Knowledge and importance of exclusive breastfeeding

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Breastfeeding is the most cherished gift a female parent can give her baby. When there is illness or malnutrition, it may be a lifesaving gift ; when there is poorness, it may be the lone gift. ” – Ruth Lawrence, M.D.
1.1 Background of research
Exclusive breastfeeding starts from a new born to the age of six months. It is an ideal and uncomparable to any infant expressions created for them late. As it has been known that breastfeed contains the perfect nutrient for a neonate which has immunisation to diseases, easy to digest and at the perfect temperature to be fed to babies. Breast milk is the natural first nutrient for babes which provides all the energy and food that the baby needs for the first months of life.
The first breastfeed milk is known as the foremilks which can merely be found in chest milk that contains all best foods for the new born babes. Colostrums contain antibodies that protect the babe from bacteriums and viruses in the early age. It helps to increase the babe ‘s intelligence and growing and beef up the close bond between female parent and the babe ( Gartner et al. 1997 ) . It strongly proven that breastfeed is the best nutrient for a babe that no other nutrient has the same foods values.
Pregnant female parents should hold the cognition and consciousness of the benefits of suckling to newborn babies. This survey is to happen out how much the consciousness and cognition of 30 pregnant adult females in the antenatal and postpartum wards through questionnaires. They should be cognizant of the benefits of chest milk to babies and to their ain wellness.
Many adult females make infant eating determinations before bringing and before any contact with healthcare professionals. Although wellness publicities runs are influential in educating adult females about suckling, they frequently do non deter adult females from expression feeding one time the determinations has been made. Prenatal readyings of pregnant adult females for suckling rises consciousness of the importance of breastfeeding, authorise them with practical cognition and accomplishment in suckling techniques, and fix them for possible troubles.
Though many runs and seminars were done nationally to educate the populace, yet the rate of sole breastfeeding is still to the unsatisfactory degree. The rate of sole breastfeeding in Malaysia has been decreased from 92 % ( in 1950 ‘s ) to 78 % ( in 1970 ‘s ) but there was a rebuff of increase in the early twelvemonth of 1975 ( Da Vanzo, 1991 ) although for merely less than 10 % . Report done by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action ( WABA, 2005 ) , showed that 1000000s of babes fell sick every twelvemonth as they were non breastfeed. The World Health Organization ( WHO, 2002 ) estimated that more than 1.5 million babes died annually may be avoided if the babes were given sole breastfeed, from birth to six months and continuously until the age of two old ages old.
Malaysia has been making a batch of publicities and activities recently to give the cognition and importance of sole breastfeeding through activities such as World breastfeed hebdomad and Baby friendly Hospital.
1.1 Problem of statement
Breast eating have multiple benefit to the female parent and kid but there are still postpartum female parent that are non confident and non involvement to breast feed their babe. This job might be due to miss of cognition on information beginnings sing breastfeeding. This research is done to promote the cognition between prenatal and postpartum female parents in this infirmary.
Breastfeeding offers incontrovertible and durable wellness benefits for both female parent and babe, which are supported by a comprehensive scientific research. Many research and grounds base has been conducted and proven that the benefits of suckling are undeniable.
Ministry of Health has set and implements assorted scheme in advancing sole breastfeeding. One of the scheme is the ‘Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative ‘ on 1993.The purpose is neither than to develop an environment that support female parent to suckle their babe, make a policy that control sole breastfeeding. On Mac 1998, Malaysia had been announced as the 3rd state in the universe which all the authorities infirmary has been given the ‘Baby Friendly Hospital ‘ position.
Over clip, the per centums of births to subgroups with higher rates of breastfeeding — peculiarly Malays and more extremely educated adult females — have increased. However, there is besides grounds of alterations in rates of suckling within these subgroups. Many Malayan babies have a entire continuance of breastfeeding ( including with supplementation ) well shorter than WHO recommended six months of sole breastfeeding.
The national breastfeeding policy has been revised in 2006, harmonizing to WHO all female parents are encouraged to suckle their babes entirely from birth until 6 months of age and thenceforth to go on until their kid is 2 old ages old. Complementary nutrients should present when the babe is 6 month old. ‘
1.2 Hypothesis
The postpartum female parents have a higher degree of sole breastfeeding cognition compared to the prenatal female parents.
1.3 Significance Of Study
The benefits of chest milk is undeniable, maker are seeking to make a milk that are at least holding similar benefits and nutritionary value as the chest milk, yet no strong research survey has been conducted to turn out it.
Not all the belongingss of chest milk are understood, but its alimentary content is comparatively stable. Breast milk is made from the foods in the female parent ‘s blood stream and bodily shops. Some surveies estimate that a adult female who breastfeeds her baby exclusively uses 400 – 600 excess Calories a twenty-four hours in bring forthing milk. The composing of chest milk depends on how long the babe nurses.
