Social Science Theories For Social Work

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Haralambos and Holborn ( 2008 ) reference in their book: ” aberrance refers to those activities that do non conform to the norms and outlooks of members of peculiar society ” . From this point of position, aberrant behaviours refer to the activities which violate the general values or rules that are accepted by most people in one community.
To better understand this construct the author wants to discourse it from the undermentioned facets: what are the general values or norms? Can these values or norms represent all the outlooks of the whole society? If one norm is accepted by most members in one society, does that intend the norm is perfectly right so that everyone who violate it should be defined as aberrant individual?
First of all, what is societal norm? Members of one society portion the same values in order to construct their ain civilization. For illustration, the members of spiritual group portion the same thought about how to cover with some specific things. Such as Moslems, they portion the position that does non eat porc since hog is a symbol of their Gods. However, since value and norm is a subjective thing, it can be assorted from one individual to another. In such circumstance, it is barely for everyone to portion the same sentiment. So when it comes to the individual who breaks the general regulation in one society, people may see it as aberrant one. But is it just for people who are defined as aberrant 1s merely because they do non conform to the rule in the society they live?
There are many different attacks in footings of aberrant behaviour. One of the most celebrated positions is functionalist manner. In this field, Emile Durkheim should be an outstanding representative. Harmonizing to him, aberrant activity such as offense is a portion of society which can non be avoid. It is inevitable because non every member of society can be every bit committed to the corporate sentiments ( the shared values and moral beliefs ) of society ( Haralambos and Holborn, 2008 ) . Since each person has his or her ain alone background in footings of household, instruction, economic, societal position and so forth. Different experience makes it impossible for everyone to organize the precisely same value. Even one norm has existed for a long clip and accepted by all most everyone in one society, there are still some people show loath to obey that regulation. From functionalism position, anomy arises when aberrant behaviour occurs.
However, Cohen regards aberrant behaviour as one type of subculture. The same as Merton, subcultural theories explain the beginning of aberrance in footings of the place of persons or groups in the societal construction ( Haralambos and Holborn, 2008 ) . Delinquent subculture is generated by civilization want. Because of societal stratification, some resources are controlled by some peculiar groups which contribute to unjust distribution to other members. As the lower category people who can barely acquire entree to necessary resources, they alter to seek another different manner to acquire what they want. As a consequence, they create ” other sorts of norms which are seemed as aberrance by others.
To some extent, the author leans to the interactionist perspective.Just as Howard S. Backer ( as cited by Haralambos and Holborn, 2008 ) argued:
Social groups create aberrance by doing the regulations whose misdemeanor constitutes aberrance, and by using those regulations to peculiar people and labeling them as foreigners. From this point of position, aberrance is non a quality of the act the individual commits, but instead a effect of the application by others of the regulations and the countenances to an ‘offender ‘ . The pervert is one to whom the label has successfully been applied ; aberrant behaviour is behavior that people so label.
Harmonizing to Backer, so called aberrant behaviour is the one consequence from how others perceive this sort of behaviour by compared with their general societal norm or rule. It is people ‘s position that makes some types of activities seem as aberrances. So aberrant behaviour ” itself is the one which is based on subjective perceptual experience of members in one community and so use to notice the actions which are conducted by people who live in the same community. As most inerationists think, aberrant behaviour is non an stray action, it occurs during the interaction between people. To understand what aberrance is, we must research the interaction procedure between the labeler and the labeled. Therefore, the cardinal construct of labeling theory is people ‘s reactions to deviance ( Lee, 1994 ) . For case, it is prevalence for today ‘s adolescents to set their private things online ; some of them upload their sexy or bare exposures to the cyberspace. Cipher will cognize it non to state remark it if they take those sorts of images to personal usage. However, since publication to the cyberspace is a manner to pass on with outer universe ; it is no longer remain in the personal degree. Most likely, people criticize the adolescents by stating they are pathetic and faulting them for doing bad influence on other people. Hence, aberrant behaviour occurs when people assert the action can non be accepted by them or the people who behaves in different manner violate the general value in society.
Two illustrations about aberrant behaviours
Harmonizing to its definition, aberrant behaviour can mention to any behaviour that violate the general value and unacceptable by most people in one society. As Huub Angenent and Anton de Man ( 1993 ) mentioned: ” more serious signifiers of aberrant behaviour include aggressive Acts of the Apostless, juvenile delinquency, running off from place, alcohol addiction and other types of drug maltreatment, chancing, hooky and harlotry ; less serious signifiers include early smoke and sexual behavior, dishonesty, vandalism, crust and impudence. ” Based on the world in Hong Kong, the author intends to concentrate on drug maltreatment and compensated dating among local adolescents which are two of the chief aberrant behaviours in current society.
