The Causes Of The English Civil War History Essay

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The Crown was placed upon his caput and with that he became King Charles I of England, on June 2, 1626. Over 25 old ages subsequently, his caput would besides typify the terminal of his reign through executing. He would go the first English sovereign to be tried and sentenced to decease since the monarchy ‘s constitution, mostly due to his causation of the English Civil War. The war stemmed from a long-standing failing of the sovereign and Charles I ‘s effort to beef up the figure caput of a state. However, the Civil War proved to be important to the political system of Great Britain and the United Kingdom. The English Civil War for good and straight shaped the balance of power between the sovereign and the parliament of England.
The underlying jobs confronting Charles I during his reign began in the sixteenth century. In 1550, the monetary value of nutrient in England had doubled from that of 1500. The cost so doubled once more by 1590 and in 1640 the monetary value was six times that of 1500. A great subscriber to this was the importation of Ag from Central and South America by Spain during this clip period. Such a great addition in currency production inflated monetary values across Europe, including England. Another factor was a population addition, which led to increased demand and in bend rising prices. The lower categories were non the lone people affected by this clip of trouble. Queen Elizabeth I was forced during her regulation to sell about & amp ; lb ; 900,000 of belongings in order to pay off personal debt. This act left the monarchy really vulnerable to public examination. It besides left many doubting the power, prestigiousness, and divine right of the sovereign ( Russell 98-99 ) . With the decease of King James in 1625, his boy Charles took the throne. With respect to political experience, Charles had none. All he did hold was royal blood and a claim to divine right. The male monarch was profoundly spiritual and favored the pompous Church of England, partly because as King he was the caput of the church. This worried many members of parliament, which was dominantly Puritan. They feared that Charles ‘ taking to ceremonials could perchance take to his transition to Roman Catholicism. They besides feared that he would so want to implement Catholicism as the national faith ( Lace 22 ) . This fright was justified by the actions of Charles in Scotland in the mid-1630s. In an effort to further unify the states which he ruled, he substituted Anglican worship for the Presbyterian worship which was most commonly prevalent in Scotland. This angered the big Presbyterian population and resulted in a big rebellion in 1938 ( Gentles 276 ) . Two wars were fought as a consequence of this struggle. Both were failures and English soldiers retreated in great Numberss in 1640. The indispensable ground for this was the drying up of financess to back up the combat.
In a despairing effort to increase the current revenue enhancements enforced on the populace, Charles called together the Parliament which he had vowed ne’er to name once more after fade outing it three times prior ( Gentles 277 ) . By this point, the bulk of the Parliament opposed the revenue enhancement put in topographic point by the King. He had late implemented an extra revenue enhancement called ship money. This was a revenue enhancement used specifically to help the edifice and care of the Royal Navy. The Parliament, in an effort to curtail the power of the sovereign, passed Torahs through statute law that called for the decapitation of one of Charles ‘ advisers, the earl of Strattford. They besides passed measures that abolished all revenue enhancements without the consent of the parliament. In add-on, Royal tribunals were abolished that the parliament viewed as back uping the King ‘s maltreatment of power. King Charles I, to forestall immediate rebellion, signed all of these measures into jurisprudence ( Lace 36 ) . By making so, he greatly limited his ain power in an effort for calming. Charles ruled peacefully for the undermentioned twelvemonth until October of 1641. It was during this month that rumours spread throughout the state of England that Irish citizens had begun a rebellion against English regulation.
The particulars of the rumours varied. Some claimed that over one hundred thousand English adult females and kids had been killed by Irish rabble. In actuality about four 1000 English citizens were killed, and really few were adult females or kids. However, it was clear that action had to be taken by King Charles I. While these departures on occurred, a member of parliament who opposed the King took it upon himself to show a measure to the parliament. It proposed an even farther limitation on the power of the sovereign, including the nominating of all the King ‘s advisers by the parliament. Parliament voted and the measure was passed by a really little border. Charles responded by collaring five members of the parliament, including the composer of the measure. King Charles I personally traveled to the following parliament meeting, merely to happen that the five individuals to be arrested had been notified of their apprehension beforehand and had fled. The struggle between the King and the parliament had reached its breakage point. Civil war was high ( Russell 252-257 ) .
The two sides, those back uping the King and those back uping the parliament, built up their armed forces and raised money in expectancy of the approaching war. On August 22, 1642 Charles I officially declared war in a public proclamation and requested his protagonists, the Monarchists, take action to help him in his attempt against the Parliamentarians as they would be known. As in many wars, the two sides created mocking monikers for each other. The Royalists were called Cavaliers, a mention to the Spanish word caballeros significance mounted knight which emphasized the quasi-Catholic imposts of the King. The Parliamentarians were known as the Roundheads. The Roundheads were in actuality an organisation of learners in London who cut their hair really short ( Lace 43 ) .