Research shows that the milk and energy content of chest milk really decreases after the first twelvemonth. Breast milk adapts to a yearling ‘s developing system, supplying precisely the right sum of nutrition at precisely the right clip. In fact, research shows that between the ages of 12 and 24 months, 448 millilitres of a female parent ‘s milk provide these per centums of the undermentioned minimal day-to-day demands:
Energy 29 % Folate 76 % Protein 43 % Vitamin B12 94 % Calcium 36 % Vitamin C 60 % 10 Vitamin A 75 % .
1.4 Research Objective
1.4.1 General Objective
The purpose of this survey is to place all prenatal and postpartum female parents have the assurance and cognition to sole breastfeeding.
1.4.2 Specific Aims
1.3.2.1 To analyze the cognition of prenatal and postpartum female parents towards sole breastfeeding
1.3.2.2 To educate prenatal and postpartum female parents with sole breastfeeding cognition and apprehensions.
1.5 Significant of Project
1.5.1 The importance of this survey is to happen out the difference cognition degree between prenatal and postpartum female parents on sole breastfeeding.
1.5.2 This survey needs to measure the cognition degree of the prenatal and postpartum female parents after informations, run and instructions given by wellness attention staff and to demo the instruction techniques by them are effectual.
1.5.3. The is to esure that it will increase the cognition and betterments to induviduals engagements in sole breastfeeding
1.6 Scope of Undertaking
1.6.1 The survey sample is limited to prenatal female parents who was come for testing in labour room from 30 January to 30 Mac 2011 and postpartum female parents discharge from integrated ward.
1.6.2 Antenatal female parent who was non delivered babe from 30 January to 30 Mac 2011
1.7 Definition
1.7.1 Appraisal
Assessment is a procedure that follows a uninterrupted rhythm of betterment based upon mensurable ends, affecting informations aggregation, organisation and reading taking to planning and integrating.
1.7.2 Knowledge
Knowledge is the consciousness and apprehension of facts, truths or information gained in the signifier of experience or acquisition. Knowledge is an grasp of the ownership of interrelated inside informations.
1.7.3 Exclusive breastfeeding
Exclusive breastfeeding defined as no nutrient or liquid other than breast milk, non even H2O, is given to the baby from birth until six months of age.
1.7.4 Antenatal female parent
Happening or present before birth ; during gestation
1.7.5 Postnatal female parent
station significance after ” and natalis intending of birth ” – is the period get downing instantly after the birth of a kid and widening for approximately six hebdomads.
Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
Although the wellness benefits of suckling are acknowledged widely, sentiments and recommendations are divided on the optimum continuance of sole breastfeeding. We consistently reviewed available grounds refering the effects on kid wellness, growing, and development and on maternal wellness of sole breastfeeding for 6 months vs. sole breastfeeding for 3-4 months followed by assorted breastfeeding ( debut of complementary liquid or solid nutrients with continued suckling ) to 6 months. Two independent literature hunts were conducted, together consisting the undermentioned databases: MEDLINE ( as of 1966 ) , Index Medicus ( prior to 1966 ) , CINAHL, HealthSTAR, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE-Medicine, EMBASE-Psychology, Econlit, Index Medicus for the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, African Index Medicus, Lilacs ( Latin American and Carribean literature ) , EBM Reviews-Best Evidence, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register quoted by Kramer MS, Kakumar R. ( Departments of Pediatrics and of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada )
Mothers frequently are uninformed about the wellness benefits of any sum of breastfeeding, their ability to go on suckling while employed, and the convenience and cost derived function of suckling as compared to formula eating. Although there is a inclination in the literature to emphasize the time-intensive nature of breastfeeding, in fact it may necessitate less clip and attending than bottle-feeding ” ( Barber-Madden, 1990 ) .
First, the publicity of suckling without practical aid and cognition which led to many frustrated, unsuccessful suckling efforts with subsequent recoil.
Second, a much shorter infirmary stay which does non supply equal clip for female parent ‘s milk to come in or for appropriate instruction and support. In Australia in 1993, a state which is known for its support of breastfeeding, the mean infirmary stay for vaginal bringing was still 5 to 7 yearss, and for C-section, 7 to 10 yearss. Australia besides has the foresight to direct place wellness visitants one time the female parent is discharged to offer farther aid and support.
Third, the continued addition of adult females in the workplace, many times by necessity and non by pick, has influenced the incidence and continuance of suckling. A non supportive work environment makes suckling hard at best.
Finally, the diminution of breastfeeding has been assisted by the ambivalency of some wellness attention professionals. This ambivalency is based on the deficiency of acquaintance with current suckling research, trust on expression company nutritionary information, and the really good intending issue of non desiring to force breastfeeding because it might do the Mom who chooses unreal feeding feel guilty.
Despite these enterprises, merely 14.5 per cent babes were entirely breastfed below six months in 2006, ” . In add-on, merely 19.3 per cent babes were entirely breastfed below four months. ” Jaafar,2008
Compared with the findings of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2 ( 1996 ) , there was a important diminution of 9.7 % in the prevalence of sole suckling below four months and a coincident rise in the prevalence of babes who were preponderantly breastfed but given extra H2O.
