Emperor Wen Ti achieved the unification of China during the Sui era; also, the central government was reformed, institutes the conscription of community servants from all ethnic and social classes; and established a uniform legal code that regulated land, taxes, rewards and reprimand, with the exception of the military all arms were ban. Northern and Southern China reunited, forced labor of men and women was used to build the Grand Canal, which extended north from Hangzhou across the Yangzi to Yangzhou and then northwest to the region of Louyang”.
The Great Wall of China was fortified by the northern borders two capitals were restructuring, and another capital was built-in Yangchow. Confucianism began to reclaim recognition; and the noble classes increase their participation in society. After Wen Ti collapse, his son and successor, Emperor Yang Ti assumes the throne, with the support of his mother, the gentry and the military. Yang Ti was the opposite of his father, and was considering like taking over the imperial supremacy, and his reign was of extravagant spending, threatening and forcing his subdits to ruthless labor.
Aside all the treasury money he spent and the unkindness to govern his people, most of his policies were a continuation of his father’s. Yang Ti had ostentatious ambitions to expand China, and wanted to take over Koguyro (today North Korea). Several failure military clashes to conquer Koguyro, and much restlessness on the Emperor servants marked the beginning of the collapse of the Sui Dynasty; China was under a hectic period in which there were several military rebellions, in 618 Emperor Yang was assassinated by his chancellor, the emperor assassination marked the end of the Sui Dynasty.
Yuwen Huaji, Li Yuan took advantage of the situation and proclaimed himself emperor, changed the country name to Tang, maintained Chang’an as the capital city. During the period of the Tang dynasty, China saw extraordinary progress in various areas; this era lasted the period from 618 to 907AD. The talented Chinese rulers Li Yuan and Li Shimin Taizong completed the unification of the country introduced various political, social, commercial, and lifestyle developments. Emperor Taizong’s reign has been distinguished as the Prosperity of Zhenguan”.
During this time, political precariousness ended after conquering the Mongolian area. During Taizong’s reign, the organization of the administration was attained by appointing wise counselors, which ended corruption in the government. The transportation system was enhanced, by connecting country roads and waterways. There were also reforms in agriculture, commerce and industries. The production of rice increased with new systems and the introduction of the equal allotment of land system to the male population.
China experienced tremendous advantages in trade and diplomatic relations with nations of Asia and Persia, by economic and trade relations China’s culture was enhanced. Chinese literature also experienced development. When compare with the Han and Sui dynasty, the Tang Dynasty period, is regarded as the golden age of China. Among the most remarkable happenings were its hard work to unify China and economic prosperity. There was growth of aristocratic families and the intellectual officials acted as mediators between people and government. With the dead of Emperor Taizong, by his son Li Zhi, became Emperor Gaozong.
He married his concubine Wu Meiniang, whom became the empress, Wu Zetian. During Emperor Gaozong’s rule, due to his poor health, the empress was the one with real authority. After Li Zhi’s dead, Wu installed and dethrone her children, Li Xian and Li Dan. Until 690, when against the advice of the chancellors, Wu Zetian proclaimed herself Emperor Shengshen and established (Tang Dinasty, 2011) the Zhou dynasty, her sovereignty lasted 15 years. During her reign, the economy continued to growth. In 705, after a coup one of the former emperors, Li Xian, became Emperor Zhongzong.
His wife, Empress Wei in her ambition of becoming the second woman emperor poisoned him on 710. Li Dan was crowning Emperor Ruizong abdicating two years later, and Li Longji was enthroning Emperor Xuanzong. With his rise began the second magnificence years of the Tang Dynasty. During this period National economy, politics and culture developed rapidly, and the social advance entered new glory days. Hangman City became a thriving metropolitan area in the world. The title of Xuanzong’s reign was Kaiyuan that period was identifying as the Heyday of
Kaiyuan” (Tang Dynasty, 2011), in which the Tang Dynasty hit the highest point of opulence. Emperor Xuanzong as he aged became more unconcerned and uninterested on state affairs, delegating authority in some corrupted chancellors who were appointed to government positions. Troops gathered together forming a military force. In 755, Lushan and Shi Siming launched a rebellion, known as the Shi Rebellion, the coup lasted several years causing the Tang Empire to deteriorate, and on 859, after several peasant coups started by Huang Chao the Tang regime was on down spiral.
In 907, the last Tang emperor, Emperor Ai, abdicated under the pressures of his Chancellor Zhu Quanzhong, who changed the name of the state to Liang, marking the end of the Tang Dynasty. The Song dynasty lasted from 960 to 1279, reunifying most of China. The Song Dynasty period can be divided into 2 stages, the Northern Song (960-1127) and the Southern Song (1127-1279). The division has its origins in the nomadic invasions that forced China to abandon northern territories in 1127. During the Song dynasty epoch, the government was a centralized bureaucracy, staff with civilian scholar-officials.
Regional leaders were replaced by centralized appointed officials. The emperor and his palace bureaucracy concentrated power decision. The Song dynasty is acknowledged for developing their cities, as centers of commerce and maritime trade. Scholar-officials were referring to as the gentry, lived among the rest of the commoners in provincial towns. Social life during the Song favored the arts, there was money and enthusiasm for patronage of artists. The painting of the era has always attracted admiration, because it specialized in scenes from the natural world”(Fernandez A. F. 2008, pg 308). The mercantile class arose, which was integrated by newly wealthy commoners. Schooling developed, manufacturing grew and economy connected coastal provinces with inland cities. This created different meanings of gaining wealth and significance sideways to landholding and public management. During the Song cultural advances of past centuries were refined; amid them were the Tang’s theory of the universal man, who shared qualities of scholar, poet, painter, and statesman. Historical writings, drawing, printing, and porcelain techniques were also sophisticated.
The Song scholars used Confucian Classics as a resource for Philosophical ideas, enliven Confucian ideals; during the time Buddhism decline because the Chinese considered Buddhism as strange which did not provide any guiding principle for government and other common tribulations solutions. The Song Confucian philosophers encountered purity in the classical texts and wrote their interpretations of them. The most influential philosopher during the Song Dynasty was Zhu Xi (1130-1200); his philosophy progressed into a rigid official creed, which stressed the obligations of obedience and submission.
Zhu Xi compilation of Confucian thought, Buddhist, and Taoist became the imperial ideology from late Song times until the late nineteenth century. The effect of this creed was to slow down the common development of pre-modern China, ensuing several years of stability of government, social, and spiritual strength and the delay of cultural and institutional change until the 19th century. After the Battle of Yamen in 1279, the Yuan army crushed the Song resistance.
The last ruler of the Song Empire, Emperor Huaizong of Song committed suicide, along with Prime Minister and 800 members of the royal clan. With the decline of the Song Empire, China experienced almost 700 hundred years of renovation, confrontations for power, deception, spiritual growth, military scuffles and wisely learned to deal with all these progressions with the reservations that still differentiate China’s society. References China’s Dynasties | Preceden – The Easiest Way to Make a Timeline. (n. d. ). Retrieved August 29, 2011 from ttp://www. preceden. com/timelines/4271-china-s-dynasties China Tang Dynasty (618-907), Establishment, Glorious Period … (n. d. ). Retrieved August 29, 2011from http://www. travelchinaguide. com/intro/history/tang/ Fernandez A. F. (2008). The World a Brief History. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ History of China. (n. d. ) Retrieved August 29, 2011 http://www. history-of-china. com/index. html ZenZuu – TAHITITI ?? ‘s blog – Sui Dynasty. (n. d. ). Retrieved August 29, 2011 from http://www. zenzuu. com/TNTNT/blog/1539/