Hispanic Cultural Views And Traditional Values Sociology Essay

Published: 2020-08-14 14:45:03
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Spanish americans are the largest minority population in the United States. Projections suggest that the estimated 46.9 million Hispanics who presently reside in the United States ( U.S. Census Bureau 2009 ) will turn to over 62 million by 2020 and to more than 133 million by the twelvemonth 2050 ( Bean, 2001 ) . Research is important in larning how this population maps, assimilates and understanding the social tendencies that have the strongest impact on Hispanics. Hispanics display an exceeding resiliency to absorbing into mainstream American cultural forms while keeping their traditional cultural norms, beliefs and imposts ( Acevedo, 2009 ) . Research that examines the implicit in factors which facilitate Latino assimilation gives insight into understanding Latino civilization. It can function as the foundation for developing a guideline in analyzing cultural assimilation and helping other civilizations in accomplishing it. An person ‘s beliefs, motive, and actions are defined and influenced by connexions and investings with groups they consider themselves to be a portion of. In the kingdom of behaviours and attitudes, groups are extremely important ( Acevedo, 2009 ) . Therefore, analyzing Spanish americans as a group supplies research workers a alone advantage in deriving relevant penetration.
One of the most outstanding values of Latino civilization is familismo, the accent on household relationships, which includes gender functions, childbearing, familial hierarchy, etc ( Raffaeilli & A ; Ontai, 2004 ) . It is a cultural value that highlights the precedence of household connexions, engagement in larger household webs and harmoniousness within relationships. In traditional Latino households, it is by and large believed cultural values reflect traditional hierarchal gender functions. Womans are supposed to be virginal ” until matrimony. In kernel this means they are expected to stay virgins until they marry and be ignorant in sexual manners because the hubby is responsible for educating his married woman in this sphere ( Quadagno, Sly, Harrison, Eberstein & A ; Soler, 1998 ) . The adult female ‘s most of import functions are as married woman and female parent – being the caretaker for the kids, her hubby, and place life in general. Traditional male functions are defined as machismo, in which males maintain dominant and aggressive attitudes and are responsible for working to back up the household ( Saez, Casado & A ; Wade, 2009 ) . Work force are considered to be the caput of the family and possess the most power in doing determinations. The traditional definition of these gender functions besides implies that adult females are the more subservient sex and work forces being non merely more powerful but besides domineering, macho, and potentially overly commanding and opprobrious. The relationship between gender-role socialisation and hypermasculinity suggests that the place environment is a powerful beginning of messages sing male gender function norms ( Saez, Casado & A ; Wade, 2009 ) every bit good as female gender function norms. Scholarly research has criticized this word picture of traditional gender functions as stereotyped and invalid ( Amaro, 1988 ) . In the Latino universe, machismo is defined as the outlook that a adult male will be honest, responsible and loving towards his household ( Parra-Cardona & A ; Busby 2006 ) . Latino spouses are besides really likely to be influenced by cultural values that emphasize personalismo, which refers to a high degree of emotional resonance in interpersonal brushs ( Parra-Cardona & A ; Busby, 2006 ) . Therefore, communicating and connexion between spouses and within the household carry important weight, advancing familial harmoniousness, strength and growing.
Clinicians are responsible for understanding the familial gender functions as defined by different ethnicities in order to keep cultural competency to work with those populations. Multicultural competency is by and large characterized as affecting three chief countries: clinician ‘s consciousness of the civilization they identify with, clinician ‘s cognition of the client ‘s perceptual experience of society, and clinician ‘s cognition and execution of culturally appropriate intervention schemes and intercessions ( Bean, 2001 ) . Since the Hispanic population continues to turn, the demand for healers who are trained to work with Hispanics will besides lift. Therefore, research will provide information that can be applied toward developing and implementing intervention programs that will outdo service Hispanics.