Analysis of the breastfeeding form showed by and large that sole breastfeeding rates were high in the first two months but dropped quickly after the age of two to three months.It was besides found after the age of two months, more than half of the breastfed babes were supplemented with infant expression and given other nutrients like commercial babe nutrients or home-cooked babe nutrient while 20 per centum of breastfed babies were supplemented with apparent water.Few factors that contribute to early discontinuance of breastfeeding as follow:
2.1 Cultural Beliefs And Myths Of Breast Feeding
The cultural beliefs, myths and ignorance have to be blame for the state ‘s hapless breastfeeding public presentation.
The myths that breastfed babes need H2O in add-on to breast milk are broad spread in the state. Lack of cognition and accomplishment of female parents on when to get down complementary nutrient and how to keep breastfeeding are other prohibitory factors, ” Complementary nutrient, including H2O, should Merely be introduced after the age of six months
2.2 Lacks Of Benefit And Facility
Other factors harmonizing to Jaafar ( 2008 ) are the deficiency of benefits and installations to advance and ease breastfeeding patterns amongst adult females who besides make up some half of the state ‘s working population. These include the absence of longer pregnancy leave, the deficiency of flexible on the job hours and losing child care centres at work topographic points.
Breastfeeding forms in Malaysia suggest that unequal pregnancy leave may in fact be denying babes their right to fuss ‘s milk, and one of the grounds why merely 1 in 7 babies were entirely breastfed for the first six months of life in 2006. ( Nadchatram ( 2008 )
Harmonizing to Ministry of Health analysis of national breastfeeding informations, sole breastfeeding rates in the state were high in the first two months but dropped quickly after two or three months, approximately the period when pregnancy leave terminals and working female parents return to paid employment.A
In Malaysia, adult females are entitled to 8 hebdomads ( 60 yearss ) paid pregnancy leave, 6 hebdomads short of the recommended 14 hebdomads by the International Labour Organisation ‘s Maternity Protection Convention 2000 ( No. 183 ) . Malaysia is non a signer of the Convention.
2.4 Not Enough Milk
Hussain ( 2003 ) has revealed that other factor for early discontinuance of sole chest eating is non adequate milk.In his study,54 % of the sample express that this is one of the ground. The ground for non holding adequate milk might be extremely influenced by the female parent ‘s emotional and psychological wellbeing.
Low degrees of emphasis, healthy nutrition, plentifulness of unstable consumption, emotional support and nipple stimulation through babe ‘s suction are all of import subscribers to suckling success. However, populating fortunes frequently do n’t let perfect suckling conditions: another kid in the household, the decease of a loved one, money concerns etc. all add to an addition in stress degrees.
Other factors such as chest surgery can lend to low sums of chest milk. It has besides been found that more adult females who gave birth by cesarean subdivision
Encountered breastfeeding jobs, this may hold assorted grounds such as the initial separation between female parent and babe or the physical hurting as a consequence of the surgery which finally affects the female parent ‘s ability to bask the breastfeeding experience.
Chen ( 2006 ) , conclude in his research that breastfeeding-friendly policies can significantly impact suckling behaviours. However, an unfavourable working environment, particularly for fab workers, can do it hard to implement suckling steps. With wellness professionals stressing that the importance of suckling for infant wellness, and as lone females can execute lactation, it is critical that adult females ‘s work productive function ” and household generative function ” be respected and accommodated by society.
The World Health Organization ( WHO ) recommends sole breastfeeding for the first six months of life. The length of pregnancy leave is positively associated with the continuance of suckling The International Labour Organization ( ILO ) recommends a period of pregnancy leave of non less than 14 hebdomad. However, the typical pregnancy leave in many Asiatic and In-between Eastern states falls below these degrees, merely offering less than 12 hebdomads paid leave. In Taiwan, most companies provide merely eight hebdomads of pregnancy leave.
A national study in 2005 showed that the rate of sole breastfeeding in Taiwan at one month postpartum was merely 22.3 % , and dropped to 16.7 % at three month. To convey Taiwan in line with WHO guidelines, effectual worksite schemes needed to be implemented to promote new female parents to suckle in the workplace.
2.5 Degrees of Influence and the Breastfeeding Decision
2.5.1 Health Professionals ‘ Functions
Multiple surveies indicate that wellness professionals ‘ support of breastfeeding is of import in increasing breastfeeding rates ( Lawrence, 1993, Winikoff & A ; Baer, 1980 ; Winikoff, Laukaran, Myers, & A ; Stone, 1986, 1987 ) . Health professionals have made of import publicity parts, yet many wellness professionals who provide attention to pregnant adult females and babies do non show expressed support of breastfeeding ; nor do they hold equal cognition about suckling. In an American Academy of Pediatrician ‘s survey, merely 65 per centum of baby doctors recommended sole breastfeeding for the first month and merely 37 per centum recommended breastfeeding continue for the first twelvemonth ( Schanler, O’Connor, & A ; Lawrence, 1999 ) .
