Improvement Of Dual Axis Tracker Using Arduino Uno Engineering Essay

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Solar power coevals had been used as a renewable energy since old ages ago.This type of energy is really clean, environmentally friendly and dependability as secondary pick for beginning energy.This paper present the design and betterment of double axis tracker utilizing Arduino Uno kit.Futhermore, the chief aim is the double axis tracker system which will trip solar faculty will maintain aligned with the sunshine in order to maximise in reaping solar power.In this undertaking, its divided by two classs ; hardware and software.In hardware part,4 light dependent resistance ( LDR ) has been used to follow the co-ordinate of sunshine by observing brightness degree of sunlight.For rotary motion portion, two standard servo motor has been selected.In package portion, the codification is constructed in C scheduling and inserted in Arduino Uno.This undertaking is designed for low power and portable application.Therefore, its suited for rural country usage.Moreover, the efficiency of end product power which collected by sunshine are increased.
Keywords – Double Axis, LDR, Servo Motor, Arduino
I. Introduction
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural beginning such as sunshine, air current rain, tides, moving ridge and etc. Renewable energy provide 19 % of electricity coevals worldwide.Malaysia, with population of about 28 million, is one of fastest-growing economic systems in Asia. During the last decennary, Malaysia has seen about 20 % addition in energy bring forthing capacity from 13,000MW in 2000 to 15,500MW in 2009.Under the 8th Malaysia program ( 2001-2005 ) , the authorities of Malaysia changed the Four Fuel Policy ( based on oil, gas, coal and hydropower ) to the Five-Fuel Policy with the add-on of renewable energy as 5th beginning of fuel. Malaya is good endowed with abundant non-renewable and renewable beginning of energy, particularly biomass and solar.
In the last 10 twelvemonth, many residentals around the universe used electric solar system as a sub power at their houses.this is because solar energy is an limitless energy resource, set to go progressively of import in longer term, for supplying electricity and heat energy to user [ 1 ] .Solar energy is the energy derived from the Sun through the signifier of solar radiation.The Sun is most is most unlimited, renewable beginning energy known to man.The is no monetary value and besides no air pollution created by solar energy, environmentally friendly and solar energy are endless supplies [ 3 ] .It is related with facets as deforestation control, protection of ozone bed, decrease of CO2 emanation and others [ 4 ] .
The chief aim of this paper is to develop solar tracker.The solar tracker can be used for several application such as solar cells, solar day-lighting system and solar thermal arrays [ 1 ] .Nowadays, the highest efficiency of solar panel is 19 % .So, the efficiency can be enhance by utilizing solar tracker.Albeit, the monetary value of assorted solar tracker are still expensive because solar tracker is still new and merely a few states use it as South Korean and USA [ 1 ] .Futhermore, this undertaking is designed for rural country which far from chief supply and perfectly low cost.
Previous research workers [ 1 ] , [ 3 ] and [ 6 ] used LDR as detector respectively.Other that, [ 1 ] , [ 6 ] used District of Columbia motor and [ 3 ] used servo motor as the mover of their solar tracker.
Finding energy beginning to fulfill the universe ‘s turning demand is one of society foremost challenges for following half century.The challenge in change overing sunshine into electricity via photovoltaic solar cell is dramatically cut downing $ /Watt of delivered solar electricity.In this context the solar tracker are such devices for efficiency improvement.Solar tracker is the devices which designed automated for detect the sunlight motion from E to west.However, this machine-controlled system will remain its operational even if conditions is nebulose and there is no Sun seeable totrack, therefore disbursement stored energy without any addition [ 6 ] .
Nowadays, many research worker from assorted instruction establishment probably contribute in this subject. Based on experimental and existent consequence, the solar trailing can heighten by 30 to 60 per centum compared to inactive solar array.Other that, power generated yearly increase up to 40 percent.There are Numberss types of solar tracker depends on cost, public presentation and engineering [ 3 ] .
This paper continues development on two axis tracking system consists Light Dependent Resistor ( LDR ) , standard servo motor, solar faculty and Arduino coder.
This undertaking is divided into two parts, hardware development and scheduling development.Figure 1 show the block diagram of the undertaking.