There exists an overpowering sum of research refering gender functions amongst the Latino population. However, research refering functions as defined by the aged Latino population is rather scarce, making a important spread in understanding the public. The population of U.S. Hispanics older than 64 old ages is one of the fastest turning sections of aged Americans ( Beyene, Becker & A ; Mayen, 2002 ) . Respeto, or regard, is a traditional value in the Latino civilization. All members of the household are expected to be respected and give it in return. Traditionally, Latino aged were extremely valued for their function and map every bit good as their ability to lend their cognition and experience to their household. They have served as depositories of history, tradition and values ( Beyene, Becker & A ; Mayen, 2002 ) . They are addressed as Don ” or Dona, ” rubrics of fear and regard. Children are socially and morally obligated to back up their aged parents, which typically translates to parents traveling in with their kids ‘s household one time their status bounds their independency and inhibits their ability to care for themselves. However, the Hispanic aged that have emigrated from their native state live in a different society that possesses values that differ greatly from the society they were raised in. In the modern Latino civilization it remains common pattern to seek out the aged for advice refering childrearing and household dealingss, but immature Spanish americans who were raised in the United States are more likely to aline their values with those based on the U.S. civilization, which emphasizes juvenility and personal independency ( Beyene, Becker & A ; Mayen, 2002 ) .
Research shows a important connexion between emotional well being and household support for the aged Latino population. Aged Hispanics deem emotional support, apprehension, compassion and love from their grownup kids as the most of import signifier of aid. Thus accent is given to societal relationships and emotional connexion. An exchange of attending and fondness with grandchildren besides has a important influence on the sense of wellbeing for Latino aged ( Beyene, Becker & A ; Mayen, 2002 ) .
The aged Latino population tends to hold a strong connexion to faith and spiritual tradition. This is believed to help in assisting with the emphasiss of old age. Religious beliefs help people make life endurable, and find their relationship to the supernatural, to the environment, to clip, to activity, and heighten their dignity ( Beyene, Becker & A ; Mayen, 2002 ) . Religious beliefs are aligned closely with the conservative domain, which indicates the possibility that aged Hispanic whom are less assimilated into American civilization and experience a more powerful connexion to their civilization are more likely to possess conservative positions and ideals than immature Hispanics or Hispanics who are more assimilated into U.S. civilization. Most Hispanics in the United States identify with Catholicism or evangelical Protestantism which are traditions that have a inclination to encompass conservative theological and societal values, such as opposing abortion and contraceptive method ( Ellison, Echevarria & A ; Smith, 2005 ) . Ultimately, conservative positions call for more traditional gender functions in the household, encompassing antique patterns which become scarcer as the United States continues to encompass and integrate a more modern manner of life
Methods
The literature suggests that within Hispanic civilizations, there are strong traditional moral ties linking younger and older coevalss, including traditions like grownup kids caring for aged parents and adult females staying celibate until matrimony. However, these relationships may be different from coevals to coevals, peculiarly as some coevalss become more acculturated to American life. The inquiry we will try to reply is explorative in nature and serves to inquire whether or non there is a relationship between age and traditional beliefs within the Latino population in the United States. In order to prove this inquiry, we will use informations taken from the Pew Hispanic Center in 2002.
The Pew Hispanic Center conducted the National Survey of Latinos in 2002 among 2929 Latinos and 1284 non-Latinos. This was a wide study that asked a figure of socially relevant inquiries related to civilization, experience and relationship to the United States. These were telephone studies conducted in both English and Spanish among a indiscriminately selected sample of grownups. The respondents were selected utilizing a four-stage stratification system to place countries more dumbly populated with Latino people and computing machine assisted calls were made to random phone Numberss within these countries. The information received was proportioned to fit expected country population values based on state of beginning.
We will utilize the informations collected from merely the Latino population in the sample, as this is the mark population relevant to our research inquiry. In order to prove our inquiry, we will look at two variables: age and degree of understanding with the statement, It is better for kids to populate in their parents ‘ place until they get married ” ( Pew Hispanic Center, 2002 ) . This inquiry is valid for our survey due to its relationship to traditional Hispanic household values sing kid and parent functions. The replies were coded in the study utilizing possible responses of four degrees of understanding, from strongly hold ” to strongly differ ” and to boot allowed respondents to province do n’t cognize. ” For our intents, we will recode the informations received from this inquiry to include merely the four degrees of response and encode the do n’t cognize ” responses as losing informations, because these responses give us small penetration within our explorative analysis. We will get down our analysis by carry oning descriptive frequences analysis of our two variables, using the dataset ‘s included recoded age informations, which grouped age responses into five age groups, and the responses to the study inquiry. We will so run a crosstabulation of the two variables and carry on a Pearson chi-square trial utilizing SPSS package.