Many adult females do non originate breastfeeding because they know they will be returning to full-time employment that will imply separation from the babe. Possibly they believe that they will non be able to go on suckling once they return to work, and they adopt an attitude of Why start something I will non be able to go on? ” ( Fein & A ; Roe, 1998 ) . Furthermore, adult females who return to full-time work wean their babies earlier than other adult females. It has been found, nevertheless, that anticipating to work parttime following the birth of a babe did non affect induction of suckling. Part-time work of four or fewer hours a twenty-four hours did non affect continuance of suckling. Part-time work for more than four hours per twenty-four hours affected continuance of suckling less than full-time work ( Fein & A ; Roe, 1998 ) .
Because of economic necessity and the demand for other benefits such as wellness insurance, many adult females can non afford to work less than fulltime. When possible, nevertheless, detaining separation from the baby and cut downing the sum of clip female parent and baby are separated during the baby ‘s first six months increases the likeliness that breastfeeding will be successful ( Stuart-Macadam & A ; Dettwyler, 1995 ) .
In a qualitative survey carried out by MacLaughlin and Strelnick ( 1984 ) , many adult females suggested it would be helpful to have breast-feeding information about uniting breast-feeding with working and to hold unfastened treatments of the subject with other female parents. A study of 567 adult females who breastfed while employed outside the place showed that the most important trouble was function overload, ” a consequence of the multiple demands to which they were reacting. This facet does non differ markedly from what is found for non-breastfeeding, working female parents ( Auerbach & A ; Guss, 1984 ) .
About 60 per cent from 451 female parents who stopped suckling, did so during the first postpartum month and another 20 per cent during the 2nd and 3rd month after the babes ‘ birth. The female parent ‘s age, instruction or para, did non impact the rate of breastfeeding.
Low birth weight, particularly birth weight less than 2 kilogram, was a hazard factor for early expiration of suckling. Cesarean bringing and hospitalization of the baby during the neonatal period was besides associated with a higher rate of bottle eating compared with neonates who had been delivered usually, discharged early, and nursed at place.
Although breastfeeding rates are high, the determination that the bulk of female parents who give up suckling bashs so in the early hebdomads, calls for better support to all female parents by committed wellness forces during the period when breastfeeding is being established, and for excess aid to adult females whose babies are hospitalized or have a low birth weight ( Shiva, 2003 )
2.6 Advantages of chest milk to babes
Breast milk is best for newborn babe, and the benefits of suckling extend good beyond basic nutrition. In add-on to incorporating all the vitamins and foods baby demands in the first six months of life, chest milk is packed with disease-fighting substances that protect babe from unwellness.
American Academy of Pediatrics recommends sole breastfeeding for the first six months ( although any sum of breastfeeding is good ) . And scientific surveies have shown that breastfeeding is good for female parents wellness, excessively. Numerous surveies from around the universe have shown that tummy viruses, lower respiratory unwellnesss, ear infections, and meningitis occur less frequently in breastfed babes and are less terrible when they do go on. Exclusive breastfeeding ( intending no solid nutrient, expression, or H2O ) for at least six months seems to offer the most protection.
A survey by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences showed that kids who are breastfed have a 20 per centum lower hazard of deceasing between the ages of 28 yearss and 1 twelvemonth than kids who were n’t breastfed, with longer breastfeeding associated with lower hazard.
The chief immune factor at work here is a substance called gland Ig A ( IgA ) that ‘s present in big sums in foremilks, the first milk female parent ‘s organic structure produces for the babe. ( Secretors IgA is present in lower concentrations in mature chest milk. ) The substance guards against occupying sources by organizing a protective bed on the mucose membranes in the babe ‘s bowels, nose, and pharynx.
2.7 Advantages to suckle female parents
A survey of more than 33,000 Danish adult females who had given birth between 1999 and 2002 evaluated the consequence of suckling on maternal weight at 6 and 18 months postpartum compared to describe pre gestation weight. The writers calculated that a Danish adult female with normal or corpulent pre gestation weight who gained 11-12 kilogram during the gestation and entirely breastfed her baby for 6 months would be back to her pre gestation weight by so. At 18 months postpartum, adult females who entirely breastfed for 6 months and continued suckling until their baby was 12 months of age had the lowest chance of retaining 5 or more kilograms of weight no affair how much weight they gained during the gestation ( Baker, 2008 )
2.8 Conceptual model
The research conceptual model will be carried out as shown in the flow chart below.
INTERGRATED WARD
HOSPITAL TUANKU AMPUAN NAJIHAH
POSTNATAL MOTHERS
ANTENATAL MOTHERS
QUESTIONAIRE
Consequence
ANTENATAL MOTHERS
POSTNATAL MOTHERS
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
In this chapter the research worker will discourse the chief facet of the research methodological analysis in item. There are five facets that consist of the research design, population, trying and methods, survey instruments, aggregation of informations and restriction of survey.