The support for both sides displayed societal assortment. The Godheads of the assorted districts of England were practically equally split between the Parliamentarians and Royalists. However, the more influential Godheads chiefly sided with the King. These Godheads were besides immensely skilled as siting Equus caballuss and trained in contending on horseback. This presented the Monarchists with the advantage during the get downing old ages of the war in which big sweeps of land had to be crossed during conflicts. In one of the first conflicts, the Battle of Edge Hill, the sides found it really hard to command their huge ground forcess. At one point, a big part of the Royalist troopers halted while the remainder continued to plunder the properties of the Parliamentarians who had been forced into retreat. This caused mass confusion on both sides contending. It resulted in the Parliamentarians returning to the battleground to go on contending. The war ended at twilight with both sides holding to go on in the forenoon. This ne’er came to be and the conflict was ended with the Parliamentarians taking heavier loses than the Royalists. In this manner, the Monarchists started the war off on a high note. The conflicts for the following two old ages resulted in much the same manner, with both sides claiming triumph. However, a tendency began to organize in 1643. The Royalists began utilizing military tactics from the head of the Parliamentarian Lieutenant General, Oliver Cromwell. His scheme to direct the horse into conflict in moving ridges proved radical in these struggles ( Lace 47 ) . He led the ground forces into conflicts in which triumph seemed indefinable, including many where the Royalist ground forces outnumbered the Parliamentarian horse 2 to 1 and surprise onslaughts on the Parliamentarian bases. The soldiers under his control fought heroically and in many instances were able to successfully drive the Royalists back to their ain cantonments. After these conflicts it became clear that the war would go on on for an impossible sum of clip. However, neither side surrendered but instead continued to enroll soldiers and raise money and supplies to contend on.
In 1644 the tide of the war shifted to the side of the Parliamentarians. In the conflict of Marston Moor Royalist forces were outnumbered and suffered a great licking. Likewise, in the conflict of Naseby the Royalists were defeated in a mere three hours. About all of their pes soldiers were killed and a big part of their horse was taken out by the good strategized attempt of the Parliamentarians on behalf of Oliver Cromwell ( Ashley 119-120, 128-129 ) . This conflict ended the first part of the English Civil War. The combat would go on for another five old ages. The conflicts would reason with much the same consequences and in 1648 the Monarchists surrendered ( Ashley 163 ) . A expostulation was rapidly drafted by a member of the Parliament, Ireton. It called for many constitutional reforms and besides the immediate arrangement of the King on test. The King was placed on test, by the determination of the Parliament, and was sentenced to decease by executing. King Charles I was beheaded on January 30, 1649 ( Gentles 282 ) .
The decapitation of the sovereign meant an chance for the Parliament to reconstitute the authorities. They did merely that by organizing the Commonwealth of England. Immediately, the Commonwealth faced foreign invasion. Thousands of Irish citizens revolted yet once more and threatened to occupy the island of England. However, before the ground forces could be raised to stamp down them a rebellion from within their ranks rose up ( Lace 78-80 ) . This mutiny was defeated shortly after it began and the focal point shifted to Ireland. After get the better ofing this rebellion in the conflict of Worcester, Cromwell, the Lord-General of the Commonwealth, settled into an wholly political life. He was shortly disappointed by the actions of the Parliament under the new authorities. Alternatively of concentrating on the political and societal reforms that fueled the creative activity of the Commonwealth, many member of the Parliament became determined with the care and enlargement of their single belongings ( Lace 91 ) . Soon Cromwell had had plenty. In 1653 Cromwell, much to the discouragement of the people of England, disbanded the Parliament indefinitely and became exclusive swayer of England ( Lace 92 ) . This granted him the power he need to go through whatever reforms he pleased, on the other manus it besides straight contradicted the policy of a representative signifier of authorities that gained him power in the first topographic point. He announced on April 30 his assignment of 140 work forces to go a representative entity in the English authorities.
This organic structure, headed by Cromwell as Lord Protector, successfully passed many reforms in its peaceable regulation. For the first clip in over nine old ages England experienced no struggle, politically or militaristically, in its authorities. One of Cromwell ‘s greatest reforms was that of the tribunal system. He abolished the decease punishment for undistinguished offenses and the tribunal system ‘s efficiency was greatly improved ( Lace 98 ) . In 1657 Cromwell was presented with an offer that would necessitate much contemplation, that he accept the Crown and go England ‘s following sovereign. After great consideration he declined the offer presented by members of the representative subdivision of authorities. He continued to govern as Lord Protector until September 3, 1658 when he died of an evident infection caused by a kidney rock ( Lace 108 ) .
The decease of the Commonwealth of England shortly followed that of Cromwell. Despite the reintroduction of the sovereign of England, the power of the Parliament had been greatly shifted everlastingly. Never once more would a sovereign be able to ignore the Parliament as King Charles I had, nor would they of all time hold every bit much power as they had antecedently. Finally and to this twenty-four hours, the Parliament would come to command the sovereign and non vice-versa. Due to the combat of the English Civil War the balance of power between the sovereign and the Parliament of England was shifted everlastingly.

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