertaking has demonstrated a drumhead about the building of the tunnel and talked about several grounds for constructing the channel tunnel, every bit good the jobs faced, it shows the benefit of the channel tunnel, in both the economic system and touristry. the Channel Tunnel was a immense technology accomplishment ; most of people did n’t believe that the undertaking will be done and it was for them such as a dream thought yet this undertaking has been achieved but the outlooks of the patrons where higher than normal the low income and tourer attractive force it made was a failure for there anticipations but it will ever be a immense success by world sing the geological, fiscal and technology jobs that faced, the Channel Tunnel is an astonishing undertaking and it is supposed to be one of the seven admirations of the universe. And I expect it will duplicate the norm of the income for both states the UK and France in both facets the economic system and touristry in the hereafter.
Charles penny, 1996 Channel tunnel conveyance system Thomas Telford publication, Thomas Telford services Ltd, 1heron uay, London E14 4jd.
David Leori,1969, The Channel Tunnel, Clifton books new England house, new England street, Brighton bn1 4hn.
( Gavin Stamp, 2006 ) , Dream location ‘ a challenge for Kent Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/5234132.stm ( accessed: 1st May 2008 )
SOUTETSU SEN, 2004 the channel tunnel impact on touristry in the United Kingdom. available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reading.ac.uk/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.asp? lID=12796 & A ; sID=48883 [ Accessed 20ThursdayMay, 2008 ]
Theotherside.co.uk available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/background/tunnel.htm # visit [ Accessed 3rdMay, 2008 ]
Hay, A. Merdith, K. Vickerman, R, ( 2004 ) . The impact of the channel Tunnel on Kent and relationships with NORD-PAS DE CALAIS, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kent.ac.uk/economics/research/Full % 20Report.pdf [ Accessed 11ThursdayMay, 2008 ]