3.1 Study design
The survey uses a descriptive and quantitative method. The research worker will administer the questionnaires to the respondents as the chief instrument to roll up informations for the survey. The aggregation and the analysis of informations is done in two hebdomads.
3.2 Population and sample
The population is all prenatal female parents who will be come for testing in the labour room from 30 January to 30 Mac 2011 and postpartum female parents discharge from integrated ward in Hospital Tuanku Ampuan Najihah.
3.3 Study topic
All 15 prenatal female parents who will come for testing in incorporate ward from 30 January to 30 Mac 2011 and 15 postpartum female parents discharge from labour room during the survey period.
.
3.4 Sample size computation
The sample size will be calculated so that the survey has the capableness to observe clinically importance difference as statistically important. The sample size besides will be calculated to gauge consequence with stated preciseness. Merely 30 instances will be selected as the sample.
3.5 Study participants
3.5.1 Inclusion standards
All prenatal female parents who are gestating their 2nd kid and above that warded from 30 January to 30 Mac 2011 and postpartum female parents discharge from integrated ward.
3.5.2 Exclusion standards
All prenatal female parents who are gestating their first babe from 30 January to 30 Mac 2011 was non included in this survey.
3.6 Data aggregation processs
3.6.1 This survey will be utilizing questionnaires that will be given to the
prenatal and postpartum female parents before and after the run.
3.6.2 Permission to transport out the survey will be obtained from the Hospital Director and the Chief Matron. An inform consent will besides being obtained from the respondents
( Appendix II / Lampiran II ) .
3.6.3 Self Administered Questionnaire ( SAQ )
Self Administered Questionnaire will be used to find the medical personal cognition as shown in Appendix III / Lampiran III.
3.7 Sampling methodological analysis
Sampling refers to ‘the procedure of choosing a part of the population to stand for the full population ‘ ( Polit & A ; Hungler, 1999 ) . In this survey merely 30 participants will be selected among the antenatal and postpartum female parents in HTAN from January boulder clay March in the twelvemonth of survey. The survey was done with pilot trial 10 antenatal and postpartum female parent and the cronbach ‘s alpha= 0.732
3.7.1 Statistical analysis
The consequence of this survey was based on the responses from 30 of the prenatal and postpartum female parents. The independent variables identified viz. were appellation. The information was analyzed and presented in per centum.
3.7.2 Research tools
Data was collected by utilizing structured questionnaire. See Appendix III and Appendix IV.
3.8 Expected consequences
Prenatal female parents have the cognition and apprehension of the importance in sole breastfeeding.
Prenatal female parents will be doing determinations on sole breastfeeding before bringing.
Chapter 4
Research Consequence
4.0 Introduction
In this chapter the collected information is analysed from the questionnaires given to the respondents. The demographic factors normally tested as it is frequently used as the illation survey as it is easy to acquire and easy analysed the consequence ( Jack Fiorito et EL 2007 ) . The first portion is a demographic information about the respondents for illustration race, age, instruction degree and their sole breastfeeding cognition.
4.1 Features of demographic respondents
Section A
Table 1: Ethnic: – Antenatal female parents
Prenatal female parents
Post natal female parents
Cultural
Number of respondents
Percentage
Number of respondents
Percentage
Entire figure
Malay
11
73.3 %
13
86.7 %
24
Chinese
1
6.7 %

0 %
1
Indian
3
20.0 %
2
13.3 %
5
Mentioning to the tabular array above, bulk of the respondents are from the Malay cultural which gives 73.3 % for the prenatal female parents while the postpartum respondents gives 86.7 % . The 2nd higher per centum of cultural comes from the Indians that give 20 % for the prenatal female parents and the postpartum female parents contributes 13.3 % .
The least is the Chinese that gives merely 6.7 % that is merely one respondent for the prenatal but none for the postpartum mothers.. As usual bulk of the respondents are the Malays as most of them preferred to give birth in authorities infirmaries comparing to the Chinese who prefer traveling to the private infirmaries.
Table 2: Age of the respondents
Age scope
Number of respondents
for both ante and postpartum female parents
Percentage
20 -25 old ages old
9
30.0 %
26 – 30 old ages old
12
40.0 %
31 – 35 old ages old
6
20.0 %
36 – 40 old ages old
3
10.0 %
The age scope for this survey is done to acquire a better position to the bulk of the ante and postpartum female parents involved. As shown in the tabular array above the age scope between 26 to 30 old ages of the prenatal and postpartum female parents gives the bulk which contributes 40.0 % . The least comes from the age scope of 36 to 40 old ages that gives merely 10 % which merely 3 respondents involved.