The chi-square trial will let us to see if there is a important relationship between the two variables. It will mensurate the significance of the difference between the expected and observed frequences when comparing classs of the two responses within a crosstabulation. The crosstabulation will let us to place specific frequences of each response divided by age group. The void hypothesis is that there is no important relationship between the two variables and that the frequences of responses will be distributed every bit. We will utilize a two-tailed trial in order to be to the full able to detect if a relationship exists, either positively or negatively. Based on the literature, our hypothesis is that there is a positive relationship between age and the belief among Hispanics in the U.S. that kids should stay at place until matrimony.
The utility of this explorative analysis is that a relationship between these variables may be indexs of greater tendencies or differences in beliefs among coevalss and may function as a footing for extra geographic expedition. The restriction of this survey occurs due to its explorative nature in that we are looking at merely one variable as an index for the relationship of tradition and age. Although limited in footings of general relationship, detecting a relationship with these variables specifically may assist clinicians to better image and predict generational belief differences within households sing kid and parent functions.
Consequences
By running descriptive frequences on the recoded age variable, we were able to visualise an unequal distribution among our five age groups. The information ( see Table 1 ) shows that of the 2929 respondents, the largest group were 18-29 old ages old, stand foring 32.0 % of the entire sample. The following two age groups, 30-39 and 40-54, reported in similar Numberss, with 748 ( 26.0 % ) and 721 ( 25.1 % ) severally. The largest bead so occurred, with merely 8.5 % coverage each for the following two groups, 55-64 and 65 or older.
Descriptive frequences run on our inquiry variable ( see Table 2 and Chart 1 ) shows to a great extent skewed responses, with 1779 ( 61.5 % ) of the 2929 respondents replying that they agree strongly ” that kids should populate in their parents ‘ place until they get married. 512 ( 17.7 % ) responded agree slightly. ” Disagreement comprised of merely 20.4 % of the respondents, with 11.9 % differing slightly ” and 8.9 % differing strongly. ” Of the entire sample, 38 responses every bit 1.3 % of the sum were counted as losing informations.
Runing a crosstabulation on these two variables found 85 ( 2.9 % ) losing instances ( see Table 3 ) , which leaves 2844 ( 97.1 % ) instances that are valid for comparing. Within the frequence tabular array generated by the crosstabulation ( see Table 4, ) we can see the grade to which each age group agrees or disagrees with the study inquiry. Although 61.4 % of the entire population strongly agrees with the inquiry, the 65+ age group gave this response most often, with 78.0 % of that age group strongly holding and 14.5 % holding slightly. The three in-between age groups responded likewise in about equal Numberss when proportioned for their age groups, stand foring 64.8 % to 65.8 % of each age group strongly holding and 16.7 % to 17.8 % of each age group holding slightly. Although a lower proportion of the youngest age group responded with strongly hold, ” it is of import to observe that 49.4 % of this age group still gave this response and 19.8 % agreed slightly.
Disagreement with the inquiry displayed fewer responses among the sample population, but skewed toward the younger age group, with 18.0 % of that age group differing slightly and 12.8 % differing strongly. The Numberss decrease with each age group, with 4.1 % of the oldest age group differing slightly and 3.3 % differing strongly. From the crosstabulation consequences, there appears to be a relationship wherein older respondents react more often in understanding with this inquiry. Although younger respondents strongly agree in big Numberss with the inquiry, they besides report dissension more often.
The consequences of the Pearson chi-square trial ( see Table 5 ) indicate that the relationship between these two variables is important, with a p-value below the.0005 degree, based on a chi-square value of 117.985 with 12 grades of freedom. The consequences of our analysis therefore reject the void hypothesis that there is an equal distribution of frequences and no relationship. The consequences show a higher frequence of general understanding with our study inquiry among the oldest group of respondents and a higher rate of general dissension among the youngest respondents. The in-between three age groups responded somewhat more cautiously than the oldest group, nevertheless, they still responded more often with understanding to the study inquiry. The consequences of our analysis demo a slightly positive relationship between age and degree of understanding with the study inquiry, therefore corroborating our initial hypothesis.
