Greek empiric experience”) a term related to the ways in which the knowledge we can gain or claim to have is related to experience The opposite of empiricism is rationalism, which sees true knowledge as derived purely through thinking and reason. The intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe, which believed that new scientific understanding shed light upon human affairs and offered opportunity for humankind to understand the workings of the universe through scientific method. (Greek epistemic knowledge”) a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of knowledge and what can be known that which is essential (fundamental? ND unchanging within a person, object, or idea. [Greek ethos concerning custom and reputation”] moral philosophy, the branch of philosophy which considers issues of good and evil [Greek hoodooed pleasure”] a moral view that the only good thing is pleasure. Also referred to as epicureans. The central theme of humanism is the affirmation, perfection, and celebration of man; humanists assert the fundamental value of being human. Noted Aristotle, Man is the rational animal. ” the doctrine that reality is in some way mental, related to the contents and structure of the mind.