Table 3 ; Education Level
Academic degree
Number of respondents
Percentage
Non- schooling
1
3.3 %
Primary school
2
6.7 %
Secondary school
17
56.7 %
College/ University
10
33.3 %
As shown in the above tabular array, the bulk of the educational degree comes from the secondary school degree which contributes 56.7 % from all the respondents. This shows that this group of respondents have the great trust in the authorities infirmary so does the college/ university degree respondents that gives 33.3 % of all.
Table 4: Occupation
Occupation
Number of respondents
Percentage
Housewife
17
56.7 %
Self employed
4
13.3 %
Government retainer
5
16.7 %
Private sector
4
13.3 %
Mentioning to the above tabular array, the homemaker is the bulk respondents in this survey that carries 56.7 % which is more than half of the respondents involved. The authorities retainers contributes 16.7 % while the ego employed and the private sectors employees give the same per centum of 13.3 % each.
Table 5. : Exclusive suckling anterior cognition
Yes
NO
Number Of respondents
25
5
Percentage
83.3 %
16.7 %
Mentioning to Table 5, 83.3 % of the respondents have the anterior cognition of sole breastfeeding which means that they had the experience and cognition to suckling. Five respondents, lending 16.7 % had no cognition of sole breastfeeding.
Table 6: Number of kid
Number of kid
( conceiving/ give birth )
Number of respondents
Percentage
2
12
40 %
3
11
36.7 %
4
3
10 %
5
2
6.6 %
6
2
6.6 %
As shown in the tabular array above, 12 respondents gestating or giving birth to their 2nd kid that gives 40 % of the survey. 36.7 % conceive or give birth to their 3rd kid, 10 % or 3 respondents conceive or give birth to their 4th kid and 6.6 % contributed by respondents who conceive or give birth to their 5th and 6th kid.
Section B
Knowledge on sole breastfeeding
Question figure
1
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
12
80 %
3
20 %
Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.0
As shown in table 7.0, 100 % of the postpartum female parents understand and sing sole breastfeeding, while 80 % of the prenatal female parents have already knew about it. Merely 20 % had no thought of sole breastfeeding.
Question figure
2
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
14
93.3 %
1
6.7 %
Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.1
Mentioning to Table 7.1, all 15 postpartum female parents or 100 % of them, breast feed their kid every bit shortly as birth or within half an hr or an hr after birth. 93.3 % of the prenatal female parents do give chest milk to their earlier kid birth. Merely one antenatal female parent had ne’er given the old kid.
Question figure
3
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
2
13.4 %
13
86.6 %
Postnatal

0 %
15
100 %
Table 7.2
As shown in Table 7.2, 100 % or all the 15 postpartum female parents did non give chest milk alternately with babe expression milk, while the prenatal mothers,13 of them or 86.6 % besides did non give expression milk. Merely 2 or 13.4 % prenatal female parents did give their kid expression milk alternately with chest milk.
Question figure
4
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
15
100 %


Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.3
The informations shown in Table 7.3, shows that both the ante and postpartum female parents do give their new born babes breast provender as often and unrestrictedly.
Question figure
5
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
2
13.3 %
13
86.6 %
Postnatal


15
100 %
Table 7.4
Mentioning to the tabular array above, the information shows that all 15 postpartum female parents or 100 % of them did non suckle their newborn babes by lying merely. The prenatal female parents, 86.6 % besides did non suckle their babes lying down but 2 of them or 13.3 % did lie down while feeding their babes.
Question figure
6
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
14
93.3 %
1
6.7 %
Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.5
Table 7.5 shows informations that both ante and postpartum female parents knew that chest milk contains best foods for the babes need without giving them formula milk. 100 % of the postpartum confidently knew the foods in chest milk is best for their babes, nevertheless merely 6.7 % of the prenatal female parent did non cognize about the food values to her newborn baby.93.3 % of the prenatal female parents do hold the cognition of the foods in chest milk.
Question figure
7
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
15
100 %


Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.6
Mentioning to the tabular array above shows a good mark. Both ante and postpartum female parents, 100 % of them believe that by giving sole chest eating make assist the female parents to breach gestations.
Question figure
8
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
15
100 %


Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.7
Table 7.7 shows that 100 % of the ante and postpartum female parents believe that sole breastfeeding could cut down the hazard of uterine and breast malignant neoplastic disease.
Question figure
9
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
10
66.7 %
5
33.3 %
Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.8
As shown in the tabular array above, 100 % of the postpartum female parents do breast feed the babes in good place when the babe ‘s chin touches the female parent ‘s chest. The prenatal female parents, 66.7 % do breast feed their babes in good place when the babes ‘ mentum touching the female parents ‘ chest. However, 5 of them or 33.3 % are non certain of the good place when chest eating.
Question figure
10
Yes
Percentage
NO
Percentage
Prenatal
15
100 %


Postnatal
15
100 %


Table 7.9
Table 7.9 shows 100 % of the both ante and postpartum female parents believe that chest eating help a batch in attaching the strong bond of love between female parent and babe.
