Act Utilitarianism is the original and official signifier of utilitarianism which states that we must on any juncture act in the manner which will bring forth overall effects better than those that any other act unfastened to us would bring forth. Therefore. the greatest felicity rule should inform on any act that we undertake. It merely focuses on the result of the action and non concerned with the motivation or purpose of the action. Jeremy Bentham. being an pagan. which he believes that all worlds of course seeks pleasance and attempts to avoid hurting. He stated nature has placed mankind under the authorities of two autonomous Masterss. hurting and pleasure… they govern us in all we do. in all we say. in all we think.
” Therefore. harmonizing the Bentham. an action is right if it brought more pleasance and incorrect if it produces hurting. Once Bentham had established that pleasance and hurting were the of import qualities to find the moral values. he so developed the public-service corporation rule. The rightness or inappropriateness of an action is determined by its utility. Usefulness refers to the sum felicity caused by the action. The theory is known as the greatest felicity rule which is ‘an action is right if it produces the greatest felicity for the greatest figure of people. ” believing that this would make felicity. and an intrinsic key to life.
The possible effects of different actions must be measured clearly to set up which option generates the most pleasance and the least hurting. He introduced the hedonistic concretion to mensurate the effects. The Hedonic Calculus has seven different elements which include that strength. continuance. certainty or uncertainness. proximity. fruitfulness. pureness and extent of an action. Act Utilitarianism states that the rule of public-service corporation should be applied to every single state of affairs. John Stuart Mill saw Bentham’s theory and tried to better it in his ain manner which he introduced Rule Utilitarianism.
Rule Utilitarianism teaches that we should set up regulations based on the greatest felicity rule and so follow these regulations. Therefore there is no demand to make up one’s mind the greatest felicity in every state of affairs because following the regulations should in general produce the greatest felicity for the greatest figure. Individual Acts of the Apostless can hence be judged as right or incorrect by mention to the regulations. Mill’s basic thought was that pleasance of the head that spirit were more value than pleasance of the organic structure.
He believes that higher pleasances are by and large more rational pleasances such as larning. reading and so on. Whereas. lower pleasances are more animal pleasances such as feeding. imbibing. sex. etc. Therefore. reading a book. larning something new would be far superior and preferred as worlds can merely see these. He said. it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a hog satisfied ; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a sap satisfied. ” this means that worlds are much more capable of sing higher pleasances than animate beings.
Therefore. even if worlds are dissatisfied their cognition of such higher pleasance makes their lives better than animate beings. Rule Utilitarianism can be divided into two subdivisions which is Strong and Weak regulation utilitarianism. Strong regulation utilitarians ever follow these regulations no affair what the result will be and believe that these regulations should ne’er be broken. Weak regulation utilitarians nevertheless believe that these regulations can be broken if more pleasance is produced.
Last. Peter Singer’s modern version of utilitarianism which is Preference Utilitarianism. Preference utilitarians believe that something is right if it leads the greatest fulfillment of penchant for every bit many as possible. They consider whether a determination is right or incorrect by looking whether it fits in with what people would prefer. Peter Singer was concerned about the minorities and felt that they should besides be included when sing what is best for everyone. He besides believes that animate beings have penchant. non merely worlds. And this is because they besides feel pain and they have a penchant to non experience hurting.