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Figure 1: Block diagram of the undertaking
2 Project Design
2.1 Hardware
The chief constituents of hardware used in this undertaking are Arduino Board, Light Dependent Resistor, Servo Motor, Solar Panel and solar tracker base, variable resistance.
2.1.1 Arduino Board
In this undertaking, Arduino was used as chief controller.Arduino is an open-source electronic prototyping platform based on flexible, easy to utilize package and hardware.Arduino can feel environment by having input from a assortment of detectors and can consequence it environing by commanding visible radiation, motor and other actuator.The microcontroller on the board is programmed utilizing Arduino scheduling linguistic communication and Arduino development environment.Arduino can be stand entirely or they can pass on with package running on a computing machine.
2.1.2 Light Dependent Resistor
Light Dependent Resistor is semiconducting material which sensitive with light.The chief intent is to alter the brightness of visible radiation in different conditions condition.Becauce of these ground, this paper choosed LDR which suited to track the sunshine.
2.1.3 Servo Motor
Servo motor is one type of assorted motor in electronic application.This type motor required supply 4.8V or 6V.This motor consists three wire viz. signal, positive and land wire.The motor consists several portion, the motor and gear box, a place detector, an mistake amplifier and motor driver and circuit to decrypt the requested position.Servo motor merely revolve in 180 grade.
hypertext transfer protocol: // q=tbn: ANd9GcQmkuTWaXtVnqH1pvD1XfCAoz4L-eOvUpgzLpaZTOGhzP16cFze
Figure 2: Servo Motor
2.1.4 Solar Panels
Solar panel is a device to have sunshine and change over it into electricity.Nowadays, many type solar panel in the market but the efficiency still low.Other that, the monetary value still expensive.That ground makes this type renewable energy still 2nd pick energy coevals after fuel generation.This paper used monocrystalline solar panel for solar tracker and inactive manner.
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Figure 3: 2W Solar Panels
2.1.5 Solar Tracker Stand
This undertaking designed the cheap and advanced stand.This base besides stable because the large base country makes the servo motor and solar operate as usual at the top.
Degree centigrades: UsersCipOx StarzDesktopsolar tracker ( FYP 2 ) 181120121127.jpg
Figure 4: Prototype of Solar Stand
Unit of measurement
A? inch
PVC Elbow
A? inch
PVC Reducing Socket
1 A? to A? inch
PVC Pipe
2 metre
TOA Spray
Light Green
Table 1: Prototype Material
2.1.6 Variable Resistor
A variable resistance is a potentiometer with merely two wires alternatively of three.The pots allows to command yhe possible across through the circuit.The long grip on the potentiometer/variable resistance can be turned clockwise or anti-clockwise, changing the value of resistance.The scope of opposition varies, for illustration 0 to 1000 ohms.This paper used variable resistance for velocity and tolerance for each motor ; perpendicular and horixontal axis.
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Degree centigrades: UsersCipOx StarzDesktopimages.jpgC: UsersCipOx StarzDesktop220px-Faders.jpg
Figure 5: Several of Variable Resistors
2.2 Software
This paper utilizing the C scheduling as programming language.The simple codification constructed and inserted into Arduino Board.The Figure 6 show the flow chart of the package process.
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Figure 6: Flow chart of package process.
From the consequence, the writer selected the suited location for solar panel placement.The best location where is non shade from edifice or trees shadow.The sun moves from east to west.Therefore, the writer choosed for puting the solar tracker toward south east.So, the solar panel will acquire more sunshine in order to reap end product power.The best reading clip is between 10am boulder clay 12.00pm.
The informations collected from 9am boulder clay 5.00pm for 5day.The highest ouput electromotive force for solar tracker is 3.7V and for the inactive is 3.4V.The informations shown the reading are upward from 9.00am boulder clay 12.00pm and get down downward from 1.00pm boulder clay 5.00pm.According from informations, the writer choosed two status of solar panel:
Inactive Solar Panel which face north E in 45 degree joust.
Solar Tracker which face E.
From the informations from figure 9, the largest end product power is 587.6mW at 12.00pm for the tracker manner and the the lowest is 4.1mW.