Crosstabulation between Overall mark and Postnatal or Antenatal female parents
Count
AntePost
Entire
Prenatal
Postnatal
Good
8
15
23
Poor
7
0
7
Entire
15
15
30
Chi-Square Trials
Value
df
Asymp. Sig. ( 2-sided )
Exact Sig. ( 2-sided )
Exact Sig. ( 1-sided )
Pearson Chi-Square
9.130a
1
.003
Continuity Correctionb
6.708
1
.010
Likelihood Ratio
11.869
1
.001
Fisher ‘s Exact Test
.006
.003
Linear-by-Linear Association
8.826
1
.003
N of Valid Cases
30
a. 2 cells ( 50.0 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is 3.50.
b. Computed merely for a 2×2 tabular array
Null hypothesis: There is no relationship between Overall Knowledge degree Breast eating and Antenal or Postnatal female parents.
Alternate Hypothesis: There is relationship between Overall Knowledge degree Breast eating and Antenal or Postnatal female parents.
P value is 0.003 hence there is relationship between the Overall Knowledge degree Breast eating and Occupation.
Mark where the respondents have a mark of 91 % is considered good ; While anything below that is considered hapless.
The qi square was answer for my hypothesis that there is a connexion between the prenatal female parents and postpartum female parents. The postpartum female parents are making much better than the prenatal female parents.
Overall the information shows that there are some suites of betterment for prenatal female parents in certain field every bit identified as above. The place for breastfeeding should be corrected in prenatal female parents and besides the misconception usage of alternate expression milk should be rectified.
Chapter 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter, the research worker collected all the analysed information from the old chapter for treatment and the decision. A good treatment comes from the manner it was elaborated that gives the consequence of the research something that can be accepted and proven to hold unity. The treatment in this chapter will be based on the demographic informations, the cognition and the effectivity of sole breastfeeding among the station and prenatal female parents. This is besides to see whether the aims of this research related to the cognition given to the prenatal female parents after giving birth and the postpartum female parents do carried out the cognition they get to their new born babes. The questionnaire made is to guarantee that the aims of the research worker were achieved or non. Besides that, the research worker will discourse of any suggestions and deductions that could be used from the consequences of this research.
4.2 Discussion.
This survey is to educate ante and postpartum female parents the importance of sole chest feeding to their new born babes. Data collected and analysed in old chapter shows that the respondents of the survey are from the three major cultural in Malaysia. However, the Malayans are the bulk of 24 out of 30 respondents for the survey, 5 respondents or 33.3 % are Indians and merely one respondent from the Chinese. ( refer Table 1 )
As the research worker carried out the survey and give age scope of the respondents, bulk contributed by female parents of the ante and postnatal is in the scope of 20-25 old ages old which contributed 63.3 % of the overall age scope. This shows that immature female parents are willing to give their cooperation to guarantee this survey is carried out as planned earlier. Most of the respondents, though are homemakers ( 56.7 % ) are educated to the secondary school degree with the same per centum as the homemakers ( refer Table 3 & A ; 4 ) . This shows that they are literate and able to reply the questionnaire with unity to guarantee the consequences gained from them are valid to this research.
In the demographic consequences of the respondents, in Table 5, demoing that 25 respondents or 83.3 % ( refer tabular array 5 ) had their anterior cognition of sole chest eating. This helps the research worker to accomplish the aim of the survey easier as 40 % of them ( mention table 6 ) give birth to their 2nd kid that shows they had the experience in chest eating from their old gestations or after birth. The figure of female parents that had been giving sole chest eating for the 1st and 2nd kid has been increasing recently as the mark that female parents are cognizant of the best foods for them. The information in table 6 besides shows that female parents that give birth to their 3rd kid is 36.7 % .
As mentioning to the information from questionnaire on cognition of sole chest feeding,100 % of the postpartum female parents and 80 % of the prenatal female parents have the cognition and experience in sole chest eating. ( refer table 7.0 ) . At this phase, immature female parents breast feed their new born as they are cognizant of the best foods comes from chest milk. Lozoff, et el ( 1977 ) quotation mark that after hebdomads of bringing, the new born babes need 4 – 16 chest provender daily. As female parents to new born babes, chest provender helps them to salvage their money and clip yet able to give their kid the best nutrient they could of all time acquire at the early age. The consciousness of the both ante and postnatal on the cognition of sole breastfeeding because female parents get the cognition through their monthly check-ups where they are exposed to the right techniques of chest eating.
The respondents from the postpartum female parents, give their newborn breastfeed every bit early as half an hr or an hr after birth which carries 100 % and the prenatal female parents contributes 93.3 % ( refer Table 7.1 ) . This shows that the respondents knew that chest milk is the best nutrient for their new born babes. The information shows that the postnatal are exposed to many input or information and had breastfeed experience comparing to the prenatal female parents. However the prenatal female parents should be prepared mentally and physically from their early gestation. Mentally they are prepared about suckling so as to construct up their assurance and motive in within them while physically, presentation is done utilizing doll and function drama or even in world to the postpartum respondents.