Drug maltreatment
As a Hong Kong occupant, you may happen postings about prohibiting drug maltreatment wherever you are. What does that intend? Drug dependence among adolescences has already been one of the most pressing societal jobs in this topographic point.
Cipher will deny that drug maltreatment can be defined as aberrant behaviour. Harmonizing to a study from Legislative Council Secretariat ( 2008-2009 ) : the entire figure of reported drug maltreaters increased steadily during the past three old ages, which rose from 13,252 in 2006 to 14,175 in 2008, or a 7 % addition. In peculiar, the entire figure of reported immature drug maltreaters increased more notably from 2,578 in 2006 to 3,430 in 2008, stand foring a higher per centum addition during the clip period ( 33 % ) . The statistics demonstrate the distressing current state of affairs to society: it is rather necessary for all of us to take possible steps to forestall adolescents from acquiring addicted into drugs.
We are all familiar with diacetylmorphine, because it is rather popular in the past decennary. Recent old ages, nevertheless, psychoactive substance is bit by bit replacing diacetylmorphine and going the most welcomed drug by younger people because of its inexpensive monetary value and easier manner to utilize. Harmonizing to the statistics reported by committee on Youth ( 2003 ) , the chief ground for adolescents under 21 old ages old to utilize drugs is avoiding uncomfortableness for its absence and the following 1 is out of equal influence, which accounts for 51.4 % and 44.1 % of the respondents severally during January to September, 2003. Apart from first ground which is the side consequence of taking drugs, equal force per unit area majorly lead to drug maltreatment.
In footings of drug maltreatment, the author thinks it is rather flimsy to use labeling theory to construe it. Because drug maltreatment has already breaks some statute laws and rules in this society and this sort of behaviour besides causes some other societal jobs such as larceny and robbing. Besides, long period drug misusing will instance many physical jobs such as cyst wasting and more badly AIDS infection. Hence, drug maltreatment is non a merely behavior which seems pervert, it besides has complicated dealingss to assorted societal jobs. Peoples regard it as aberrant behaviour is non merely by labeling it, but define it by its effects. It is, in the author ‘s sentiment, a sort of societal anomy since drug maltreatment interruptions Torahs which causes a state of affairs of anomie consequences.
Compensated dating
Enjo-kA?sai ( shortened form enkA? ) means ‘compensated dating ‘ and is a pattern which originated in Japan where older work forces give money and/or luxury gifts to attractive adult females for their company, and perchance sexual favours ( Wikipedia, n vitamin D ) . Compensated dating has been transmitted to Hong Kong for more than ten old ages. As a manner to acquire quite money, many school misss commit to counterbalance dating with older work forces.
The remunerated dating is now predominating in South Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Philippines every bit good as Hong Kong SAR. However, different topographic points present assorted types of remunerated dating. But by and large, it is the dealing between schoolgirls and elder-men. The cause for remunerated dating is non precisely certain but related to assorted facets. Unlike the ground for harlotry, which is chiefly drive by life, the ground for compensated dating is seldom related to poorness. Most of the bush leagues who engaged in remunerated dating are from in-between or upper category household. Except wonder, seeking manner to derive easy and speedy money to fulfill their desire of luxury goods chiefly result in their engagement in remunerated dating. Besides, household disfunction and deficiency of communicating between parents and kids are other two grounds for remunerated dating.
Many people think compensated dating is a aberrant behaviour since immature misss who engage in such activity has already violated the general lesson within Hong Kong society. Although Hong Kong is an international and modern metropolis, there remain many traditional rules and conventional values. Despite that most of the remunerated dating are non involved with sexual behaviour, the whole society can non accept it and to be even worse, some people regard it as harlotry.
Indeed, the author does non hold with adolescents who with the purpose to acquire easy and quite money participate in remunerated dating ; we can non hotfoot to a decision. Since most of the misss who involved in this behaviour are unseeable, it is easy for them to come out ” if they do non desire to travel remunerated dating any more. However, if the bulk people label compensated dating as a aberrant behaviour, the school misss who have already engaged in it but with the wish to discontinue it may be afraid of other people ‘s remarks and so lose the nervus to come out. The longer they stay in the remunerated dating group, the more they get used to it and the less likely that they will come out ” .