Figure 7: End product Voltage Versus Output Current
Figure 8: End product Voltage Versus Time
Figure 7: Ouput Power Versus Time
The sunlight irradiation depends on many factor.The conditions in Malaysia is hot and humid throught the year.This factor makes Malaysia have the rain most the year.Therefore, Malaysia ‘s ambiance covered by assortment of cloud. The writer research how consequence the assortment of cloud to solar panel reading.The informations from figure 10 shown the highest ouput power harvested when no cloud in the atmosphere.Other that, the lowest reading is when the sky covered by thundercloud cloud.This type of cloud are bulky and associated with thunderstorm.Therefore, the sunlight irradiation non to the full emitted to the solar panel.
Figure 8: End product Power Versus Day
In decision, the aim of solar tracker has been archieved.Based on all consequence, the end product electromotive force and end product power are increased compared to the the inactive solar panel.The solar tracker is able to track the sun motion from West to east.The cost and reability of this tracker makes it suited for the rural use. This paper besides conclude that the clouds besides the chief factor for harversting more power.The intent on renewable energy from this paper gave new and advanced thought to go on the bright hereafter in this field.
VI. Recommendation
For farther research on this field, the informations aggregation can be improved by long distance monitoring particularly when user far from the site or when the rain.The high quality camera can be installed for capturing the type of cloud for futher research.Other that, this paper recommend that this advanced paradigm can be enhance by increased it is scale.The solar panel can be replaced by larger graduated table in order to capturing more solar irradiation.Other that, the choice of solar panel should be besides considered.Solar panel should high in efficiency for green goods more end product power which can used more low power contraptions.
For the location of solar tracker, the best location is the higher topographic point where is in the top building.Other that, the farther user should see the clouds.Before the installing, the user should research and place the most country which non covered by cloud.Lastly, the user should be managed to reconstruct the ouput power as secondary supply in an attempt to continue the invironment and ozone.Save our Earth.
The writer would wish to admit University Technology Mara ( UiTM ) for supplying the constituent for this project.The writer besides tribute to Mdm. Aida Sulinda Kusim, all the lector, the staff and pupils of UiTM who have been involved in this undertaking for the enormous support and tremendous usher.
[ 1 ] Asmarashid Ponniran, Ammar Hashim, Ariffuddin Joret. A Design of Low Power Single Axis Solar Tracking System Regardless of Motor Speed ” .Internal Journal Of Intergrated Engineering, Vol.3 No.2 ( 2011 ) p 5-9.
[ 2 ] Ashok Kumar Saxena, V.Dutta. A Versatile Microprocessor Based Controller For Solar Tracking ” .Proc.IEEE,1990, pp.1105-1109
[ 3 ] Mohd Zulkifli, M.A. ; Zolkapli.M. ; Al-Junid, S.A.M. High-Efficency Dual Axis Solar Tracking Developtment Using Arduino ” .
[ 4 ] J.Beltran A. , J.L Gonzalez Rubio S.y C.D.Garcia-Beltran. Design, Manufacturing and Performance Test of a Solar Tracker Made By a Embedded Control.Fourth Congress of Electronic, Robotic and Automotive Mechanicss
[ 5 ] Norhazwani Abd Malek, Hasril Hasini, Adlansyah Abd Rahman, Mohd Nasharuddin Mohd Jaafar. An Improved Solar PV System for Malayan Rural Electrification ” .Proceeding of 2010 IEEE Student Confrence on Research and Development ( SCOREeD 2010 ) .
[ 6 ] Prabodh Bajpai, Subhash Kumar. Design, Development and Performance Test of An Automatic Two Axis Solar Tracker System ” .Electrical Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal, India
[ 7 ] Gamal M.Dousoky, Abou-Hashema M.EL-SAYED, Masahito Shoyama. Maximizing Energy-Efficency In Single Axis Solar Tracker Photovoltaic Panels ” .8th International Conference on Power Electronic-ECCE Asia -May 30 June,2011, The Shila Jeju, Korea.
[ 8 ] Han Wan Siew, Solar tTracker ” SIM University,2008
[ 9 ] Jyotirmay Gadewadikar, Microprocessor Based Soalr tracking System Using Stepper Motor ” S.G.S Institute of Tech & A ; Science, Indore

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