Related to the Table 7.1, information shows in Table 7.2 refers to the cognition and apprehension of the postpartum female parents on sole breastfeeding gives them 100 % of the respondents did non desire to feed their babes alternately with other babe expressions. The prenatal female parents, nevertheless merely 86.6 % do hold that they do non necessitate to feed their babes with babe expressions and 13.4 % still had less cognition to the goodness of chest milk. In heightening the cognition of sole chest eating to the prenatal female parents information and publicity should be done through medias and in wellness clinics and infirmaries.
Data collected and analysed in Table 7.3 shows that both ante and postpartum female parents do believe and back uping the fact that new born babes should be fed often and unrestrictedly. For both group of the ante and postpartum female parents have the cognition that newborn babes need breast milk to turn healthily. Both groups contribute 100 % to inquiry 4 ( refer Table 7.3 ) and they knew that the hazard of the newborn babes acquiring diarrhea is 20 % compared to 40 % to non sole chest
feeding babes. Through survey done, Diaz et Al ( 1995 ) , bulk of ante and postpartum female parents ‘ point of position shows that by suckling the babes to their demand and the high frequence of breastfeeding will increase the end product of chest milk and hence will give optimal growing and hold positive impact to the babes ‘ wellness.
Table 7.4 shows the informations, 100 % of postpartum female parents did non suckle their babes while lying and the prenatal female parents, 13.3 % do lie down when chest feeding their babes while the remainder, 86.6 % did non. The information analysed shows that these female parents have other places when chest feeding their newborn babes. Possibly through experience and cognition gained, they are able to alter places due to the babes and female parents ‘ comfortably state of affairss.
In this treatment, as informations shown in Table 7.5, 100 % of the postnatal and 93.3 % of the prenatal female parents knew that the chest milk contains the best foods for their newborn babes. They knew that chest milk contain foremilks that is rich with antibodies which protects the babes from disease and the full food needed without the aid of babe expressions. Study done, Dewan et Al ( 2002 ) shows that female parents knew what is best for their babes and the techniques of chest eating do assist them to be comfy with the on-going chest eating procedure and therefore sole breastfeeding will be a success.
Study had done shows that by sole suckling the ante and postpartum female parents believe that they could assist to breach gestations. This believes is supported by the findings through questionnaire ( 100 % ) that both ante and postpartum agreed to ( mention Table 7.6 ) .They besides believe in that sole breastfeeding could cut down the hazard of uterine and breast malignant neoplastic disease. Therefore as shown in table 7.7 both ante and postpartum proven that by giving 100 % in the questionnaire replies.
Exclusive breastfeeding make aid female parents to breach gestations and minimising the hazard of acquiring uterine and breast malignant neoplastic disease. Through findings and survey done, these consequences show that the increasing figure of postpartum female parents starts their sole breastfeeding from the early hours of birth. However the prenatal female parents, a few of the respondents are still obscure of the importance of sole suckling to their neonates or to themselves. This is due to their less cognition of sole breastfeeding to the neonate or to themselves. Hence, mentioning to Table 7.8, merely 66.7 % , of the prenatal female parents knew the right place when suckling their newborn comparison to the postnatal that contributes 100 % of the right place when suckling their neonates. From the informations given, the cognition of the right place when breastfeeding should be emphasised to the prenatal female parent through practical utilizing dolls. Here they will acquire the best position and experience before giving birth to their kid.
The ante and postpartum female parents both feel that sole breastfeeding strengthen the love bond between the female parents and their babes. These are agreed in the findings where 100 % for both groups is stated ( mention Table 7.9 ) . They could still experience the bond as the kid grows though they had no more chests feed after two old ages of age.
This research can be farther improved to non merely see the degree of the cognition of the breastfeeding but the practicableness and the technique of breastfeeding is effectual. This is different from merely accessing the cognition of chest eating. Knowledge is merely one of the constituents but besides attitude and behavior dramas a large function in breastfeeding.
RECOMENDATION OF STUDY
The effect of this survey will assist the research worker to place a suggestion based on the findings and treatment done. The research worker would wish to propose a research should be done longitudinally that is get downing from the first hebdomad of gestating until the babe born, age up to six months, go oning the research till the babe ‘s age up two old ages old. It is to acquire better and more detail consequences of whether sole suckling proven to give the best benefits for the babes so as to the female parents.
Decision:
Hypothesis is accepted that the postpartum female parents have better cognition than the prenatal female parents. Exclusive breastfeeding should get down from the beginning of prenatal period, so the cognition and benefits of sole breastfeeding could be spread out non merely to the household but to the communities excessively. This is to give them the moral support and assurance emotionally and physically. It besides should be put to the duty to all Malayan citizens towards protecting, promoting and support to sole chest eating for the interest of the kids and future coevalss ‘ wellness.
This consequences besides shows the effectivity of learning sole breastfeeding during gestation when the patient are largely postpartum understand the benefit of chest eating better than prenatal female parents

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