Compensated dating, a subculture which holds the opposite value to mainstream in our society, has triggered hot argument over Hong Kong. Although non everyone can accept such sort of easy and speedy ” manner to acquire money for adolescents to back up their luxury demand, we should see more before we attach aberrant behaviour to it.
What to make with them?
It is rather common for a young person societal worker to meet with an stripling who has addicted into drugs or other sorts of aberrant behaviours. How to manage with such type of clients is a tough inquiry for many workers since these clients has already been regarded as aberrant people and been margined by the whole society. In some fortunes, value clang may go on when the client ‘s behavior expresses the wholly opposite position to the workers. When that occurs, as a possible societal worker, what should we make?
First of all, take the ticket which has been attached to client. Harmonizing to the labeling theory, some behaviours which have been defined as aberrance are those different from the traditional value from the mainstream in one society. Peoples regard them as aberrant behaviour because they can non accept them and label them as unnatural 1s. However, in add-on to the chief civilization in one society, there are many subcultures. From the position of the people who are the members of subcultures, the behaviour which other people express may besides see as aberrance ” . As a societal worker, we need to be accepted by the client foremost ; make intercession or assist procedure should be in the following phase. Hence, when we handle with a aberrant behaviour ” clients, the first thing we ought to make is to allow them experience your credence and demo your difference from the people who expel them. That means merely by demoing your regard to the clients can you make the following intercession. In fact, every qualified societal worker should keep the belief that everyone is deserving being respected. So, no affair how pervert ” their behaviours are, we still need to esteem their self-respect.
After that, the worker can get down assisting procedure. Appraisal is the first measure among intervention stage. The worker should look into into how sever the state of affairs is and cognize the effect of the behaviour. Take drug maltreatment as an illustration once more, we should happen the fact for why the client gets start to take drug and how long it has lasted. Besides, the client ‘s wellness status should be one of the precedences that we should concentrate on. Such as drug takers, they are more likely to endure organ wasting and other side effects. If there is syndrome, we need to mention them to professional physicians and allow them accept intervention foremost. Furthermore, to what extent that the client addicts into aberrant behaviour ” should be known by the worker. If a client has committed drug maltreatment for more than ten old ages that means he relies wholly on the drugs for unrecorded. We can non anticipate he discontinue that behaviour within short period so that a elaborate and long continuance of intercession program is needed.
On the other manus, the ground behind the client ‘s behaviour should besides be elicit when we work farther with that instance. In most instances, the point is non the aberrant behaviour ” itself ; it is the grounds which cause that sort of behaviour that need the worker wage more attending to. Some clients committed into aberrant behaviour ” because they want to happen a manner to get away from the high force per unit area whereas others may make that for the interest of acquiring their parents ‘ or friends ‘ attending. Explorations if household relationships, for illustration, frequently reveal that drug maltreaters feel alienated from other household members ( Dean H. , Ronald, Glenda, Kimberly and JoAnn, 2010 ) . When the worker finds out the beginning ground for the behaviour, it is the clip to make some intercession. By and large, the clients who involve in aberrant behaviour ” are those deficiencies of others ‘ attending. The adolescents who live in the individual parent household, who has few friend or who are belong to some aberrant behaviour ” group. To get by with their behaviour job, the worker should assist them to construct good relationship with outer society. For case, we can ask for their parents to fall in the intercession stage. With the lovingness and the encouragement of parents, the clients can easier to acquire rid of unhealthy behaviours.
Last but non least, supportive web should be built to assist the clients who commit aberrant behaviour ” . Because immature people are more likely behave unruly, parents, equals and school instructors can be the best agents to advance their alteration. The worker can make some place visit or cooperate with school instructors to assist parents and instructors know more about their kids or pupils. With the apprehension and support of the people around, the client can acquire more energy to confront the emphasis and other unpredictable jobs when they decide to alter the current state of affairs. Besides, as mentioned above, a big sum of aberrant behaviours ” are caused by disregard of parents and instructor, the aid procedure involved with them can be more effectual since they are the unreplaceable parts during the whole intercession stage.
To sum up, the manner to get by with the client who commits aberrant behaviour should be similar to manage with other sorts of clients. As a societal worker, we need to esteem everyone ‘s self-respect, non to be affected by our subjective idea and stereotype and assist the clients to do determination on their ain. Furthermore, to ease the assisting procedure, the worker should emphasis on incorporating the causes of the boisterous behaviours every bit good as the importance of constructing support web for the clients.

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