Discussion and Decision
The information collected shows that there is a relationship between age and traditional beliefs of people of Latino beginning in the United States. The findings, as explained in the consequences subdivision, indicate that there is a positive correlativity between age and the belief that kids should stay place until matrimony. The older the single surveyed is, the more likely he/she is to strongly hold with this belief. This determination assists societal workers in understanding the importance of familial relationships every bit good as the effects of assimilation across coevalss within the Latino civilization. Understanding the impact of these two factors helps to inform curative work with members of this population by helping clinicians in going culturally competent. Cultural competency is an of import quality that all societal workers ought to possess when working with persons from a civilization different from one ‘s ain. Cultural competency is so aspirational at best and requires the uninterrupted development of practicians ‘ cultural sensitiveness, consciousness, cognition, and accomplishments ” ( Furman et al, 2009 ) acquisition is an on-going procedure and it is imperative that societal workers maintain this in head in order to be able to function clients from different backgrounds. By prosecuting in cultural competent patterns clinicians will be able to better understand and sympathize with his/her clients. Through the clinician ‘s personal consciousness and cultural sensitiveness, client and clinician can construct a trusting relationship. Without cultural consciousness, societal workers contribute to subjugation when working with clients from other civilizations. This is unethical pattern and can do clients great injury ( Sue et al. , 1992 ) . This understanding amongst the clinician and client will function to construct a curative resonance between the two, which is the foundation for successful work with a client.
The consequence of assimilation and socialization across coevalss is another of import factor that clinicians should be cognizant of. Though attitudes do n’t dramatically differ across age groups, it is of import to acknowledge that traditional beliefs within the Latino population are easy altering as many Hispanics assimilate into the American civilization. By and large, socialization has been measured in footings of behaviour, cultural individuality, cognition, linguistic communication, and values. These facets, so, are critical constituents in apprehension and turn toing factors that cause intercultural struggle and hurt related to accommodating to a new civilization ” ( Furman et al, 2009 ) . As societal workers, it is of import for us to recognize the possible effects that this assimilation may hold. For illustration, one noticeable difference between the American civilization and the Latino civilization is our value system. The American civilization values independency and individuality while the Latino civilization values mutuality and Bolshevism. Anderson & A ; Sabatelli point out this fact ; they explain that, Workers need to acknowledge that a behaviour or get bying mechanism is non dysfunctional merely because it does non fit dominant civilization forms ” ( 1999 ) . This is really of import for practicians to recognize when working with civilizations that are different from their ain. By going aware of possible differences in readings and jobs practicians will be able to better understand and relate to his/her clinics. Even job designation itself is a portion of this consciousness procedure. What may be interpreted as a job to the client may non be a viewed as a job to the clinician and the same is true the other manner around. For illustration, in footings of the study that was conducted, it was found that older Latino people strongly believed that kids should stay place until married. If a client came to seek guidance because his/her son/daughter moved out of the place to prosecute a individual life style, a clinician without cultural competence may shrug this job off. He/she may try to convert the person that this is non a pressure job because every twenty-four hours, people move out of their parent ‘s places in order to populate on their ain. This is an illustration of the practician non puting the client ‘s values high in respect. This blazing neglect may do the client non desire to take part in services.
Researcher Tina Hancock farther describes the mutuality of the Latino civilization as it relates to household, the household by and large is regarded as the survival cyberspace for its members, who internalize a strong sense of responsibility to one another and across coevalss. The foundation of this cultural orientation is the value of La familia and the rule of familismo ” ( 2005 ) . We must look at the effects that such a alteration in traditionally held beliefs may hold on the household unit and civilization as a whole. Using a systems position to analyse the interactions between an person and his/her household, societal workers can break understand struggle and possible intercessions, by admiting that the person, household, and cultural systems all interrelated.
Decision
The Latino population in United States is turning faster than all other minority populations combined, The Hispanic, population is projected to swell from 28 million from 1990s to about 100 million in 2050 ” ( pewhispanic.org ) . With this addition in diverseness in the population it is necessary for societal workers to be able to work with a assortment of civilizations in their work with the American population. By utilizing the information gathered on the issues of assimilation and familial relationships clinicians can develop better and more effectual intercessions in their work with this peculiar population. Developing cultural competence is one manner of accomplishing this undertaking. In this survey we were limited by the assortment of responses that we were able to obtain, as the inquiries that were asked were really wide in nature. For future research it would be good for research workers to dig deeper into the subject of assimilation upon cultural attitudes. Additionally, farther analyze the effects of cultural competence as it relates to client-clinician relationships would besides be effectual in determining societal work pattern. By going more cognizant of the different values and traditions, practician ‘s work with varied populations will go more informed and effectual.

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